Cue reduction or general cue masking do not underlie generalized chemical camouflage in pirate perch

Ecology ◽  
2021 ◽  
William J. Resetarits ◽  
Tyler M. Breech ◽  
Jason R. Bohenek ◽  
Matthew R. Pintar
Microbiome ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Audet-Gilbert Émie ◽  
Sylvain François-Étienne ◽  
Bouslama Sidki ◽  
Derome Nicolas

Abstract Background One of the most charismatic, and yet not completely resolved example of mutualistic interaction is the partnership of clownfish and its symbiotic sea anemone. The mechanism explaining this tolerance currently relies on the molecular mimicry of clownfish epithelial mucus, which could serve as camouflage, preventing the anemone's nematocysts' discharge. Resident bacteria are known as key drivers of epithelial mucus chemical signature in vertebrates. A recent study has proposed a restructuration of the skin microbiota in a generalist clown fish when first contacting its symbiotic anemone. We explored a novel hypothesis by testing the effect of remote interaction on epithelial microbiota restructuration in both partners. Methods With metataxonomics, we investigated the epithelial microbiota dynamic of 18 pairs of percula clownfish (Amphiprion percula) and their symbiotic anemone Heteractis magnifica in remote interaction, physical interaction and control groups for both partners during a 4-week trial. Results The Physical and Remote Interaction groups’ results evidence gradual epithelial microbiota convergence between both partners when fish and anemone were placed in the same water system. This convergence occurred preceding any physical contact between partners, and was maintained during the 2-week interaction period in both contact groups. After the interaction period, community structure of both fish and anemone’s epthelial community structures maintained the interaction signature 2 weeks after fish–anemone pairs’ separation. Furthermore, the interaction signature persistence was observed both in the Physical and Remote Interaction groups, thus suggesting that water-mediated chemical communication between symbiotic partners was strong enough to shift the skin microbiota durably, even after the separation of fish–anemone pairs. Finally, our results suggest that fish–anemone convergent microbiota restructuration was increasingly associated with the parallel recruitment of three Flavobacteriaceae strains closely related to a tyrosinase-producing Cellulophaga tyrosinoxydans. Conclusions Our study shows that bacterial community restructuration, in the acclimation process, does not only rely on direct physical contact. Furthermore, our results challenge, for the first time, the traditional unidirectional chemical camouflage hypothesis, as we argue that convergence of the epithelial microbiota of both partners may play essential roles in establishing mutual acceptance.

2021 ◽  
Gareth Difford ◽  
John-Erik Haugen ◽  
Muhammad Luqman Aslam ◽  
Lill-Heidi Johansen ◽  
Mette Breiland ◽  

Abstract Salmon lice are ectoparasites that threaten wild and farmed salmonids. Artificial selection of salmon for resistance to the infectious copepodid lice stage currently relies on in vivo challenge trials on thousands of salmon a year. We found that salmon emit a bouquet of kairomones which the lice use to find and infect the salmon. Some of these compounds vary between families and could be used as a more direct and ethical measurements of lice resistance for breeding farmed salmon.

2015 ◽  
Vol 41 (2) ◽  
pp. 178-186 ◽  
Ricarda Kather ◽  
Falko P. Drijfhout ◽  
Sue Shemilt ◽  
Stephen J. Martin

PLoS ONE ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 9 (7) ◽  
pp. e102604 ◽  
Susan R. Whitehead ◽  
Ellen Reid ◽  
Joseph Sapp ◽  
Katja Poveda ◽  
Anne M. Royer ◽  

1997 ◽  
Vol 94 (14) ◽  
pp. 7566-7571 ◽  
M. D. Scott ◽  
K. L. Murad ◽  
F. Koumpouras ◽  
M. Talbot ◽  
J. W. Eaton

2007 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-64 ◽  
Wojciech Czechowski

Polyergus rufescens (Latr.), an obligate slave-maker, and Formica polyctena Först., an aggressive, territorial wood ant species, rarely co-occur in the field, and there are almost no data on their mutual relations under natural conditions. These interactions were studied in the Bialowieza Forest (NE Poland), based on two P. rufescens colonies (with Formica fusca L. slaves) nesting within the territories of F. polyctena. The wood ants routinely searched the immediate vicinity of P. rufescens nests, whereas P. rufescens ants raided F. fusca colonies very close to F. polyctena nests or their columns passed right next to them, they eventually crossed wood ants’ foraging and removal routes, and even directly attacked F. polyctena colonies and robbed their brood. Interspeciflc relations in these particular situations are described and discussed in the contexts of supposed chemical camouflage/mimicry of P. rufescens and interspecific competition hierarchy in ants.

2000 ◽  
Vol 132 (2) ◽  
pp. 197-212 ◽  
Wolfgang Völkl ◽  
Manfred Mackauer

AbstractWe examined oviposition behaviour in 49 species representing 19 genera of Aphidiinae. All species are solitary parasitoids of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea). Six general types are described that differ in oviposition time, behaviour, and morphology. The Ephedrini have the least specialized oviposition behaviour within the subfamily, with Praini and Aphidiini displaying various adaptations for host capture and oviposition. Use of the forelegs to grasp and orient aphids for oviposition has arisen twice, in Praini and, independently, in the genus Monoctonus Haliday (Aphidiini: Monoctonina). Morphological modifications of the terminal abdominal segments for host capture are found in Trioxina and in several species of Pauesia Quilis (Aphidiina). A “quick” sting is characteristic of species in the genus Aphidius Nees and related genera. The greatest degree of behavioural diversification occurred among Pauesia species, including cryptic behaviour, ant mimicry, and “sneak” oviposition. Acquired chemical camouflage and mimicry of the host’s cuticular hydrocarbon pattern to avoid detection by guarding ants is found in Aclitus obscuripennis Foerster, the genus Paralipsis Foerster, and the two closely related genera Adialytus Foerster and Lysiphlebus Foerster. It is suggested that the main driving forces in the evolution of parasitoid oviposition behaviour were aphid defensive behaviour and avoidance of aggression by trophobiotic ants. The results are compared with phylogenetic relationships inferred from morphological and molecular data.

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