qualitative and quantitative
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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-49
Anders Sundelin ◽  
Javier Gonzalez-huerta ◽  
Krzysztof Wnuk ◽  
Tony Gorschek

Context: The concept of software craftsmanship has early roots in computing, and in 2009, the Manifesto for Software Craftsmanship was formulated as a reaction to how the Agile methods were practiced and taught. But software craftsmanship has seldom been studied from a software engineering perspective. Objective: The objective of this article is to systematize an anatomy of software craftsmanship through literature studies and a longitudinal case study. Method: We performed a snowballing literature review based on an initial set of nine papers, resulting in 18 papers and 11 books. We also performed a case study following seven years of software development of a product for the financial market, eliciting qualitative, and quantitative results. We used thematic coding to synthesize the results into categories. Results: The resulting anatomy is centered around four themes, containing 17 principles and 47 hierarchical practices connected to the principles. We present the identified practices based on the experiences gathered from the case study, triangulating with the literature results. Conclusion: We provide our systematically derived anatomy of software craftsmanship with the goal of inspiring more research into the principles and practices of software craftsmanship and how these relate to other principles within software engineering in general.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 418-437
Asim Ayed Alkhawaldeh

Although deixis has received increasingly academic attention in linguistic research, its use in sermons, particularly in the Islamic context, has been largely underexplored. Therefore, this paper examined deixis in Islamic Friday sermons from the perspective of pragmatics and discourse analysis. Drawing on Levinson’s Framework, it aimed at analyzing three main types of deixis (personal, temporal, and spatial), focusing on their forms, features, functions, and frequency. The data were a corpus of 70 sermons compiled by the researcher from various online websites. The study employed qualitative and quantitative methods to meet the purpose of the study. The findings revealed that these three deictic types were relatively common in the language of the respective corpus with the personal type being predominant, deictically pointing to different referents whose interpretation was sensitive to the context in which they occurred. As an affectively powerful tool in the corpus, the preachers utilized deixis to serve a wide variety of functions on the discourse and pragmatic levels. In the corpus, deictic expressions worked as a discourse strategy to persuade the listeners by drawing their attention and engaging them in the message of the sermon and to signal and organize the flow of information in the ongoing discourse. They also served to enhance togetherness, intimacy, and politeness between the preachers and their audience. This study is hoped to present a good basis for further linguistic investigation of deixis in other languages and religions to illuminate how deictics work in sermonic discourse. 

BJGP Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. BJGPO.2021.0192
Pradipti Verma ◽  
Robert Kerrison

BackgroundDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries implemented remote consultations in primary care to protect patients and staff from infection.AimThe aim of this review was to synthesise the literature exploring patients’ and physicians’ experiences with remote consultations in primary care, during the pandemic, with the further aim of informing their future delivery.Design & settingRapid literature review.MethodWe searched PubMed and PsychInfo for studies that explored patients’ and physicians’ experiences with remote consultations in primary care. To determine the eligibility of studies, we reviewed their titles and abstracts, prior to the full paper. We then extracted qualitative and quantitative data from those that were eligible, and synthesised the data using thematic and descriptive synthesis.ResultsA total of twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Most were performed in the United States of America (n=7, 29%) or Europe (n=7, 29%). Patient and physician experiences were categorised into perceived ‘advantages’ and ‘issues’. Key advantages experienced by patients and physicians included: ‘Reduced risk of COVID-19’ and ‘Increased convenience’, while key issues included: ‘a lack of confidence in / access to required technology’ and a ‘loss of non-verbal communication’, which exacerbated clinical decision making.ConclusionThis review identified a number of advantages and issues experienced by patients and physicians using remote consultations in primary care. The results suggest that, while remote consultations are more convenient, and protect patients and staff against COVID-19, they result in the loss of valuable non-verbal communication, and are not accessible to all.

Peter Hegarty ◽  
Annette Smith

AbstractSurgical interventions on infants with intersex characteristics are considered justified by some on the grounds that they carry a high risk of intolerable stigma. However, public understanding of intersex and its medicalization are under-researched. We review recent qualitative and quantitative studies of the understandings of intersex and its medicalization among people who have no particular professional or public experience of intersex. First, such laypeople reason about clinical dilemmas by drawing on values in similar ways as expert healthcare professionals do. Second, laypeople can over-estimate the utility of current ‘umbrella terms,’ including intersex, for people with direct familial experience of intersex. Third, beliefs about good and bad effects of medical intervention are affected by framing intersex as either a medical condition or the natural basis for a social identity. Fourth, sexual identity is the best evidenced predictor of opinions about early surgical intervention and its legal limitation on human rights grounds. We argue that possible stigmatizing reactions from the public may not be a solid basis on which to justify early surgical intervention on intersex characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Omololu Ogunseye ◽  
Kamar Oladepo

Abstract. This study investigates the variational effect of climate factors on the productivity of a basin-type solar still during the harmattan season under the tropical savanna climate. The study was extended to examine the influences of selected climatic, operational, and design (COD) parameters on productivity. Additionally, the efficiency of solar still in removing water impurities during harmattan was also investigated. Explorative data and statistical analysis, and laboratory testing methods were used for these investigations. Results show that seasonal effects of harmattan can either increase or lower productivity. The effect of wind speed on productivity was not clearly defined during the harmattan season. Although high irradiation is essential for increased productivity, its effect is modified by other factors. Water temperature is the most significant to productivity amongst selected factors studied via the design of experiment (DOE). Moreover, the effect of harmattan on the water quality produced was not established. The main contribution of this work is the insights generated for both qualitative and quantitative reliability performance of a basin-type solar still under prevailing climate conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Haidar Abbas ◽  
Mohd Mehdi ◽  
Imran Azad ◽  
Guilherme F. Frederico

PurposeThis study endeavours to (a) develop a comprehensive interpretive structural modelling (ISM) toolkit containing sufficient details about the suitability and procedural aspects of each ISM approach and offer points of reference for budding researchers, (b) highlight the compatibility of ISM approaches with other qualitative and quantitative approaches, and (c) chalk-out an agenda for future research.Design/methodology/approachThis study is based on an extensive review of 74 studies where researchers have used one or more ISM approaches. These studies span across the different industry sectors.FindingsThere exists a huge void in terms of the methodological synthesis of ISM approaches. ISM approaches are frequently used in sync with other qualitative and quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it highlights the need of improving the robustness of the proposed ISM models by sharing the critical details of research process.Research limitations/implicationsBeing a review-based work, it could not illustrate the discussed ISM approaches with real data. However, it offers a research agenda for the prospective researchers.Practical implicationsThe prerequisites, pitfalls, suitability and the procedural aspects of various ISM approaches contained in this toolkit are equally useful for the academicians as well as practitioners.Originality/valueIn the absence of a synthesized framework, this study contributes a comprehensive ISM toolkit which will help the researchers to choose a suitable ISM approach in a given case.

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