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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0246725
Author(s):  
Kun A. Susiloretni ◽  
Emily R. Smith ◽  
Suparmi ◽  
Marsum ◽  
Rina Agustina ◽  
...  

Background Stunting, an indicator of restricted linear growth, has become a primary measure of childhood undernutrition due to its persistent high prevalence globally, and importance for health and development. Although the etiology is recognized as complex, most analyses have focused on social and biomedical determinants, with limited attention on psychological factors affecting care and nurturing in the home. We assessed whether the psychological distress of parents is related to child linear growth and stunting, and documented the associated risk factors, and examined the relationship between parental distress and behavioral and other risk factors for stunting. Methods We used data from the Indonesia National Health Survey 2013, including 46,315 children 6–59 months of age. Multivariate linear, logistic, and multilevel multinomial logistic regression, using survey weights, were used to assess the relationship between parental distress, as assessed by the WHO Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ20), with height-for-age z score (HAZ), stunting, and behavioral and other risk factors for stunting. Results Maternal, paternal and parental distress (i.e. both maternal and paternal distress) were associated with reduced linear growth of the children by 0.086 (95% CI -0.17, -0.00), 0.11 (95% CI -0.24, -0.02) and 0.19 (95% CI -0.37, -0.00) HAZ-scores, respectively. Maternal and paternal distress increased the risk of mild stunting (HAZ <-1) by 33% (95% CI 1.17,1.50) and 37% (95% CI 1.18,1.60), and the risk of moderate stunting (HAZ <-2) by 25% (95% CI 1.10,1.43) and 28% (95% CI 1.08,1.51]), respectively. Parental stress increased the risk of moderate stunting by 40% (95% CI 1.06,1.85). Amongst specific groups of risk factors, the proportion of HAZ-score lost was associated with socioeconomic factors (30.3%) including, low wealth, low maternal occupational status, low maternal education, rural residence, and low paternal occupational status; physiological factors (15.5%) including low maternal height, low maternal mid-upper arm circumference, being male, low paternal height; behavioral factors (8.9%) including open garbage disposal, paternal smoking, not using iodized salt; and experiencing at least one infectious diseases episode (1.1%). Conclusions Maternal, paternal and parental stress were associated with reduced linear growth of children. These findings highlight the complex etiology of stunting and suggest nutritional and other biomedical interventions are insufficient, and that promotion of mental and behavioral health programs for parents must be pursued as part of a comprehensive strategy to enhance child growth and development, i.e. improved caretaker capacity, integrated community development, improved parenting skills, as well as reduced gender discrimination, and domestic violence.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259039
Author(s):  
Raki Kawama ◽  
Masamichi Okudaira ◽  
Tatsuya Shimasaki ◽  
Hirohiko Maemura ◽  
Satoru Tanigawa

Numerous studies have clarified that sprinters possess unique morphological characteristics of the thigh muscles compared with non-athletes. However, little evidence is available regarding the morphological differences between sprinters and rugby players. This study aimed to examine the morphological differences in the individual hamstrings and quadriceps femoris muscles between sub-elite sprinters and rugby players. Ultrasound images were acquired from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the thigh. From the images, the anatomical cross-sectional areas were calculated for 14 sub-elite sprinters, 14 rugby players, and 14 non-athletes. The calculated anatomical cross-sectional areas were normalized to two-thirds power of the body mass, and the normalized values of all regions were averaged as those of the individual muscles. In the hamstrings, the sizes of the biceps femoris short head and semitendinosus were greater in the sprinters than in the rugby players and/or non-athletes (all p < 0.05). In contrast, in the quadriceps femoris, the sizes of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius were the greatest in the rugby players (all p < 0.05). In the middle region of the biceps femoris short head and the proximal-middle regions of the semitendinosus, the muscle sizes were greater in the sprinters than in the rugby players (all p < 0.05), and vice versa in the middle-distal regions of the rectus femoris (all p < 0.05). These results suggest that 1) sub-elite sprinters possess larger sizes of the biceps femoris short head and semitendinosus, whereas rugby players have larger sizes of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius, and 2) each of the athletes has different size distributions, especially along the lengths of BFsh, ST, and RF. The findings of the present study would be helpful for rugby players in designing training regimens aimed at enhancing sprint performance.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258872
Author(s):  
Joshua Kramer ◽  
Joana Neves ◽  
Mia Koniikusic ◽  
Heinrich Jasper ◽  
Deepak A. Lamba

Retinal homeostasis relies on intricate coordination of cell death and survival in response to stress and damage. Signaling mechanisms that coordinate this process in the adult retina remain poorly understood. Here we identify Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling in Drosophila and its mammalian homologue Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily, that includes TGFβ and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling arms, as central mediators of retinal neuronal death and tissue survival following acute damage. Using a Drosophila model for UV-induced retinal damage, we show that Dpp released from immune cells promotes tissue loss after UV-induced retinal damage. Interestingly, we find a dynamic response of retinal cells to this signal: in an early phase, Dpp-mediated stimulation of Saxophone/Smox signaling promotes apoptosis, while at a later stage, stimulation of the Thickveins/Mad axis promotes tissue repair and survival. This dual role is conserved in the mammalian retina through the TGFβ/BMP signaling, as supplementation of BMP4 or inhibition of TGFβ using small molecules promotes retinal cell survival, while inhibition of BMP negatively affects cell survival after light-induced photoreceptor damage and NMDA induced inner retinal neuronal damage. Our data identify key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms by which retinal homeostasis is maintained.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259171
Author(s):  
Enoch Narh Kudjordjie ◽  
Rumakanta Sapkota ◽  
Mogens Nicolaisen

Plant associated microbiomes are known to confer fitness advantages to the host. Understanding how plant factors including biochemical traits influence host associated microbiome assembly could facilitate the development of microbiome-mediated solutions for sustainable plant production. Here, we examined microbial community structures of a set of well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana mutants disrupted in metabolic pathways for the production of glucosinolates, flavonoids, or a number of defense signalling molecules. A. thaliana lines were grown in a natural soil and maintained under greenhouse conditions for 4 weeks before collection of roots for bacterial and fungal community profiling. We found distinct relative abundances and diversities of bacterial and fungal communities assembled in the individual A. thaliana mutants compared to their parental lines. Bacterial and fungal genera were mostly enriched than depleted in secondary metabolite and defense signaling mutants, except for flavonoid mutations on fungi communities. Bacterial genera Azospirillum and Flavobacterium were significantly enriched in most of the glucosinolate, flavonoid and signalling mutants while the fungal taxa Sporobolomyces and Emericellopsis were enriched in several glucosinolates and signalling mutants. Whilst the present study revealed marked differences in microbiomes of Arabidopsis mutants and their parental lines, it is suggestive that unknown enzymatic and pleiotropic activities of the mutated genes could contribute to the identified host-associated microbiomes. Notwithstanding, this study revealed interesting gene-microbiota links, and thus represents valuable resource data for selecting candidate A. thaliana mutants for analyzing the links between host genetics and the associated microbiome.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259069
Author(s):  
Phuc Pham-Duc ◽  
Kavitha Sriparamananthan

Inappropriate use of antibiotics has been one of the main contributors to antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Southeast Asia. Different genders are prone to different antibiotic use practices. The objective of this scoping review is to understand the extent and type of evidence available on gender differences in antibiotic use across Southeast Asia. The search strategy for this scoping review involved PubMed, Semantic Scholar, BioMed Central and ProQuest. Two-level screening was applied to identify the final sample of relevant sources. Thematic content analysis was then conducted on the selected final sources to identify recurring themes related to gender differences in antibiotic use and a narrative account was developed based on the themes. Recommendations for next steps regarding reducing inappropriate antibiotic use and gender considerations that need to be made when developing future interventions were also identified. Research on gender and antibiotic use remains scarce. Studies that discuss gender within the context of antibiotic use often mention differences between males and females in knowledge, attitudes and/or behaviour, however, do not explore reasons for these differences. Gender differences in antibiotic use were generally examined in terms of: (i) knowledge of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance and (ii) practices related to antibiotic use. Evidence indicated that differences between males and females in knowledge and practices of antibiotic use varied greatly based on setting. This indicates that gender differences in antibiotic use are greatly contextual and intersect with other sociodemographic factors, particularly education and socioeconomic status. Educational interventions that are targeted to meet the specific needs of males and females and delivered through pharmacists and healthcare professionals were the most common recommendations for reducing inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community. Such targeted interventions require further qualitative research on factors influencing differences in knowledge and practices related to antibiotic use among males and females. In addition, there is also a need to strengthen monitoring and regulation practices to ensure accessibility to affordable, quality antibiotics through trusted sources.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259100
Author(s):  
Siyi Zhao ◽  
Yanqiao Zhu ◽  
Wenwen Liu ◽  
Xiaoshan Wang ◽  
Han Wang ◽  
...  

Excess copper (Cu) in soil due to industrial and agricultural practices can result in reduced plant growth. Excess Cu resulted in severely retarded root growth with severe discoloration of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Medicago truncatula. Growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide resulted in similar symptoms that could be partially recovered by the addition of the reductant ascorbic acid revealing damage was likely due to oxidative stress. The addition of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the presence of Cu prevented much of the damage, including plant growth and restoration of lignin synthesis which was inhibited in the presence of excess Cu. Transcriptome analyses of the impact of excess Cu and the amelioration after PAs treatment revealed that changes were enriched in functions associated with the cell wall and extracellular processes, indicating that inhibition of cell wall synthesis was likely the reason for retarded growth. Excess Cu appeared to induce a strong defense response, along with alterations in the expression of a number of genes encoding transcription factors, notably related to ethylene signaling. The addition of PAs greatly reduced this response, and also induced novel genes that likely help ameliorate the effects of excess Cu. These included induction of genes involved in the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis. Combined, these results show that excess Cu causes severe oxidative stress damage and inhibition of cell wall synthesis, which can be relieved by the addition of PAs.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259360
Author(s):  
Md. Alamgir Sarder ◽  
Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam ◽  
Md. Maniruzzaman ◽  
Ashis Talukder ◽  
Benojir Ahammed

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258937
Author(s):  
Abisola Balogun-Katung ◽  
Claire Carswell ◽  
Jennifer V. E. Brown ◽  
Peter Coventry ◽  
Ramzi Ajjan ◽  
...  

Background People living with severe mental illness (SMI) have a reduced life expectancy by around 15–20 years, in part due to higher rates of long-term conditions (LTCs) such as diabetes and heart disease. Evidence suggests that people with SMI experience difficulties managing their physical health. Little is known, however, about the barriers, facilitators and strategies for self-management of LTCs for people with SMI. Aim To systematically review and synthesise the qualitative evidence exploring facilitators, barriers and strategies for self-management of physical health in adults with SMI, both with and without long-term conditions. Methods CINAHL, Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science, HMIC, Medline, NICE Evidence and PsycInfo were searched to identify qualitative studies that explored barriers, facilitators and strategies for self-management in adults with SMI (with or without co-morbid LTCs). Articles were screened independently by two independent reviewers. Eligible studies were purposively sampled for synthesis according to the richness and relevance of data, and thematically synthesised. Results Seventy-four articles met the inclusion criteria for the review; 25 articles, reporting findings from 21 studies, were included in the synthesis. Seven studies focused on co-morbid LTC self-management for people with SMI, with the remaining articles exploring self-management in general. Six analytic themes and 28 sub-themes were identified from the synthesis. The themes included: the burden of SMI; living with co-morbidities; beliefs and attitudes about self-management; support from others for self-management; social and environmental factors; and routine, structure and planning. Conclusions The synthesis identified a range of barriers and facilitators to self-management, including the burden of living with SMI, social support, attitudes towards self-management and access to resources. To adequately support people with SMI with co-morbid LTCs, healthcare professionals need to account for how barriers and facilitators to self-management are influenced by SMI, and meet the unique needs of this population.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259057
Author(s):  
Martin Šefl ◽  
Joey Y. Zhou ◽  
Maia Avtandilashvili ◽  
Stacey L. McComish ◽  
Sergei Y. Tolmachev

Purpose Radiation dose estimates in epidemiology typically rely on intake predictions based on urine bioassay measurements. The purpose of this article is to compare the conventional dosimetric estimates for radiation epidemiology with the estimates based on additional post-mortem tissue radiochemical analysis results. Methods The comparison was performed on a unique group of 11 former Manhattan Project nuclear workers, who worked with plutonium in the 1940s, and voluntarily donated their bodies to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Results Post-mortem organ activities were predicted using different sets of urine data and compared to measured activities. Use of urinalysis data collected during the exposure periods overestimated the systemic (liver+skeleton) deposition of 239Pu by 155±134%, while the average bias from using post-exposure urinalyses was –4±50%. Committed effective doses estimated using early urine data differed from the best estimate by, on average, 196±193%; inclusion of follow-up urine measurements in analyses decreased the mean bias to 0.6±36.3%. Cumulative absorbed doses for the liver, red marrow, bone surface, and brain were calculated for the actual commitment period. Conclusion On average, post-exposure urine bioassay results were in good agreement with post-mortem tissue analyses and were more reliable than results of urine bioassays collected during the exposure.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258925
Author(s):  
Lauren A. Maggio ◽  
Anton Ninkov ◽  
Joseph A. Costello ◽  
Erik W. Driessen ◽  
Anthony R. Artino

Introduction Authors of knowledge syntheses make many subjective decisions during their review process. Those decisions, which are guided in part by author characteristics, can impact the conduct and conclusions of knowledge syntheses, which assimilate much of the evidence base in medical education. To better understand the evidence base, this study describes the characteristics of knowledge synthesis authors, focusing on gender, geography, and institution. Methods In 2020, the authors conducted meta-research to examine authors of 963 knowledge syntheses published between 1999 and 2019 in 14 core medical education journals. Results The authors identified 4,110 manuscript authors across all authorship positions. On average there were 4.3 authors per knowledge synthesis (SD = 2.51, Median = 4, Range = 1–22); 79 knowledge syntheses (8%) were single-author publications. Over time, the average number of authors per synthesis increased (M = 1.80 in 1999; M = 5.34 in 2019). Knowledge syntheses were authored by slightly more females (n = 2047; 50.5%) than males (n = 2005; 49.5%) across all author positions. Authors listed affiliations in 58 countries, and 58 knowledge syntheses (6%) included authors from low- or middle-income countries. Authors from the United States (n = 366; 38%), Canada (n = 233; 24%), and the United Kingdom (n = 180; 19%) published the most knowledge syntheses. Authors listed affiliation at 617 unique institutions, and first authors represented 362 unique institutions with greatest representation from University of Toronto (n = 55, 6%). Across all authorship positions, the large majority of knowledge syntheses (n = 753; 78%) included authors from institutions ranked in the top 200 globally. Conclusion Knowledge synthesis author teams have grown over the past 20 years, and while there is near gender parity across all author positions, authorship has been dominated by North American researchers located at highly ranked institutions. This suggests a potential overrepresentation of certain authors with particular characteristics, which may impact the conduct and conclusions of medical education knowledge syntheses.


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