phase 2
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Paul Frankel ◽  
Chris Ruel ◽  
An Uche ◽  
Edwin Choy ◽  
Scott Okuno ◽  

Background. This single-arm, multicenter, phase 2 study evaluated the safety and antitumor activity of pazopanib in patients with unresectable, pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma. Patients and Methods. Patients with pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma unresponsive to chemotherapy were eligible. Patients who received prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy were excluded. Pazopanib at 800 mg once daily was administered for 28-day cycles. Tumor responses were evaluated by local radiology assessment 1 month prior to and after initiation of treatment to calculate tumor doubling time and after every even numbered cycle. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival at 4 months, concomitant with a demonstrated 30% increase in tumor doubling time relative to the pretreatment growth rate. Results. 12 patients (7 female) were enrolled. The study was terminated prematurely due to withdrawal of financial support by the sponsor. 8 subjects were eligible for the primary analysis, whereas 4 patients were in a predefined exploratory “slow-growing” cohort. In the “fast-growing” cohort, 3 of the 8 patients (37.5%) eligible for first-stage analysis were deemed “success” by the preplanned criteria, adequate to proceed to second-stage accrual. In addition, 1 of the 4 patients in the “slow-growing” cohort experienced a partial remission. Grade 1-2 diarrhea was the most common adverse event, and grade 3 events were infrequent. Conclusion. This study illustrates a novel method of demonstrating positive drug activity in osteosarcoma by increasing tumor doubling time, and this is further supported by a partial response in a patient with “slow-growing” disease. This trial is registered with NCT01759303.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. e1130
Thomas E. Williams ◽  
Katherine P. Holdsworth ◽  
Jennifer M. Nicholas ◽  
Arman Eshaghi ◽  
Theodora Katsanouli ◽  

Background and ObjectivesImproved biomarkers of neuroprotective treatment are needed in progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) to facilitate more efficient phase 2 trial design. The MS-STAT randomized controlled trial supported the neuroprotective potential of high-dose simvastatin in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Here, we analyze serum from the MS-STAT trial to assess the extent to which neurofilament light (NfL) and neurofilament heavy (NfH), both promising biomarkers of neuroaxonal injury, may act as biomarkers of simvastatin treatment in SPMS.MethodsThe MS-STAT trial randomized patients to 80 mg simvastatin or placebo. Serum was analyzed for NfL and NfH using Simoa technology. We used linear mixed models to investigate the treatment effects of simvastatin compared with placebo on NfL and NfH. Additional models examined the relationships between neurofilaments and MRI and clinical measures of disease severity.ResultsA total of 140 patients with SPMS were included. There was no evidence for a simvastatin treatment effect on NfL or NfH: compared with placebo, NfL was 1.2% lower (95% CI 10.6% lower to 9.2% higher; p = 0.820) and NfH was 0.4% lower (95% CI 18.4% lower to 21.6% higher; p = 0.969) in the simvastatin treatment group. Secondary analyses suggested that higher NfL was associated with greater subsequent whole brain atrophy, higher T2 lesion volume, and more new/enlarging T2 lesions in the previous 12 months, as well as greater physical disability. There were no significant associations between NfH and MRI or clinical variables.DiscussionWe found no evidence of a simvastatin treatment effect on serum neurofilaments. While confirmation of the neuroprotective benefits of simvastatin is awaited from the ongoing phase 3 study (NCT03387670), our results suggest that treatments capable of slowing the rate of whole brain atrophy in SPMS, such as simvastatin, may act via mechanisms largely independent of neuroaxonal injury, as quantified by NfL. This has important implications for the design of future phase 2 clinical trials in PMS.Trial Registration InformationMS-STAT: NCT00647348.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides class I evidence that simvastatin treatment does not have a large impact on either serum NfL or NfH, as quantified in this study, in SPMS.

Diamant Thaçi ◽  
Bruce Strober ◽  
Kenneth B. Gordon ◽  
Peter Foley ◽  
Melinda Gooderham ◽  

L. A. Godoi ◽  
B. C. Silva ◽  
G. A. P. Souza ◽  
B. C. Lage ◽  
D. Zanetti ◽  

Abstract This study aims to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) content of early-weaned calves; and the influence of flint maize processing methods on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities and performance of Nellore heifer calves. Fifteen early-weaned Nellore female calves (4 ± 0.5 months; 108 ± 13.1 kg) were used. In phase 1, animals were fed one of the following diets for 112 days: 130, 145 or 160 g CP/kg dry matter (DM). In phase 2, animals received one of the two diets for 84 days: 0.60 dry ground maize grain, 0.30 whole-plant maize silage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement or 0.90 snaplage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement. In phase 1, intake and digestibility of dietary components were not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary CP content. Daily total urinary nitrogen (N) and urinary urea N increased (P < 0.05) in response to increasing dietary CP content. Animal performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary CP content. In phase 2, maize processing methods did not affect (P > 0.05) intake and digestibility of dietary components as well as animal performance, carcase characteristics and carcase composition. Therefore, based on the current experimental condition, we conclude that dietary CP concentrations of 130 g/kg DM can be indicated for early-weaned Nellore calves. However, more studies are recommended to validate this result and to evaluate concentrations below 130 g CP/kg DM for early-weaned Nellore calves. Moreover, snaplage could be used as an exclusive fibre and energy source for finishing cattle in feedlot.

2022 ◽  
Vittorio Stefoni ◽  
Cinzia Pellegrini ◽  
Lisa Argnani ◽  
Paolo Corradini ◽  
Anna Dodero ◽  

Loretta J. Nastoupil ◽  
Collin K Chin ◽  
Jason R Westin ◽  
Nathan H Fowler ◽  
Felipe Samaniego ◽  

PD-1 blockade enhances the function of anti-tumor T-cells and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells. In a single-center, open-label, phase 2 trial, we tested the combination of pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody and rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that induces ADCC, in 30 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients with rituximab-sensitive disease who relapsed after ≥1 prior therapy. Pembrolizumab was administered at 200mg IV every 3 weeks for up to 16 cycles and rituximab was given at 375mg/m2 IV weekly for 4 weeks in cycle 1 only. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events (AE) were liver enzyme abnormalities (3%), diarrhea (3%), nausea (3%), aseptic meningitis (3%) and pancreatitis (3%). Low-grade immune-related AEs were reported for 80% of patients, including diarrhea (43%), liver enzyme abnormalities (33%), thyroid dysfunction (27%), and rash (23%). Grade 3 or 4 immune related AEs occurred in 13% of patients. Treatment-related AEs led to discontinuation in 6 (20%) patients. Overall response rate (primary endpoint) was 67% and complete response rate was 50%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12.6 months (95% CI, 8.2-27.6 months), the 3-year overall survival rate was 97%, and 23% of patients were in remission at a median follow up of 35 months. Presence of a high CD8+ T-effector score at baseline in the tumor was associated with induction of a complete response and improved PFS. In this single arm, phase 2 study, the combination of pembrolizumab and rituximab demonstrates favorable efficacy and safety profile in relapsed FL. This trial is registered at NCT02446457.

Allergy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sayantani B. Sindher ◽  
Divya Kumar ◽  
Shu Cao ◽  
Natasha Purington ◽  
Andrew Long ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Aleksandar Radosevic ◽  
Rita Quesada ◽  
Clara Serlavos ◽  
Juan Sánchez ◽  
Ander Zugazaga ◽  

AbstractMicrowave (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are main ablative techniques for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal liver metastasis (MT). This randomized phase 2 clinical trial compares the effectiveness of MWA and RFA as well as morphology of corresponding ablation zones. HCC and MT patients with 1.5–4 cm tumors, suitable for ablation, were randomized into MWA or RFA Groups. The primary endpoint was short-to-long diameter ratio of ablation zone (SLR). Primary technical success (TS) and a cumulative local tumor progression (LTP) after a median 2-year follow-up were compared. Between June 2015 and April 2020, 82 patients were randomly assigned (41 patients per group). For the per-protocol analysis, five patients were excluded. MWA created larger ablation zones than RFA (p = 0.036) although without differences in SLR (0.5 for both groups, p = 0.229). The TS was achieved in 98% (46/47) and 90% (45/50) (p = 0.108), and LTP was observed in 21% (10/47) vs. 12% (6/50) (OR 1.9 [95% CI 0.66–5.3], p = 0.238) of tumors in MWA vs. RFA Group, respectively. Major complications were found in 5 cases (11%) vs. 2 cases (4%), without statistical significance. MWA and RFA show similar SLR, effectiveness and safety in liver tumors between 1.5 and 4 cm.

2022 ◽  
Krishna Mohan Vadrevu ◽  
Brunda Ganneru ◽  
Siddharth Reddy ◽  
Harsh Jogdand ◽  
Raju Dugyala ◽  

Background: Neutralising antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been reported to decline within 6 months of vaccination, particularly against Variants of Concern (VOC). We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of BBV152 administered 6 months after the second of a two-dose primary vaccination series. Methods: In an ongoing phase 2 trial ( NCT04471519) the protocol was amended after six months to re-consent and randomise 184 previously vaccinated participants to receive a third dose of vaccine or placebo on Day 215. The primary outcome was to measure neutralising antibody titres by plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT50) four weeks after the booster; safety as serious adverse events (SAE) was the key secondary outcome. Findings: Four weeks after a second BBV152 vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies were 197.0 PRNT50 (95% CI: 155.6,249.4); this level declined to 23.9 PRNT50 (14.0,40.6) six months later, with a seroconversion rate of 75.4% (95% CI: 68.4,81.6). Four weeks after booster vaccination the GMT increased on Day 243 to 746.6 PRNT50 (514.9,1081) compared with 100.7 PRNT50 (43.6,232.6) in the placebo group. Corresponding seroconversion rates were 98.7% (92.8,99.9) and 79.8% (69.6,87.8). Increased titres in the placebo group were attributed to natural infection as the study was conducted during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. PRNT50 titres against the SARS-CoV-2 variants increased Alpha (32.6 fold), Beta (161.0 fold), Delta (264.7 fold), and Delta plus (174.2 fold) after the booster vaccination. We found that vaccine induces both memory B and T cells with a distinct AIM+ specific CD4+T central and effector memory phenotype, including CD8+ TEMRA phenotype. Reactogenicity after vaccine and placebo was minimal and comparable, and no SAEs were reported. Interpretation: Six months after a two dose BBV152 vaccination series cell mediated immunity and neutralising antibodies to both homologous (D614G) and heterologous strains (Alpha, Beta, Delta and Delta plus) persisted above baseline, although the magnitude of the responses had declined. Neutralising antibodies against homologous and heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants increased 19 to 97 fold after a third vaccination. Booster BBV152 vaccination is safe and may be necessary to ensure persistent immunity to prevent breakthrough infections.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document