liquid nitrogen
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 314 ◽  
pp. 123069
Hamed Akhondzadeh ◽  
Alireza Keshavarz ◽  
Faisal Ur Rahman Awan ◽  
Ali Zamani ◽  
Stefan Iglauer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 167 ◽  
pp. 108502
Kuo Liu ◽  
Lingsheng Han ◽  
Yongqing Wang ◽  
Haibo Liu ◽  
Di Zhao ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122192
Muhammad Ali ◽  
Abdul Majeed Shar ◽  
Aftab Ahmed Mahesar ◽  
Ahmed Al-Yaseri ◽  
Nurudeen Yekeen ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122124
Lei Qin ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Shugang Li ◽  
Haifei Lin ◽  
Ping Wang ◽  

Hai Qu ◽  
Shimao Tang ◽  
Ying Liu ◽  
Pengpeng Huang ◽  
Xiaoguang Wu ◽  

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 500
Martyna N. Wieczorek ◽  
Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek ◽  
Justyna Cybulska ◽  
Artur Zdunek ◽  
Henryk H. Jeleń

The storage of plant samples as well as sample preparation for extraction have a significant impact on the profile of metabolites, however, these factors are often overlooked during experiments on vegetables or fruit. It was hypothesized that parameters such as sample storage (freezing) and sample pre-treatment methods, including the comminution technique or applied enzyme inhibition methods, could significantly influence the extracted volatile metabolome. Significant changes were observed in the volatile profile of broccoli florets frozen in liquid nitrogen at −20 °C. Those differences were mostly related to the concentration of nitriles and aldehydes. Confocal microscopy indicated some tissue deterioration in the case of slow freezing (−20 °C), whereas the structure of tissue, frozen in liquid nitrogen, was practically intact. Myrosinase activity assay proved that the enzyme remains active after freezing. No pH deviation was noted after sample storage - this parameter did not influence the activity of enzymes. Tissue fragmentation and enzyme-inhibition techniques applied prior to the extraction influenced both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile metabolome of broccoli.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 198-202
Colin A. Gould ◽  
K. Randall McClain ◽  
Daniel Reta ◽  
Jon G. C. Kragskow ◽  
David A. Marchiori ◽  

Magnetic effects of lanthanide bonding Lanthanide coordination compounds have attracted attention for their persistent magnetic properties near liquid nitrogen temperature, well above alternative molecular magnets. Gould et al . report that introducing metal-metal bonding can enhance coercivity. Reduction of iodide-bridged terbium or dysprosium dimers resulted in a single electron bond between the metals, which enforced alignment of the other valence electrons. The resultant coercive fields exceeded 14 tesla below 50 and 60 kelvin for the terbium and dysprosium compounds, respectively. —JSY

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 710
Ke Zhao ◽  
Yang Ding

Liquid nitrogen spray cooling technology exhibits excellent heat transfer efficiency and environmental protection performance. The promotion of this technology plays an important role in improving the sustainable development of the refrigeration industry. In order to clarify its complex microscale behavior, the coupled Level Set-VOF method was adopted to study the dynamic characteristics of liquid nitrogen droplet impact on solid surface in this paper. The spreading behaviors under various factors (initial velocity, initial diameter, wall temperature, and We number) were systematically analyzed. The results show that the spreading behaviors of liquid nitrogen droplet share the same process with the normal medium, which are rebound, retraction, and splashing. For the droplet with smaller velocity and diameter, Rebound is the common phenomenon due to the smaller kinetic energy. With the increase of droplet diameter (0.2 mm to 0.5 mm) and velocity (0.1 m/s to 5 m/s), the spreading factor increases rapidly and the spreading behaviors evolve into retraction and splashing. The increase of wall temperature accelerates the droplets spreading, and the spreading factor increases accordingly. For the liquid nitrogen droplets hit the wall, the dynamic behaviors of rebound (We < 0.2), retraction (0.2 < We < 4.9), and splashing (We > 4.9) will occur with the droplet weber number increased, which are consistent with the common medium. However, due to liquid nitrogen having lower viscosity and surface tension, the conditions of morphological transformations are different from the common media. The maximum spreading diameter has a power correlation with We, the power index of We is 0.306 for liquid nitrogen, lager than common medium (0.25). The reasons are: (1) the better wettability of liquid nitrogen, and (2) the vapor generated by the violent phase change ejects along the axial direction. The article will provide a certain theoretical basis for liquid nitrogen spray cooling technology, and can also enrich the flow dynamics of cryogenic fluids.

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