Journal of Clinical Oncology
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Published By American Society Of Clinical Oncology

1527-7755, 0732-183x
Updated Thursday, 28 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (31) ◽  
pp. 3525-3525

Author(s):  
Robert L. Ferris ◽  
Yael Flamand ◽  
Gregory S. Weinstein ◽  
Shuli Li ◽  
Harry Quon ◽  
...  

PURPOSE Definitive or postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) is curative for human papillomavirus–associated (HPV+) oropharynx cancer (OPC) but induces significant toxicity. As a deintensification strategy, we studied primary transoral surgery (TOS) and reduced postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate-risk HPV+ OPC. METHODS E3311 is a phase II randomized trial of reduced- or standard-dose postoperative RT for resected stage III-IVa (American Joint Committee on Cancer-seventh edition) HPV+ OPC, determined by pathologic parameters. Primary goals were feasibility of prospective multi-institutional study of TOS for HPV+ OPC, and oncologic efficacy (2-year progression-free survival) of TOS and adjuvant therapy in intermediate-risk patients after resection. TOS plus 50 Gy was considered promising if the lower limit of the exact 90% binomial confidence intervals exceeded 85%. Quality of life and swallowing were measured by functional assessment of cancer therapy-head and neck and MD Anderson Dysphagia Index. RESULTS Credentialed surgeons performed TOS for 495 patients. Eligible and treated patients were assigned as follows: arm A (low risk, n = 38) enrolled 11%, intermediate risk arms B (50 Gy, n = 100) or C (60 Gy, n = 108) randomly allocated 58%, and arm D (high risk, n = 113) enrolled 31%. With a median 35.2-month follow-up for 359 evaluable (eligible and treated) patients, 2-year progression-free survival Kaplan-Meier estimate is 96.9% (90% CI, 91.9 to 100) for arm A (observation), 94.9% (90% CI, 91.3 to 98.6]) for arm B (50 Gy), 96.0% (90% CI, 92.8 to 99.3) for arm C (60 Gy), and 90.7% (90% CI, 86.2 to 95.4) for arm D (66 Gy plus weekly cisplatin). Treatment arm distribution and oncologic outcome for ineligible or step 2 untreated patients (n = 136) mirrored the 359 evaluable patients. Exploratory comparison of functional assessment of cancer therapy-head and neck total scores between arms B and C is presented. CONCLUSION Primary TOS and reduced postoperative RT result in outstanding oncologic outcome and favorable functional outcomes in intermediate-risk HPV+ OPC.


Author(s):  
Randy A. Vince ◽  
Nicholas W. Eyrich ◽  
Brandon A. Mahal ◽  
Kristian Stensland ◽  
Edward M. Schaeffer ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Emily E. Johnston ◽  
Isaac Martinez ◽  
Elizabeth S. Davis ◽  
Caroline Caudill ◽  
Joshua Richman ◽  
...  

PURPOSE The Pediatric Oncology COVID-19 Case Report registry supplies pediatric oncologists with data surrounding the clinical course and outcomes in children with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. METHODS This observational study captured clinical and sociodemographic characteristics for children (≤ 21 years) receiving cancer therapy and infected with SARS-CoV-2 from the pandemic onset through February 19, 2021. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort were compared with population-level pediatric oncology data (SEER). Multivariable binomial regression models evaluated patient characteristics associated with hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and changes in cancer therapy. RESULTS Ninety-four institutions contributed details on 917 children with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. Median age at SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11 years (range, 0-21 years). Compared with SEER, there was an over-representation of Hispanics (43.6% v 29.7%, P < .01), publicly insured (59.3% v 33.5%, P < .01), and patients with hematologic malignancies (65.8% v 38.3%, P < .01) in our cohort. The majority (64.1%) were symptomatic; 31.2% were hospitalized, 10.9% required respiratory support, 9.2% were admitted to the ICU, and 1.6% died because of SARS-CoV-2. Cancer therapy was modified in 44.9%. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with changes in cancer-directed therapy (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6]). Presence of comorbidities was associated with hospitalization (aRR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) and ICU admission (aRR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.6). Hematologic malignancies were associated with hospitalization (aRR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.1). CONCLUSION These findings provide critical information for decision making among pediatric oncologists, including inpatient versus outpatient management, cancer therapy modifications, consideration of monoclonal antibody therapy, and counseling families on infection risks in the setting of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The over-representation of Hispanic and publicly insured patients in this national cohort suggests disparities that require attention.


Author(s):  
Siddhartha Yadav ◽  
Chunling Hu ◽  
Katherine L. Nathanson ◽  
Jeffrey N. Weitzel ◽  
David E. Goldgar ◽  
...  

PURPOSE To determine the contribution of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in hereditary cancer testing panel genes to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 2,999 women with ILC from a population-based cohort and 3,796 women with ILC undergoing clinical multigene panel testing (clinical cohort). Frequencies of germline PVs in breast cancer predisposition genes ( ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2, PTEN, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were compared between women with ILC and unaffected female controls and between women with ILC and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). RESULTS The frequency of PVs in breast cancer predisposition genes among women with ILC was 6.5% in the clinical cohort and 5.2% in the population-based cohort. In case-control analysis, CDH1 and BRCA2 PVs were associated with high risks of ILC (odds ratio [OR] > 4) and CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PVs were associated with moderate (OR = 2-4) risks. BRCA1 PVs and CHEK2 p.Ile157Thr were not associated with clinically relevant risks (OR < 2) of ILC. Compared with IDC, CDH1 PVs were > 10-fold enriched, whereas PVs in BRCA1 were substantially reduced in ILC. CONCLUSION The study establishes that PVs in ATM, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, and PALB2 are associated with an increased risk of ILC, whereas BRCA1 PVs are not. The similar overall PV frequencies for ILC and IDC suggest that cancer histology should not influence the decision to proceed with genetic testing. Similar to IDC, multigene panel testing may be appropriate for women with ILC, but CDH1 should be specifically discussed because of low prevalence and gastric cancer risk.


Author(s):  
Jean marc Phelip ◽  
Jérôme Desrame ◽  
Julien Edeline ◽  
Emilie Barbier ◽  
Eric Terrebonne ◽  
...  

PURPOSE Whether triplet chemotherapy is superior to doublet chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) is unknown. METHODS In this open-label, randomized phase II-III study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic BTC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and infusional fluorouracil (mFOLFIRINOX), or cisplatin and gemcitabine (CISGEM) for a maximum of 6 months. We report the results of the phase II part, where the primary end point was the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate among the patients who received at least one dose of treatment (modified intention-to-treat population) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (statistical assumptions: 6-month PFS rate ≥ 59%, 73% expected). RESULTS A total of 191 patients (modified intention-to-treat population, 185: mFOLFIRINOX, 92; CISGEM, 93) were randomly assigned in 43 French centers. After a median follow-up of 21 months, the 6-month PFS rate was 44.6% (90% CI, 35.7 to 53.7) in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 47.3% (90% CI, 38.4 to 56.3) in the CISGEM arm. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 7.8) in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 7.4 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 8.7) in the CISGEM arm. Median overall survival was 11.7 months (95% CI, 9.5 to 14.2) in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 13.8 months (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.1) in the CISGEM arm. Adverse events ≥ grade 3 occurred in 72.8% of patients in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 72.0% of patients in the CISGEM arm (toxic deaths: mFOLFIRINOX arm, two; CISGEM arm, one). CONCLUSION mFOLFIRINOX triplet chemotherapy did not meet the primary study end point. CISGEM doublet chemotherapy remains the first-line standard in advanced BTC.


Author(s):  
Foluso O. Ademuyiwa ◽  
Patricia Salyer ◽  
Yu Tao ◽  
Jingqin Luo ◽  
Whitney L. Hensing ◽  
...  

PURPOSE To determine if physicians' self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding genetic counseling and testing (GCT) vary by patients' race. METHODS We conducted a nationwide 49-item survey among breast oncology physicians in the United States. We queried respondents about their own demographics, clinical characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived barriers in providing GCT to patients with breast cancer. RESULTS Our survey included responses from 277 physicians (females, 58.8%; medical oncologists, 75.1%; academic physicians, 61.7%; and Whites, 67.1%). Only 1.8% indicated that they were more likely to refer a White patient than refer an African American patient for GCT, and 66.9% believed that African American women with breast cancer have lower rates of GCT than White women. Regarding perceived barriers to GCT, 63.4% of respondents indicated that African American women face more barriers than White women do and 21% felt that African American women require more information and guidance during the GCT decision-making process than White women. Although 32% of respondents indicated that lack of trust was a barrier to GCT in all patients, 58.1% felt that this was a greater barrier for African American women ( P < .0001). Only 13.9% believed that noncompliance with GCT is a barrier for all patients, whereas 30.6% believed that African American women are more likely than White women to be noncompliant ( P < .0001). CONCLUSION We demonstrated that racial differences exist in oncology physicians' perceived barriers to GCT for patients with breast cancer. This nationwide survey will serve as a basis for understanding physicians' determinants of GCT for African American women and highlights the necessity of education and interventions to address bias among physicians. Awareness of such physician biases can enable further work to address inequities, ultimately leading to improved GCT equity for African American women with breast cancer.


Author(s):  
Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin ◽  
Aaron M. Goodman ◽  
Kevin Knopf
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Patrick J. Leavey ◽  
Nadia N. Laack ◽  
Mark D. Krailo ◽  
Allen Buxton ◽  
R. Lor Randall ◽  
...  

PURPOSE The primary aim of this phase III randomized trial was to test whether the addition of vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide (VTC) to interval compressed chemotherapy improved survival outcomes for patients with previously untreated nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma. METHODS Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard five-drug interval compressed chemotherapy (regimen A) for 17 cycles or experimental therapy with five cycles of VTC within the 17 cycles (regimen B). Patients were stratified by age at diagnosis (< 18 years and ≥18 years) and tumor site (pelvic bone, nonpelvic bone, and extraosseous). Tumor volume at diagnosis was categorized as < 200 mL or ≥ 200 mL. Local control occurred following six cycles. Histologic response was categorized as no viable or any viable tumor. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between randomized groups with stratified log-rank tests. RESULTS Of 642 enrolled patients, 309 eligible patients received standard and 320 received experimental therapy. The 5-year EFS and OS were 78% and 87%, respectively. There was no difference in survival outcomes between randomized groups (5-year EFS regimen A v regimen B, 78% v 79%; P = .192; 5-year OS 86% v 88%; P = .159). Age and primary site did not affect the risk of an EFS event. However, age ≥ 18 years was associated with an increased risk of death at 5 years (hazard ratio 1.84; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.96; P = .009). The 5-year EFS rates for patients with pelvic, nonpelvic bone, and extraosseous primary tumors were 75%, 78%, and 85%, respectively. Tumor volume ≥ 200 mL was significantly associated with lower EFS. CONCLUSION While VTC added to five-drug interval compressed chemotherapy did not improve survival, these outcomes represent the best survival estimates to date for patients with previously untreated nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma.


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