How we treat HER2-positive brain metastases

ESMO Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (5) ◽  
pp. 100256
E. Stavrou ◽  
E.P. Winer ◽  
N.U. Lin
2014 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 912-913 ◽  
S. Gori ◽  
G. Lunardi ◽  
A. Inno ◽  
J. Foglietta ◽  
B. Cardinali ◽  

2019 ◽  
Vol 1 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. i9-i9
Jose Pablo Leone ◽  
Lorenzo Trippa ◽  
Lindsey Milisits ◽  
Chelsea Andrews ◽  
Jennifer Ligibel ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND: The PI3K/Akt/mTOR is an important pathway in BCBM. Mutations in PIK3CA or PTEN loss are associated with trastuzumab resistance. Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR led to durable responses in 3 of 5 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) models of BCBM. GDC-0084 is a potent, brain-penetrant inhibitor of class I PI3K and mTOR. METHODS: This is a single-center, phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of GDC-0084 with trastuzumab for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Patients will receive GDC-0084 (45 mg daily) and trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks). Two cohorts will be enrolled: Cohort A: a single-arm, two-stage, phase II cohort; and Cohort B: a pre-surgical window cohort. Inclusion criteria include unequivocal evidence of new and/or progressive HER2-positive CNS metastases, at least one measurable (≥10 mm) CNS metastasis (Cohort A), clinical indication for CNS metastasis resection (Cohort B). Primary endpoint for Cohort A is objective response rate (ORR) in the CNS per Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) criteria. For Cohort B, the primary endpoint is the correlation between p4EBP1 levels in the resected CNS tumor tissue from patients and intracranial response to GDC-0084/trastuzumab in the PDX model generated from the same patient. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, safety and patient-reported outcomes. Mandatory blood and cerebrospinal fluid with optional tumor biopsy will be collected at baseline, on-treatment and at progression. In Cohort A, we will enroll 37 patients in a Simon two-stage design. If ≥4 responses are seen, the regimen will be considered successful. This design has 90% power with alpha < 10%. Cohort B will enroll 10 patients. The trial opened in February, 2019. NCT03765983.

2020 ◽  
Vol 26 (7) ◽  
pp. 1370-1371
Sonia Silipigni ◽  
Edy Ippolito ◽  
Paolo Matteucci ◽  
Bianca Santo ◽  
Emma Gangemi ◽  

ESMO Open ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. e000253 ◽  
Giulia Siravegna ◽  
Elena Geuna ◽  
Benedetta Mussolin ◽  
Giovanni Crisafulli ◽  
Alice Bartolini ◽  

2016 ◽  
Vol 34 (9) ◽  
pp. 945-952 ◽  
Rachel A. Freedman ◽  
Rebecca S. Gelman ◽  
Jeffrey S. Wefel ◽  
Michelle E. Melisko ◽  
Kenneth R. Hess ◽  

Purpose Evidence-based treatments for metastatic, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancer in the CNS are limited. Neratinib is an irreversible inhibitor of erbB1, HER2, and erbB4, with promising activity in HER2-positive breast cancer; however, its activity in the CNS is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with neratinib in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases in a multicenter, phase II open-label trial. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were those with HER2-positive brain metastases (≥ 1 cm in longest dimension) who experienced progression in the CNS after one or more line of CNS-directed therapy, such as whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and/or surgical resection. Patients received neratinib 240 mg orally once per day, and tumors were assessed every two cycles. The primary endpoint was composite CNS objective response rate (ORR), requiring all of the following: ≥50% reduction in volumetric sum of target CNS lesions and no progression of non-target lesions, new lesions, escalating corticosteroids, progressive neurologic signs/symptoms, or non-CNS progression—the threshold for success was five of 40 responders. Results Forty patients were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013; 78% of patients had previous whole-brain radiotherapy. Three women achieved a partial response (CNS objective response rate, 8%; 95% CI, 2% to 22%). The median number of cycles received was two (range, one to seven cycles), with a median progression-free survival of 1.9 months. Five women received six or more cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 event was diarrhea (occurring in 21% of patients taking prespecified loperamide prophylaxis and 28% of those without prophylaxis). Patients in the study experienced a decreased quality of life over time. Conclusion Although neratinib had low activity and did not meet our threshold for success, 12.5% of patients received six or more cycles. Studies combining neratinib with chemotherapy in patients with CNS disease are ongoing.

2020 ◽  
Vol 38 (23) ◽  
pp. 2610-2619 ◽  
Nancy U. Lin ◽  
Virginia Borges ◽  
Carey Anders ◽  
Rashmi K. Murthy ◽  
Elisavet Paplomata ◽  

PURPOSE In the HER2CLIMB study, patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancer with brain metastases (BMs) showed statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) with tucatinib. We describe exploratory analyses of intracranial efficacy and survival in participants with BMs. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to tucatinib or placebo, in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine. All patients underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging; those with BMs were classified as active or stable. Efficacy analyses were performed by applying RECIST 1.1 criteria to CNS target lesions by investigator assessment. CNS-PFS (intracranial progression or death) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in all patients with BMs. Confirmed intracranial objective response rate (ORR-IC) was evaluated in patients with measurable intracranial disease. RESULTS There were 291 patients with BMs: 198 (48%) in the tucatinib arm and 93 (46%) in the control arm. The risk of intracranial progression or death was reduced by 68% in the tucatinib arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.48; P < .0001). Median CNS-PFS was 9.9 months in the tucatinib arm versus 4.2 months in the control arm. Risk of death was reduced by 42% in the tucatinib arm (OS HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.85; P = .005). Median OS was 18.1 versus 12.0 months. ORR-IC was higher in the tucatinib arm (47.3%; 95% CI, 33.7% to 61.2%) versus the control arm (20.0%; 95% CI, 5.7% to 43.7%; P = .03). CONCLUSION In patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with BMs, the addition of tucatinib to trastuzumab and capecitabine doubled ORR-IC, reduced risk of intracranial progression or death by two thirds, and reduced risk of death by nearly half. To our knowledge, this is the first regimen to demonstrate improved antitumor activity against BMs in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in a randomized, controlled trial.

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