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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Doris Lovadina-Lee

<div>This Major Research Paper conducted analysis of social housing policies and regulations in Ontario from 1993 to present. It was done to unearth the dominant discourses that informed social housing policies. Through a review of the Literature, a broader perspective will be had on social housing as well as social assistance, of which is deeply intertwined with social housing. The lack of a national strategy on social housing has caused Toronto to adopt a more entrepreneurial approach to housing, using public private partnerships, social mix revitalization initiatives, and other market and third sector influenced development mechanisms.</div><div><br></div><div>Social policy has been neoliberalized in Ontario at least since the advent of the ‘Common Sense Revolution’ in 1995, when a Conservative government was elected on a platform of neoliberal reform. Since then social housing has not been given the priority it deserves even with the changing of government and promises to address the lack of affordable housing in Toronto. These findings highlight difficulties on the part of Toronto to develop new affordable housing at</div><div>a time when the city continues to grow and demand for housing is increasing. The visibility of homelessness across the city suggest policy failures and a need to act, to address the problem of lack of affordable housing post haste.</div>


2021 ◽  
pp. 2141015
Author(s):  
Hai-Lian Hong ◽  
Chi-Hsin Yang ◽  
Kun-Chieh Wang ◽  
Hao Gao ◽  
Hui-Xian Yan

In this work, a two-nearest-neighbor structure model, named the 3-1 model, of the face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution alloy is found based on the Cowley short-range order parameter and the Friedel’s periodic spherical oscillated (FPSO) model. The proposed 3-1 model has high symmetry, high density, and large separation. The model error between the 3-1 model and the standard spherical periodic model is only 0.004 nm. Besides, the chemical composition formula of the present model is applied to analyze the common grade compositions of various alloys. This work shows that the 3-1 model has universality in mature industrial grades of Au–Ag and Au–Cu alloys, and provides a simplified method to design the composition of alloys.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Adrià Farràs ◽  
Montserrat Mitjans ◽  
Filippo Maggi ◽  
Giovanni Caprioli ◽  
María Pilar Vinardell ◽  
...  

Pteridophytes, represented by ferns and allies, are an important phytogenetic bridge between lower and higher plants. Ferns have evolved independently of any other species in the plant kingdom being its secondary metabolism a reservoir of phytochemicals characteristic of this taxon. The study of the potential uses of Polypodium vulgare L. (Polypodiaceae) as medicinal plant has increased in recent years particularly when in 2008 the European Medicines Agency published a monograph about the rhizome of this species. Our objective is to provide scientific knowledge on the polar constituents extracted from the fronds of P. vulgare, one of the main ferns of European distribution, to contribute to the validation of certain traditional uses. Specifically, we have characterized the methanolic extract of P. vulgare fronds (PVM) by HPLC-DAD and investigated its potential cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, ROS production and protective effects against oxidative stress by using in vitro methods. The 3T3, HaCaT, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7 and A549 were the cell lines used to evaluate the possible cytotoxic behaviour of the PVM. HPLC-DAD was utilized to validate the polyphenolic profile of the extract. H2O2 and UVA were the prooxidant agents to induce oxidative stress by different conditions in 3T3 and HaCaT cell lines. Antioxidant activity of in vitro PVM in 3T3 and HaCaT cell lines was evaluated by ROS assay. Our results demonstrate that PVM contains significant amounts of shikimic acid together with caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and flavonoids such as epicatechin and catechin; PVM is not cytotoxic at physiological concentrations against the different cell lines, showing cytoprotective and cellular repair activity in 3T3 fibroblast cells. This biological activity could be attributed to the high content of polyphenolic compounds. The fronds of the P. vulgare are a source of polyphenolic compounds, which can be responsible for certain traditional uses like wound healing properties. In the present work, fronds of the common polypody are positioned as a candidate for pharmaceutical applications based on traditional medicine uses but also as potential food ingredients due to lack of toxicity at physiological concentrations.


Author(s):  
Wasco Wruck ◽  
Nina Graffmann ◽  
Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn ◽  
James Adjaye

Despite the uniform selection criteria for the isolation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), considerable heterogeneity exists which reflects the distinct tissue origins and differences between individuals with respect to their genetic background and age. This heterogeneity is manifested by the variabilities seen in the transcriptomes, proteomes, secretomes, and epigenomes of tissue-specific MSCs. Here, we review literature on different aspects of MSC heterogeneity including the role of epigenetics and the impact of MSC heterogeneity on therapies. We then combine this with a meta-analysis of transcriptome data from distinct MSC subpopulations derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, cruciate, tonsil, kidney, umbilical cord, fetus, and induced pluripotent stem cells derived MSCs (iMSCs). Beyond that, we investigate transcriptome differences between tissue-specific MSCs and pluripotent stem cells. Our meta-analysis of numerous MSC-related data sets revealed markers and associated biological processes characterizing the heterogeneity and the common features of MSCs from various tissues. We found that this heterogeneity is mainly related to the origin of the MSCs and infer that microenvironment and epigenetics are key drivers. The epigenomes of MSCs alter with age and this has a profound impact on their differentiation capabilities. Epigenetic modifications of MSCs are propagated during cell divisions and manifest in differentiated cells, thus contributing to diseased or healthy phenotypes of the respective tissue. An approach used to reduce heterogeneity caused by age- and tissue-related epigenetic and microenvironmental patterns is the iMSC concept: iMSCs are MSCs generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). During iMSC generation epigenetic and chromatin remodeling result in a gene expression pattern associated with rejuvenation thus allowing to overcome age-related shortcomings (e.g., limited differentiation and proliferation capacity). The importance of the iMSC concept is underlined by multiple clinical trials. In conclusion, we propose the use of rejuvenated iMSCs to bypass tissue- and age-related heterogeneity which are associated with native MSCs.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
John Furey ◽  
Austin Davis ◽  
Jennifer Seiter-Moser

The multiple schema for the classification of soils rely on differing criteria but the major soil science systems, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the international harmonized World Reference Base for Soil Resources soil classification systems, are primarily based on inferred pedogenesis. Largely these classifications are compiled from individual observations of soil characteristics within soil profiles, and the vast majority of this pedologic information is contained in nonquantitative text descriptions. We present initial text mining analyses of parsed text in the digitally available USDA soil taxonomy documentation and the Soil Survey Geographic database. Previous research has shown that latent information structure can be extracted from scientific literature using Natural Language Processing techniques, and we show that this latent information can be used to expedite query performance by using syntactic elements and part-of-speech tags as indices. Technical vocabulary often poses a text mining challenge due to the rarity of its diction in the broader context. We introduce an extension to the common English vocabulary that allows for nearly-complete indexing of USDA Soil Series Descriptions.


Author(s):  
Amir Khodavirdipour ◽  
Mahsa Asadimanesh ◽  
Seyed Alireza Masoumi

AbstractNonsegmented positive-sense RNA enveloped RNA severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus can result in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus is from β-coronaviridae family of viruses. The common signs and symptoms of COVID-19 include pyrexia, cough, dyspnea, fatigue, myalgia, cephalgia, diarrhea, and nausea. Physicians and dentists around the world could directly link the COVID-19 and oral diseases such as ageusia and anosmia. After time passes, different aspects of symptoms of the diseases have been discovered. Research suggests that the oral cavity is the most vulnerable region for the virus because of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor abundance in the mouth. In this case report (no. of patients = 6), we would like to report significant findings in patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 reported to our clinic during May 2021 complaining about the oral manifestation of it such as xerostomia, gingival inflammation, and cracked teeth. All patients are younger than 40 years with no history of dental complaints and oral diseases. Fortunately, these symptoms are not life threatening and treatable/manageable by current treatment options. To date, there is no clear proof of how and via which pathway, SARS-CoV-2 genomic blueprint causes the oral manifestation of COVID-19 beside ACE2 receptor which is the only known biopathway for such incidents.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dan Yan ◽  
Qiqi Huang ◽  
Caijun Dai ◽  
Wenwei Ren ◽  
Siyan Chen

Background: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is one of the common complications of stroke patients. Higher lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and lower albumin levels were associated with SAP, but the contribution of the LDH to albumin ratio (LAR) to the risk of SAP in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients remained unclear.Methods: A total of 3173 AIS patients were included in this study, divided into SAP (n = 417) and non-SAP groups (n = 2756). Characteristics were compared between these two groups. The receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the LAR, LDH, and albumin levels in predicting SAP. Logistic regression analysis was furtherly adopted to estimate the association between LAR and SAP. We also used the restricted cubic spline (RCS) to clarify the relationship between LAR and the risk of SAP.Results: LAR in the SAP group was significantly higher than that of the non-SAP group (8.75 ± 4.58 vs. 6.10 ± 2.55, P &lt; 0.001). According to the results of ROC, LAR had the highest prognostic accuracy compared to LDH and albumin (P &lt; 0.05). Besides, the logistic regression model showed that higher LAR (LAR &gt; 6.75) were more vulnerable to SAP (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.18–3.59, P &lt; 0.001), controlling the confounders. The RCS model showed that there was a non-linear relationship between LAR and the risk of SAP.Conclusion: High LAR was associated with an increased risk of SAP in patients with AIS. LAR may be a potential predictor for the incidence of SAP. Appropriate prevention measures were needed in patients with high LAR (LAR &gt; 6.75).


2021 ◽  
pp. 875647932110441
Author(s):  
Harmeet Kaur ◽  
Punit Tiwari ◽  
Sanjeev Sharma ◽  
Madhur Verma

Objective: The aim was to assess the structural and hemodynamic effects of smoking on the common carotid arteries (CCAs) in current smokers from Himachal Pradesh. In addition, it was important to determine any association between smoking duration, frequency, pack-years, and the occurrence of common carotid atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: The study evaluated 50 current smokers for common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), plaque presence, and resistive index (RI) with sonography. The findings were compared with 50 healthy control patients, who had never smoked. Results: A positive association was observed between smoking and an increase in CIMT ( P = .001) and occurrence of plaques ( P = .007), with substantially higher mean CIMT values in smokers above 45 years ( P < .05) in both genders ( P < .05). No difference in overall RI was seen in both groups taken as a whole, while higher RI values ( P < .05) were noticed in smokers exclusively above 60 years. A positive association was noted between smoking frequency, pack-years, and an increase in CIMT, RI, and occurrence of plaques. For every unit increase in the number of pack-years and smoking duration, there was a 0.01 unit increase in CIMT among the current smokers. Conclusion: This research provides evidence that smoking has a structural impact on CIMT while its hemodynamic effect is still unclear.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Georgios Skiadaresis ◽  
Bernhard Muigg ◽  
Willy Tegel

Tree-ring widths (TRW) of historical and archeological wood provide crucial proxies, frequently used for high-resolution multi-millennial paleoclimate reconstructions. Former growing conditions of the utilized trees, however, are largely unknown. Potential influences of historical forest management practices on climatic information, derived from TRW variability need to be considered but have not been assessed so far. Here, we examined the suitability of TRW series from traditionally managed oak forests (Quercus spp.) for climate reconstructions. We compared the climate signal in TRW chronologies of trees originating from high forests and coppice-with-standards (CWS) forests, a silvicultural management practice widely used in Europe for most of the common era. We expected a less distinct climate control in CWS due to management-induced growth patterns, yet an improved climate-growth relationship with TRW data from conventionally managed high forests. CWS tree rings showed considerably weaker correlations with hydroclimatic variables than non-CWS trees. The greatest potential for hydroclimate reconstructions was found for a large dataset containing both CWS and non-CWS trees, randomly collected from lumber yards, resembling the randomness in sources of historical material. Our results imply that growth patterns induced by management interventions can dampen climate signals in TRW chronologies. However, their impact can be minimized in well replicated, randomly sampled regional chronologies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jonas Graetz

AbstractTensor tomography is fundamentally based on the assumption of a both anisotropic and linear contrast mechanism. While the X-ray or neutron dark-field contrast obtained with Talbot(-Lau) interferometers features the required anisotropy, a preceding detailed study of dark-field signal origination however found its specific orientation dependence to be a non-linear function of the underlying anisotropic mass distribution and its orientation, especially challenging the common assumption that dark-field signals are describable by a function over the unit sphere. Here, two approximative linear tensor models with reduced orientation dependence are investigated in a simulation study with regard to their applicability to grating based X-ray or neutron dark-field tensor tomography. By systematically simulating and reconstructing a large sample of isolated volume elements covering the full range of feasible anisotropies and orientations, direct correspondences are drawn between the respective tensors characterizing the physically based dark-field model used for signal synthesization and the mathematically motivated simplified models used for reconstruction. The anisotropy of freely rotating volume elements is thereby confirmed to be, for practical reconstruction purposes, approximable both as a function of the optical axis’ orientation or as a function of the interferometer’s grating orientation. The eigenvalues of the surrogate models’ tensors are found to exhibit fuzzy, yet almost linear relations to those of the synthesization model. Dominant orientations are found to be recoverable with a margin of error on the order of magnitude of 1$$^{\circ }$$ ∘ . Although the input data must adequately address the full orientation dependence of dark-field anisotropy, the present results clearly support the general feasibility of quantitative X-ray dark-field tensor tomography within an inherent yet acceptable statistical margin of uncertainty.


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