physical contact
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2022 ◽  
Bar Kribus

The Betä Isra'el (Ethiopian Jews) have a unique history and religious tradition, one of the most fascinating aspects of which are the mäloksocc, commonly referred to as monks in scholarly and popular literature. The mäloksocc served as the supreme religious leaders of the Betä Isra'el and were charged with educating and initiating Betä Isra'el priests. They lived in separate compounds and observed severe purity laws prohibiting physical contact with the laity. Thus, they are the only known example in medieval and modern Jewry of ascetic communities withdrawing from the secular world and devoting themselves fully to religious life. This book presents the results of the first comprehensive research ever conducted on the way of life and material culture of the ascetic religious communities of the Betä Isra'el. A major part of this research is an archaeological survey, during which these religious centres were located and documented in detail for the first time.

2022 ◽  
pp. 275275302110687
Cynthia M. LaFond ◽  
Alyssa Yost ◽  
Kelly Lankin ◽  
Megha Kilaru ◽  
Susan L. Cohn

Background: Administration of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) for neuroblastoma requires hospitalization in single-room isolation and limits caregiver physical contact due to the child's radioactive burden. Though used for decades, there is a dearth of research on the experiences of children and their parents while isolated. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study evaluated the experience of children with neuroblastoma undergoing single-room isolation for 131I-MIBG therapy and their parents. Ten nurses, nine parents, and five children were interviewed; transcripts were analyzed applying a conventional content analysis approach. Results: Child themes included overall experiences ranging from positive to negative; emotional stress was common; symptoms were common but mostly managed; the children were adequately prepared for isolation; and audiovisual technology and entertainment helped. The indwelling urinary catheter was a source of emotional stress and/or pain for several children. Parent themes included I thought it was going to be a lot worse; it gets better with time; feeling concerned and overwhelmed; prepared as much as you can be; and you feel like you’re not alone. Discussion: Findings suggest that children and parents would benefit from additional coping support interventions to address emotional distress. Efforts should be made to identify other sources of technology or room designs that can maximize the child's sense of connection with parents and healthcare professionals. Additional research is needed to examine the impact of this isolation experience on the long-term psychological outcomes of children and parents.

2022 ◽  
Dan-Andrei Coca ◽  
Andreea Nistor ◽  

The virtual environment is a phenomenon that has grown exponentially in recent years, changing the way the economy evolves. Through e-commerce, social media platforms, online stores, or websites, financial resources are rolled both legally and illegally. Thus, some transactions are not accounted for or taxed, and also the concept of the digital shadow economy, defined as economic shadow activities conducted in electronic space, with no physical contact is increasingly present today. This paper aims to review and systematically analyze, through bibliometric analysis, using the Web of Science scientific platform and the VOSviewer software, the notion of digital shadow economy, determining the current state of knowledge in the field. Also, a comparative research was performed between digital shadow economy and the traditional shadow economy. The main findings reveal that digital shadow economy has a novelty character that refers to an economy based on digitized services and products, which escapes the official estimates of the GDP and the main research tendencies concern the conceptualization of the term and its main activity channels, aspects that distinguish it from traditional shadow economy. Furthermore, a thematic cluster, containing links to the digital shadow economy term can be noticed to be around cybercrimes.

2022 ◽  
David Keller ◽  
Tamas Lang ◽  
Melinda Cservenak ◽  
Gina Puska ◽  
Janos Barna ◽  

Social touch is an important form of communication, it is still unknown how it is processed. Here, we discovered a functional role for a neuronal pathway projecting from the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus (PIL) to the medial preoptic area (MPOA) in controlling social contact. Neurons in the PIL and the MPOA were activated by physical contact between female rodents and also by chemogenetic stimulation of PIL neurons. Chemogenetic stimulation of PIL neurons tagged by social contact experience increased direct physical interactions between familiar female rats without affecting other forms of social behavior. Furthermore, selective stimulation of the PIL-MPOA pathway, and the local activation of PIL terminals within the MPOA, elevated direct social contact between the animals suggesting the role of pathway-specific activated cell assemblies. Neurons projecting from the PIL to the MPOA contain the neuropeptide parathyroid hormone 2 (PTH2). The expression of the peptide was induced by social housing, the presence of PTH2 receptor was identified in MPOA neurons, and local injection of PTH2 increased the firing rate of identified preoptic area GABAergic neurons via the PTH2 receptor suggesting that PTH2 acts as a neurotransmitter in the PIL-MPOA pathway. We also found a homologous PIL to MPOA neuronal pathway in the human brain. Altogether, we discovered a direct thalamo-preoptic pathway, which bypasses the cerebral cortex and controls social touch. This pathway originates in neurons expressing PTH2, a neuropeptide recently shown in fish to respond to the social environment. These observations provide evidence for common evolutionary-conserved PTH2-containing social-touch specific engram circuits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Zeev Kalyuzhner ◽  
Sergey Agdarov ◽  
Itai Orr ◽  
Yafim Beiderman ◽  
Aviya Bennett ◽  

AbstractNeural activity research has recently gained significant attention due to its association with sensory information and behavior control. However, the current methods of brain activity sensing require expensive equipment and physical contact with the tested subject. We propose a novel photonic-based method for remote detection of human senses. Physiological processes associated with hemodynamic activity due to activation of the cerebral cortex affected by different senses have been detected by remote monitoring of nano‐vibrations generated by the transient blood flow to the specific regions of the human brain. We have found that a combination of defocused, self‐interference random speckle patterns with a spatiotemporal analysis, using Deep Neural Network, allows associating between the activated sense and the seemingly random speckle patterns.

Mahona J. Paschal ◽  
Titus O. Pacho ◽  
Oluyinka Adewoyin

The outbreak of COVID has imposed a lot of challenges globally to effective teaching since the first COVID 19 pandemic in Africa. In 2020, different African countries have witnessed a drastic change in economic, social and political sphere of life. In order to avoid further spread of COVID-19 and with strict preventive measures, physical contact teaching was cancelled until further notice. The suspension of physical classes at the universities has brought unique challenges to students and educators in the process of delivering contents of the curriculum and achieving value in the education sector across Africa. Our empirical research aimed at finding out the effective teaching methods adopted by higher educational institutions during COVID-19 Pandemic in Africa. The study employed qualitative study design rooted in a descriptive case study, semi structured interview was used to collect data from ten lecturers from seven countries in Africa. The study found greater satisfaction with teaching and learning methods used in African universities. However, both adaptation and application of new teaching methods in higher learning institutions in Africa are still facing various challenges. Throughout this study, we recommend that each university should invest in technologies and research, consistent internet availability, training and skill acquisition in computer operation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Matthew J. Silk ◽  
Simon Carrignon ◽  
R. Alexander Bentley ◽  
Nina H. Fefferman

Abstract Background Individual behavioural decisions are responses to a person’s perceived social norms that could be shaped by both their physical and social environment. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, these environments correspond to epidemiological risk from contacts and the social construction of risk by communication within networks of friends. Understanding the circumstances under which the influence of these different social networks can promote the acceptance of non-pharmaceutical interventions and consequently the adoption of protective behaviours is critical for guiding useful, practical public health messaging. Methods We explore how information from both physical contact and social communication layers of a multiplex network can contribute to flattening the epidemic curve in a community. Connections in the physical contact layer represent opportunities for transmission, while connections in the communication layer represent social interactions through which individuals may gain information, e.g. messaging friends. Results We show that maintaining focus on awareness of risk among each individual’s physical contacts promotes the greatest reduction in disease spread, but only when an individual is aware of the symptoms of a non-trivial proportion of their physical contacts (~ ≥ 20%). Information from the social communication layer without was less useful when these connections matched less well with physical contacts and contributed little in combination with accurate information from physical contacts. Conclusions We conclude that maintaining social focus on local outbreak status will allow individuals to structure their perceived social norms appropriately and respond more rapidly when risk increases. Finding ways to relay accurate local information from trusted community leaders could improve mitigation even where more intrusive/costly strategies, such as contact-tracing, are not possible.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ademe Tsegaye ◽  
Calistus Wilunda ◽  
Fabio Manenti ◽  
Matteo Bottechia ◽  
Michele D'Alessandro ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 263 million people and claimed the lives of over 5 million people worldwide. Refugees living in camp settings are particularly vulnerable to infection because of the difficulty implementing preventive measures and lack of medical resources. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the behavioural response of refugees towards COVID-19. There is an urgent need for field evidence to inform the design and implementation of a robust social and behaviour change communication strategy to respond to the threat posed by COVID-19 in humanitarian settings. This study examines factors influencing COVID-19-related behavioural decisions in the Nguenyyiel refugee camp located in Gambella, Ethiopia using data collected from focus group discussions and key informant interviews in September 2020. The evidence suggests that while a number of factors have been facilitating the adoption of COVID-19 prevention measures, including good general knowledge about the virus and the necessary preventive strategies and the active engagement by community leaders and non-governmental organisations, important structural and cultural factors have hindered the uptake of COVID-19 prevention measures. These include: difficultly staying at home to minimise physical contact; overcrowding in the camp and within home dwellings; a lack of hand sanitizers and masks and of funds to purchase these; inconsistent use of facemasks when available; COVID-19 denial and misconceptions about the disease, and other cultural beliefs and habits. Overall, the study found that refugees perceived COVID-19 to pose a low threat (susceptibility and severity) and had mixed beliefs about the efficacy of preventive behaviours. This study identified gaps in the existing information education and communication strategy, including a lack of consistency, inadequate messaging, and a limited use of communication channels. While awareness of COVID-19 is a necessary first step, it is not sufficient to increase adoption of prevention measures in this setting. The current communication strategy should move beyond awareness raising and emphasise the threat posed by COVID-19 especially among the most vulnerable members of the camp population. This should be accompanied by increased community support and attention to other barriers and incentives to preventive behaviours.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
Kristen Grove ◽  
Megan Harrold ◽  
Sheeraz Mohd ◽  
Varsha Natarajan ◽  
Elizabeth Hurn ◽  

Abstract Background Participant enrolment, assessment and/or delivery of intervention in many clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic were severely impacted by public health measures limiting physical contact. This report describes the lessons learned in completing a repeated measures cohort study involving suspected and confirmed COVID-19 survivors at three sites in Perth, Western Australia. Main body An observational analysis of the conduct and data completeness results of the LATER-19 trial. People with COVID19 symptoms who were tested between February and November 2020 were recruited. In both those who tested positive and those who tested negative (control group) for COVID19, data on physical function and mental health were collected at two time points up to eight months after COVID19 testing. Recruitment of the controls was targeted from hospital records for comparison, it was balanced for age and sex and for the non-hospitalised group also comorbidities. A sample of 344 participants was recruited: 155 (45.1%) COVID-19 positive. Taking the research design and environmental adaptations into account, we recorded > 90% participant engagement during the trial. Of the 637 planned assessments, objective measures were completed on 602 (94.5%) occasions; 543 (90.2%) were on-site and 59 (9.8%) were remote. A total of 577 (90.6%) mental health/symptoms surveys, 569 (89.3%) 1-min sit-to-stand tests, and 520 (81.6%) handgrip strength tests were completed. Conclusion The sample size and high completion rate of planned assessments during the LATER-19 trial potentially increases the contextual, groupwise generalisability of the results. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple, rapid, reproducible and adaptable battery of assessments, leveraging telehealth and digital solutions. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration (ANZCTR): ACTRN12621001067864.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Kirsten Proost ◽  
Matthieu N. Boone ◽  
Ivàn Josipovic ◽  
Bart Pardon ◽  
Koen Chiers ◽  

Abstract Background Scientific knowledge regarding alpaca dentistry is relatively limited despite its clinical implications. The present gap in available supportive data leads to limited treatment options for dental pathology in alpacas in comparison to other species. The main goal of this study was to gain novel insights into the general and pulp morphology of maxillary cheek teeth to allow development of more advanced treatment strategies in the future. Also, the risk of causing pulp exposure when floating maxillary cheek teeth was of particular interest. Concurent research focusing on the anatomy of mandibular cheek teeth has been performed accordingly. The results obtained in mandibular teeth are expected to be non-extrapolatable because of the structural differences between mandibular and maxillary teeth. Results Pulp morphology of maxillary cheek teeth showed great variation. A common pulp chamber was identified in 46/83 (55.4%) teeth with a mean dental age of 2 years and 7 months (± 2 years and 5 months). Pulpal segmentation was more commonly observed in teeth of increasing age. Full columnar segmentation was seen in 33/69 teeth (47.8%), whereas within-column segmentation was observed in 36/83 teeth (43.4%). Age and degree of segmentation of the pulpal tissue varied greatly according to Triadan position. Physical contact between roots of adjacent teeth was found in the majority of examined molars (range 82–94%) which resulted in morphological adaptations at the level of the root tips. The measured sub-occlusal dentinal thickness was as low as 0.46 mm above pulp horn 2 in a 14 years and 11 months old Triadan 09, emphasizing the risk of pulp exposure attributed to dental floating. Conclusion This study offers an objective description of age-dependent maxillary cheek teeth pulp morphology in alpacas. Current findings are of great value to provide a basis for the development of tooth-saving techniques as a treatment for dental disease in this species. Observed physical contact between the roots of different examined molars may be a facilitating factor in the spread of apical infection in chronically diseased cases. Finally, a conservative approach regarding dental floating is recommended in order to avoid iatrogenic damage to pulp tissue.

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