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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262431
Author(s):  
Sewunet Sako Shagaro ◽  
Teshale Fikadu Gebabo ◽  
Be’emnet Tekabe Mulugeta

Background Modern contraceptive method is a product or medical procedure that interferes with reproduction from acts of sexual intercourse. Globally in 2019, 44% of women of reproductive age were using a modern method of contraception but it was 29% in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the main aim of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among married women in Ethiopia. Method The current study used the 2019 Ethiopia mini demographic and health survey dataset. Both descriptive and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analysis were done using STATA version 14. A p-value of less than 0.05 and an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval were used to report statistically significant factors with modern contraceptive utilization. Result The overall modern contraceptive utilization among married women in Ethiopia was 38.7% (95% CI: 37.3% to 40.0%). Among the modern contraceptive methods, injectables were the most widely utilized modern contraceptive method (22.82%) followed by implants (9.65%) and pills (2.71%). Maternal age, educational level, wealth index, number of living children, number of births in the last three years, number of under 5 children in the household, religion, and geographic region were independent predictors of modern contraceptive utilization. Conclusion In the current study only four out of ten married non-pregnant women of reproductive age utilized modern contraceptive methods. Furthermore, the study has identified both individual and community-level factors that can affect the utilization of modern contraceptive methods by married women in the country. Therefore, concerned bodies need to improve access to reproductive health services, empower women through community-based approaches, and minimize region wise discrepancy to optimize the utilization.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262009
Author(s):  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Hejia Song ◽  
Qiulan Chen ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Songwang Wang ◽  
...  

Objectives This study intends to build and compare two kinds of forecasting models at different time scales for hemorrhagic fever incidence in China. Methods Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network (LSTM) were adopted to fit monthly, weekly and daily incidence of hemorrhagic fever in China from 2013 to 2018. The two models, combined and uncombined with rolling forecasts, were used to predict the incidence in 2019 to examine their stability and applicability. Results ARIMA (2, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)12, ARIMA (1, 1, 3) (1, 1, 1)52 and ARIMA (5, 0, 1) were selected as the best fitting ARIMA model for monthly, weekly and daily incidence series, respectively. The LSTM model with 64 neurons and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGDM) for monthly incidence, 8 neurons and Adaptive Moment Estimation (Adam) for weekly incidence, and 64 neurons and Root Mean Square Prop (RMSprop) for daily incidence were selected as the best fitting LSTM models. The values of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the models combined with rolling forecasts in 2019 were lower than those of the direct forecasting models for both ARIMA and LSTM. It was shown from the forecasting performance in 2019 that ARIMA was better than LSTM for monthly and weekly forecasting while the LSTM was better than ARIMA for daily forecasting in rolling forecasting models. Conclusions Both ARIMA and LSTM could be used to build a prediction model for the incidence of hemorrhagic fever. Different models might be more suitable for the incidence prediction at different time scales. The findings can provide a good reference for future selection of prediction models and establishments of early warning systems for hemorrhagic fever.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262080
Author(s):  
Geoffrey C. Poole ◽  
S. Kathleen Fogg ◽  
Scott J. O’Daniel ◽  
Byron E. Amerson ◽  
Ann Marie Reinhold ◽  
...  

Hyporheic exchange is now widely acknowledged as a key driver of ecosystem processes in many streams. Yet stream ecologists have been slow to adopt nuanced hydrologic frameworks developed and applied by engineers and hydrologists to describe the relationship between water storage, water age, and water balance in finite hydrosystems such as hyporheic zones. Here, in the context of hyporheic hydrology, we summarize a well-established mathematical framework useful for describing hyporheic hydrology, while also applying the framework heuristically to visualize the relationships between water age, rates of hyporheic exchange, and water volume within hyporheic zones. Building on this heuristic application, we discuss how improved accuracy in the conceptualization of hyporheic exchange can yield a deeper understanding of the role of the hyporheic zone in stream ecosystems. Although the equations presented here have been well-described for decades, our aim is to make the mathematical basis as accessible as possible and to encourage broader understanding among aquatic ecologists of the implications of tailed age distributions commonly observed in water discharged from and stored within hyporheic zones. Our quantitative description of “hyporheic hydraulic geometry,” associated visualizations, and discussion offer a nuanced and realistic understanding of hyporheic hydrology to aid in considering hyporheic exchange in the context of river and stream ecosystem science and management.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261928
Author(s):  
Takuya Aikawa ◽  
Noritoshi Maehara ◽  
Yu Ichihara ◽  
Hayato Masuya ◽  
Katsunori Nakamura ◽  
...  

Wolbachia are obligatory endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria found in many arthropods. They are maternally inherited, and can induce reproductive alterations in the hosts. Despite considerable recent progress in studies on the associations between Wolbachia and various taxonomic groups of insects, none of the researches have revealed the effects of Wolbachia on longicorn beetles as the host insect. Acalolepta fraudatrix is a forest longicorn beetle that is distributed in East Asia. In this study, the relationship between Wolbachia and A. fraudatrix was investigated. Out of two populations of A. fraudatrix screened for Wolbachia using the genes ftsZ, wsp, and 16S rRNA, only one of the populations showed detection of all three genes indicating the presence of Wolbachia. Electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization also confirmed that the A. fraudatrix population was infected with Wolbachia. Sequencing the wsp genes derived from single insects revealed that two strains of Wolbachia coexisted in the insects based on the detection of two different sequences of the wsp gene. We designated these strains as wFra1 and wFra2. The bacterial titers of wFra1 were nearly 2-fold and 3-fold higher than wFra2 in the testes and ovaries, respectively. The two strains of Wolbachia in the insects were completely eliminated by rearing the insects on artificial diets containing 1% concentration of tetracycline for 1 generation. Reciprocal crosses between Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-uninfected A. fraudatrix demonstrated that only eggs produced by the crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and Wolbachia-uninfected females did not hatch, indicating that Wolbachia infecting A. fraudatrix causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in the host insect. This is the first report showing the effect of Wolbachia on reproductive function in a longicorn beetle, A. fraudatrix.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261677
Author(s):  
Dorota Litwinek ◽  
Jakub Boreczek ◽  
Halina Gambuś ◽  
Krzysztof Buksa ◽  
Wiktor Berski ◽  
...  

Starter cultures composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were developed based on the genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of isolates belonging to dominant groups of bacteria in spontaneous rye wholemeal sourdoughs. Combinations of strains have been evaluated on an industrial scale in the sourdough fermentation process. Wholemeal rye bread was prepared using sourdoughs obtained with 3 new starter cultures, and compared to bread made using the commercial culture (LV2). All newly developed cultures used for the preparation of wholemeal rye bread allowed to obtain better quality products as compared to the LV2 based bread. The best results were obtained when the culture containing Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 2MI8 and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Weissella confusa/cibaria 6PI3 strains was applied. The addition of yeast during sourdough breads production, especially the one prepared from mentioned above starter culture, significantly improved their organoleptic properties, their volume and crumb moisture was increased, and also the crumb acidity and hardness was reduced. Fermentation of rye wholemeal dough, especially without the yeast addition, resulted in a significant reduction in the content of higher inositol phosphates as compared to the applied flour, which is associated with improved bioavailability of minerals. The results of this study prove that the investigated new starter cultures can be successfully applied in wholemeal rye bread production.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262070
Author(s):  
Samantha Hartley ◽  
Tomos Redmond ◽  
Katherine Berry

Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS), especially inpatient units, have arguably never been more in demand and yet more in need of reform. Progress in psychotherapy and more broadly in mental health care is strongly predicted by the therapeutic relationship between professional and service user. This link is particularly pertinent in child and adolescent mental health inpatient services where relationships are especially complex and difficult to develop and maintain. This article describes a qualitative exploration of the lived experienced of 24 participants (8 young people, 8 family members/carers and 8 nursing staff) within inpatient CAMHS across four sites in the UK. We interviewed participants individually and analysed the transcripts using thematic analysis within a critical realist framework. We synthesised data across groups and present six themes, encapsulating the intricacies and impact of therapeutic relationships; their development and maintenance: Therapeutic relationships are the treatment, Cultivating connection, Knowledge is power, Being human, The dance, and It’s tough for all of us in here. We hope these findings can be used to improve quality of care by providing a blueprint for policy, training, systemic structures and staff support.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262273
Author(s):  
Carolina J. Delgado-Flores ◽  
David García-Gomero ◽  
Stefany Salvador-Salvador ◽  
José Montes-Alvis ◽  
Celina Herrera-Cunti ◽  
...  

Background Different prophylactic and episodic clotting factor treatments are used in the management of hemophilia. A summarize of the evidence is needed inform decision-making. Objective To compare the effects of factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Central Cochrane Library, and Scopus. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to December 2020, which compared different factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed whenever possible. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021225857). Results Nine RCTs were included in this review, of which six compared episodic with prophylactic treatment, all of them performed in patients with hemophilia A. Pooled results showed that, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (ratio of means [RM]: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.36), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.13). With significant difference between these subgroups (p = 0.003, I2 = 82.9%). In addition, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized joint bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.27), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.16). Without significant subgroup differences. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes according to GRADE methodology. The other studies compared different types of clotting factor concentrates (CFCs), assessed pharmacokinetic prophylaxis, or compared different frequencies of medication administration. Conclusions Our results suggest that prophylactic treatment (at either low, intermediate, or high doses) is superior to episodic treatment for bleeding prevention. In patients with hemophilia A, the bleeding rate seems to have a dose-response effect. However, no study compared different doses of prophylactic treatment, and all results had a very low certainty of the evidence. Thus, future studies are needed to confirm these results and inform decision making.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262561
Author(s):  
Olivia Wetsch ◽  
Miranda Strasburg ◽  
Jessica McQuigg ◽  
Michelle D. Boone

Emerging infectious diseases are increasing globally and are an additional challenge to species dealing with native parasites and pathogens. Therefore, understanding the combined effects of infectious agents on hosts is important for species’ conservation and population management. Amphibians are hosts to many parasites and pathogens, including endemic trematode flatworms (e.g., Echinostoma spp.) and the novel pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]). Our study examined how exposure to trematodes during larval development influenced the consequences of Bd pathogen exposure through critical life events. We found that prior exposure to trematode parasites negatively impacted metamorphosis but did not influence the effect of Bd infection on terrestrial growth and survival. Bd infection alone, however, resulted in significant mortality during overwintering—an annual occurrence for most temperate amphibians. The results of our study indicated overwintering mortality from Bd could provide an explanation for enigmatic declines and highlights the importance of examining the long-term consequences of novel parasite exposure.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262022
Author(s):  
Kevin B. Smith

Objectives To quantify the effect of politics on the physical, psychological, and social health of American adults during the four-year span of the Trump administration. Methods A previously validated politics and health scale was used to compare health markers in nationally representative surveys administered to separate samples in March 2017 (N = 800) and October 2020 (N = 700). Participants in the 2020 survey were re-sampled approximately two weeks after the 2020 election and health markers were compared to their pre-election baselines. Results Large numbers of Americans reported politics takes a significant toll on a range of health markers—everything from stress, loss of sleep, or suicidal thoughts to an inability to stop thinking about politics and making intemperate social media posts. The proportion of Americans reporting these effects stayed stable or slightly increased between the spring of 2017 and the fall of 2020 prior to the presidential election. Deterioration in measures of physical health became detectably worse in the wake of the 2020 election. Those who were young, politically interested, politically engaged, or on the political left were more likely to report negative effects. Conclusions Politics is a pervasive and largely unavoidable source of chronic stress that exacted significant health costs for large numbers of American adults between 2017 and 2020. The 2020 election did little to alleviate those effects and quite likely exacerbated them.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262349
Author(s):  
Esraa A. Mohamed ◽  
Essam A. Rashed ◽  
Tarek Gaber ◽  
Omar Karam

Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases among women worldwide. It is considered one of the leading causes of death among women. Therefore, early detection is necessary to save lives. Thermography imaging is an effective diagnostic technique which is used for breast cancer detection with the help of infrared technology. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic breast cancer detection system. First, U-Net network is used to automatically extract and isolate the breast area from the rest of the body which behaves as noise during the breast cancer detection model. Second, we propose a two-class deep learning model, which is trained from scratch for the classification of normal and abnormal breast tissues from thermal images. Also, it is used to extract more characteristics from the dataset that is helpful in training the network and improve the efficiency of the classification process. The proposed system is evaluated using real data (A benchmark, database (DMR-IR)) and achieved accuracy = 99.33%, sensitivity = 100% and specificity = 98.67%. The proposed system is expected to be a helpful tool for physicians in clinical use.


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