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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

This paper presents a proposed Objective Function (OF) design using various routing metrics for improving the performance of IoT applications. The most important idea of the proposed design is the selection of the routing metrics with respect to the application requirements. The various metrics, such as Energy, Distance, Delay, Link quality, Trust (EDDLT) are used for improving the objective function design of the RPL in various IoT applications. Here, the Adaptive Deep rider LSTM is newly employed for the energy prediction where the Adaptive Deep Rider LSTM is devised by the combination of the adaptive theory with the Rider Adam Algorithm (RAA), and the Deep-Long Short Memory (Deep-LSTM). However, the evaluation of the proposed method is carried out energy dissipation, throughput, and delay by achieving a minimum energy dissipation of 0.549, maximum throughput of 1, and a minimum delay of 0.191, respectively.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ho-Kyoung Bae ◽  
Jae-Kang Lee ◽  
Tae-Kyung Eom ◽  
Dong-Ho Lee ◽  
Shin-Jae Rhim

2021 ◽  
Vol 84 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lisa K. Torres ◽  
Peter Pickkers ◽  
Tom van der Poll

Sepsis is expected to have a substantial impact on public health and cost as its prevalence increases. Factors contributing to increased prevalence include a progressively aging population, advances in the use of immunomodulatory agents to treat a rising number of diseases, and immune-suppressing therapies in organ transplant recipients and cancer patients. It is now recognized that sepsis is associated with profound and sustained immunosuppression, which has been implicated as a predisposing factor in the increased susceptibility of patients to secondary infections and mortality. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of sepsis-induced immunosuppression and biomarkers that identify a state of impaired immunity. We also highlight immune-enhancing strategies that have been evaluated in patients with sepsis, as well as therapeutics under current investigation. Finally, we describe future challenges and the need for a new treatment paradigm, integrating predictive enrichment with patient factors that may guide the future selection of tailored immunotherapy. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (5) ◽  
pp. 698-705
Author(s):  
V. V. Leontieva

The article presents the results of breeding work for the creation of new high-yielding varieties of bitter-aromatic hops with a high content of alpha-acids carried out in 2004-2020 in the Chuvash Republic on gray forest soils. The work was done by individual clonal selection of the best hop plants from the collection nursery. Seven high-yielding breeding numbers with a high alpha-acid content were selected from the collection nursery. After passing through all the stages of study in each of the appropriate nurseries from seven numbers, two clones were selected to create new varieties. Data were obtained on the parameters of the initial clonal breeding material, depending on weather conditions and the age of plantings. The selected clones (1-17 bitter-aromatic type and 6-26 bitter type) correspond to the specified indicators: collection of raw hops is not less than 4.0 kg from a bush, the duration of the growing period is 100-120 days, the content of alpha acids is not less than 5.0 %. Documentation on clone 1-17 was sent to the State Variety Commission for registration of a new variety Salampi. The variety is characterized by stable performance and quality indicators. The productivity of the variety is 30.0 c/ha (4.0 kg/bush) with a content of alphaacids of 9.3 %. The Podvyazny standard variety has 26.4 c/ha (3.5 kg/bush), the content of alpha-acids is 8.8 %. Testing of clone 6-26 will be continued to obtain complete and objective data.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samantha A. Barnes ◽  
Isabella Trew ◽  
Emma de Jong ◽  
Bree Foley

Over the past 20 years natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapies have emerged as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory leukemia. Unlike T cell-based therapies, NK cells harbor an innate capacity to eliminate malignant cells without prior sensitization and can be adoptively transferred between individuals without the need for extensive HLA matching. A wide variety of therapeutic NK cell sources are currently being investigated clinically, including allogeneic donor-derived NK cells, stem cell-derived NK cells and NK cell lines. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that not all NK cells are endowed with the same antitumor potential. Despite advances in techniques to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity and persistence, the initial identification and utilization of highly functional NK cells remains essential to ensure the future success of adoptive NK cell therapies. Indeed, little consideration has been given to the identification and selection of donors who harbor NK cells with potent antitumor activity. In this regard, there is currently no standard donor selection criteria for adoptive NK cell therapy. Here, we review our current understanding of the factors which govern NK cell functional fate, and propose a paradigm shift away from traditional phenotypic characterization of NK cell subsets towards a functional profile based on molecular and metabolic characteristics. We also discuss previous selection models for NK cell-based immunotherapies and highlight important considerations for the selection of optimal NK cell donors for future adoptive cell therapies.


Author(s):  
Per-Øyvind Torvik ◽  
Roland van den Tillaar ◽  
Guro Bostad ◽  
Øyvind Sandbakk

Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pole length on performance and technique selection during a simulated skating cross-country (XC) skiing competition on snow in female XC skiers. Methods Nine female XC skiers and biathletes (VO2max 63.6 ± 6.2 mL/min/kg, age 22.9 ± 3.5 years, body height 1.69 ± 0.1 m and body mass 60.8 ± 4.6 kg) completed two 5-km skating time-trail with maximal effort. The athletes had a minimum 4.5 h of rest between the two races, which were performed in a random order: one with self-selected poles (89.0% ± 0.6% of body height) and one with 7.5 cm increased pole length (94.0% ± 0.5% of body height). Speed in set terrain sections was determined and the selection of sub-technique was self-reported immediately after each race based on a detailed review of the entire track. Results Skiers performed on average 7.1 ± 7.1 s (P = 0.029) faster with the long poles, with this difference occurring during the first 200 m and in the uphill parts of the track, in which ~ 5% more G3 and ~ 5% fewer G2 sub-techniques were chosen (both P < 0.05). The rating of perceived exertion was 1 ± 0.9 point lower (P = 0.04) and skiing technique was perceived to be ~ 1.2 ± 1.5 points better with long poles (P = 0.038), while the physiological responses (i.e., peak and average heart rate, and blood lactate concentration) did not differ between trials. Conclusion In conclusion, poles 7.5 cm longer than self-selected ones improved performance in skating, by enhancing speed in the initial phase (first 200 m) and in the uphill section of the track. In addition, the longer poles induced more use of the G3 skating sub-technique.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 123-161
Author(s):  
Heike Baldauf-Quilliatre ◽  
Isabel Colón de Carvajal

This paper investigates situations in French videogame interactions where non-players who share the same physical space as players, participate in the gaming activities as spectators. Through a detailed multimodal and sequential analysis, we show that being a spectator is a local achievement of all co-present participants - players and non-players. Our argument is twofold. Firstly, we focus on three gaming interactions and connect the different configurations to the non-players’ participation practices. We analyse the development of the game, watching, commenting, gaze and body movements of players and non-players, as well as the configuration of the spatial environment are intertwined. Three different “ways of spectating” are identified: doing being a couple, doing being friends and doing being a supporter. Additionally, we describe a selection of embodied practices used to locally achieve these “ways of spectating”, indicating that spectatorship is co-constructed.


Author(s):  
Erin M. Masucci ◽  
Peter K. Relich ◽  
Melike Lakadamyali ◽  
E. Michael Ostap ◽  
Erika L. F. Holzbaur

Microtubules establish the directionality of intracellular transport by kinesins and dynein through polarized assembly, but it remains unclear how directed transport occurs along microtubules organized with mixed polarity. We investigated the ability of the plus-end directed kinesin-4 motor KIF21B to navigate mixed polarity microtubules in mammalian dendrites. Reconstitution assays with recombinant KIF21B and engineered microtubule bundles or extracted neuronal cytoskeletons indicate that nucleotide-independent microtubule binding regions of KIF21B modulate microtubule dynamics and promote directional switching on antiparallel microtubules. Optogenetic recruitment of KIF21B to organelles in live neurons induces unidirectional transport in axons but bi-directional transport with a net retrograde bias in dendrites. Removal of the secondary microtubule binding regions of KIF21B or dampening of microtubule dynamics with low concentrations of nocodazole eliminates retrograde bias in live dendrites. Further exploration of the contribution of microtubule dynamics in dendrites to directionality revealed plus-end-out microtubules to be more dynamic than plus-end-in microtubules, with nocodazole preferentially stabilizing the plus-end-out population. We propose a model in which both nucleotide-sensitive and insensitive microtubule binding sites of KIF21B motors contribute to the search and selection of stable plus-end-in microtubules within the mixed polarity microtubule arrays characteristic of mammalian dendrites to achieve net retrograde movement of KIF21B-bound cargos. [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text]


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Yuan Feng

In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in sports equipment, and their application in sportswear has also attracted wide attention. This research mainly discusses the application of nanomaterial antibacterial technology in the design of antibacterial fabrics for sports apparel. The method of adding nano-TiO2 to the antibacterial textiles varies with the type of fiber or fabric, and the finishing method also changes accordingly. For chemical fibers, the method of blending spinning is mainly used. By adding nano-antibacterial particles in the spinning solution, the polymer is ejected from the spinneret to make antibacterial fibers. This processing method is characterized by good antibacterial durability. The preparation of antimite finishing agent is mainly the dispersion of nanopowder. The selection of the best dispersant is mainly determined by measuring the change of the volume sedimentation rate of TiO2 after 5 days under different dosage and pH value of each dispersant. Then, the particle size of nano-TiO2 and Ag in different dispersing conditions was tested by TEM, and finally, the best dispersing agent and dispersing process were determined. The optimum of nano-antimite and antibacterial finishing agent is as follows: the dispersing agent is TW-80, the amount of anhydrous ethanol in dispersing medium is 5 times that of powder, the amount of dispersing agent is 1.5 times that of powder, the pH value is 7, and the stirring time is not less than 30 min. In the preparation of nano-antimite and antibacterial finishing agent, nanomaterials were used. The weight of nano-TiO2 powder was 20 grams and that of Ag was 20 grams. The dispersion medium (absolute ethanol) was 100 mL of dispersant. The amount of TW-80 was 30 g, the amount of citric acid was 60 g, the emulsion was very stable, and there was only a small amount of precipitation after being static for 5 days. Considering the characteristics of silk knitted fabric, this experiment uses the exhaustion method in the finishing process to finish the silk knitted fabric. After 50 times of washing, the antibacterial rate of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli reached 95.13% and 87.44%, respectively. This study provides guidance for the application of nanomaterials in the antibacterial field of sports clothing.


Author(s):  
Gail Lewis Phillips ◽  
Jun Guo ◽  
James R. Kiefer ◽  
William Proctor ◽  
Daniela Bumbaca Yadav ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Assessment of non-clinical safety signals relies on understanding species selectivity of antibodies. This is particularly important with antibody–drug conjugates, where it is key to determine target-dependent versus target-independent toxicity. Although it appears to be widely accepted that trastuzumab does not bind mouse or rat HER2/ErbB2/neu, numerous investigators continue to use mouse models to investigate safety signals of trastuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). We, therefore, conducted a broad array of both binding and biologic studies to demonstrate selectivity of trastuzumab for human HER2 versus mouse/rat neu. Methods Binding of anti-neu and anti-HER2 antibodies was assessed by ELISA, FACS, IHC, Scatchard, and immunoblot methods in human, rat, and mouse cell lines. In human hepatocytes, T-DM1 uptake and catabolism were measured by LC-MS/MS; cell viability changes were determined using CellTiter-Glo. Results Our data demonstrate, using different binding methods, lack of trastuzumab binding to rat or mouse neu. Structural studies show important amino acid differences in the trastuzumab-HER2 binding interface between mouse/rat and human HER2 ECD. Substitution of these rodent amino acid residues into human HER2 abolish binding of trastuzumab. Cell viability changes, uptake, and catabolism of T-DM1 versus a DM1 non-targeted control ADC were comparable, indicating target-independent effects of the DM1-containing ADCs. Moreover, trastuzumab binding to human or mouse hepatocytes was not detected. Conclusions These data, in total, demonstrate that trastuzumab, and by extension T-DM1, do not bind rat or mouse neu, underscoring the importance of species selection for safety studies investigating trastuzumab or trastuzumab-based therapeutics.


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