Breast Cancer Patients
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Zhiqi Yang ◽  
Xiaofeng Chen ◽  
Tianhui Zhang ◽  
Fengyan Cheng ◽  
Yuting Liao ◽  

ObjectivesTo assess breast cancer receptor status and molecular subtypes by using the CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST-VIBE and readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging techniques.MethodsA total of 165 breast cancer patients were retrospectively recruited. Patient age, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factorreceptor-2 (HER-2) status, and the Ki-67 proliferation index were collected for analysis. Quantitative parameters (Ktrans, Ve, Kep), semiquantitative parameters (W-in, W-out, TTP), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared in relation to breast cancer receptor status and molecular subtypes. Statistical analysis were performed to compare the parameters in the receptor status and molecular subtype groups.Multivariate analysis was performed to explore confounder-adjusted associations, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the classification performance and calculate thresholds.ResultsYounger age (<49.5 years, odds ratio (OR) =0.95, P=0.004), lower Kep (<0.704,OR=0.14, P=0.044),and higher TTP (>0.629 min, OR=24.65, P=0.011) were independently associated with progesterone receptor positivity. A higher TTP (>0.585 min, OR=28.19, P=0.01) was independently associated with estrogen receptor positivity. Higher Kep (>0.892, OR=11.6, P=0.047), lower TTP (<0.582 min, OR<0.001, P=0.004), and lower ADC (<0.719 ×10-3 mm2/s, OR<0.001, P=0.048) had stronger independent associations with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A, and those parameters could differentiate TNBC from luminal A with the highest AUC of 0.811.ConclusionsKep and TTP were independently associated with hormone receptor status. In addition, the Kep, TTP, and ADC values had stronger independent associations with TNBC than with luminal A and could be used as imaging biomarkers for differentiate TNBC from Luminal A.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yomna Zamzam ◽  
Yosra Abdelmonem Zamzam ◽  
Marwa Aboalsoud ◽  
Heba Harras

Background. Despite the undeniable benefit of tamoxifen therapy for ER-positive breast cancer patients, approximately one-third of those patients either do not respond to tamoxifen or develop resistance. Thus, it is a crucial step to identify novel, reliable, and easily detectable biomarkers indicating resistance to this drug. Objective. The aim of this work is to explore SOX2 and AGR2 biomarker expression in the tumor tissue of ER-positive breast cancer patients in combination with the evaluation of serum AGR2 level of these patients in order to validate these biomarkers as early predictors of tamoxifen resistance. Methods. This study was conducted on 224 ER-positive breast cancer patients. All patients were primarily subjected to serum AGR2 levelling by ELISA and their breast cancer tissue immunostained for SOX2 and AGR2. After 5 years of follow-up, the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 was tamoxifen sensitive and groups 2 and 3 were tamoxifen resistant. Time to failure of tamoxifen treatment was considered the time from the beginning of tamoxifen therapy to the time of discovery of breast cancer recurrence or metastases (in months). Results. SOX2 and AGR2 biomarkers expression and serum AGR2 level were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 in comparison to group 1, while the relationship between Her2 neu expression and Ki67 index in the 3 different groups was statistically nonsignificant. Lower SOX2 and AGR2 expression and low AGR2 serum levels in the studied patients of groups 2 and 3 were significantly associated with longer time-to-failure of tamoxifen treatment. According to the ROC curve, the combined use of studied markers validity was with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 96%, PPV 96%, and NPV 100% ( p < 0.001 ; AUC: 0.984). Conclusions. Integrated use of SOX2 and AGR2 biomarkers with serum AGR2 assay holds a promising hope for their future use as predictive markers for early detection of tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer patients.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4619
Rocío Ramos-Medina ◽  
Sara López-Tarruella ◽  
María del Monte-Millán ◽  
Tatiana Massarrah ◽  
Miguel Martín

Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Tissue biopsy, currently the gold standard to obtain tumor molecular information, is invasive and might be affected by tumor heterogeneity rendering it incapable to portray the complete dynamic picture by the absence of specific genetic changes during the evolution of the disease. In contrast, liquid biopsy can provide unique opportunities for real-time monitoring of disease progression, treatment response and for studying tumor heterogeneity combining the information of DNA that tumors spread in the blood (circulating tumor DNA) with CTCs analysis. In this review, we analyze the technical and biological challenges for isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells from breast cancer patients. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration value is included in numerous clinical studies due to the prognostic’s role of these cells. Despite this, there are so many questions pending to answer. How to manage lymphocytes background, how to distinguish the CTCs subtypes or how to work with frozen samples, are some of the issues that will discuss in this review. Based on our experience, we try to address these issues and other technical limitations that should be solved to optimize the standardization of protocols, sample extraction procedures, circulating-tumor material isolation (CTCs vs. ctDNA) and the very diverse methodologies employed, aiming to consolidate the use of CTCs in the clinic. Furthermore, we think that new approaches focusing on isolation CTCs in other body fluids such as cerebrospinal or ascitic fluid are necessary to increase the opportunities of circulating tumor cells in the practice clinic as well as to study the promising role of CTC clusters and their prognostic value in metastatic breast cancer.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xiaodan Zhang ◽  
Xiaocong Pang ◽  
Zhuo Zhang ◽  
Qianxin Liu ◽  
Hanxu Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Current treatment methods for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are very limited, and the prognosis of TNBC is relatively poor. It has been reported that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is overexpressed in breast cancer cells; however, its association with the prognosis is mostly unclear. Moreover, retinoblastoma gene 1 (RB1) might be used as a biomarker for the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to GLUT1 inhibitors, which brought us to the hypothesis that there might be a close correlation between the expression of GLUT1–4 and the expression of RB1. Methods In this study, we systematically analyzed the co-expression of GLUT1–4 and the influence of GLUT1–4 gene expression on the prognosis of breast cancer using data mining methods. We also explored possible relationships between GLUT1–4 and RB1 expression in breast cancer tissues. We used public databases such as ONCOMINE, GEPIA, LinkedOmics, and COEXPEDIA. Results According to the results, the mRNA expression of SLC2A1 was significantly higher in breast cancer, while the expression levels of SLC2A2–4 were downregulated. The results also indicate that GLUT1 expression does not have significant influence on the overall survival of patients with breast cancer. The mRNA expression of SLC2A1 and RB1 is significantly correlated, which means that tissues with high RB1 mRNA expression might have relatively higher mRNA expression of SLC2A1; however, further study analyzing their roles in the expression regulation pathways with human samples is needed to verify the hypothesis. Conclusions The mRNA expression of SLC2A1 was significantly higher in breast cancer. The overall survival of breast cancer patients wasn’t significantly correlated with GLUT1–4 expression. The mRNA expression of SLC2A1 and RB1 is significantly correlated according to the analysis conducted in LinkedOmics. It provides reference for future possible individualized treatment of TNBC using GLUT1 inhibitors, especially in patients with higher mRNA expression of RB1. Further study analyzing the roles of these two genes in the regulation pathways is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yi-Qun Han ◽  
Zong-Bi Yi ◽  
Pei Yu ◽  
Wen-Na Wang ◽  
Qu-Chang Ouyang ◽  

Objective. To better understand the status of medical treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and the differences between the Chinese and the international clinical practice. Methods. This was a retrospective, nationwide, multicenter, epidemiological study of advanced breast cancer patients from China. Between January 01, 2012, and December 31, 2014, a total of 3649 patients, covering 7 geographic regions and 21 institutions, participated in this series of studies. HER2-positive breast cancer was selected among the group and adopted into this study. In comparison, we summarized the demographics and clinical characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Results. A total of 918 patients diagnosed as HER2-positive breast cancer patients were included. The median age at diagnosis was 46 years (ranging, 23 to 78) with a single-peak incidence. The proportions of stages II–IV at diagnosis and distance metastasis in viscera were more than half of the participants. In comparison, the prevalence of estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive expression and luminalB subtype was relatively lower than that of the United States. The receipt of chemotherapy was fairly higher, while the usage of targeted therapy was seriously insufficient. Tumor size was in significantly positive associations with the duration of targeted therapy (Kendall’s correlation coefficient = 0.3, P < 0.0001 ), while no prohibitive variables among clinical characteristics were detected. Conclusion. Our study suggested that HER2-positive breast cancer patients were characterized as a younger trend, a lower prevalence of hormonal receptor (HR)-positive expression, and less accessible to anti-HER2 targeted therapy with insufficient duration over the past few years in China. Concerted efforts should be exerted for promising survival benefits in the future. The trial registration number is

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 117-137
Mazen Mobtasem El-Lamey ◽  
Mohab Mohammed Eid ◽  
Muhammad Gamal ◽  
Nour-Elhoda Mohamed Bishady ◽  
Ali Wagdy Mohamed

There are many cancer patients, especially breast cancer patients as it is the most common type of cancer. Due to the huge number of breast cancer patients, many breast cancer-focused hospitals aren't able to process the huge number of patients and might expose some women to late stages of cancer. Thus, the automation of the process can help these hospitals in speeding up the process of cancer detection. In this paper, the authors test several machine learning models such as k-nearest neighbours (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural network (ANN). They then compare their accuracies and losses with themselves and other models that have been developed by other researchers to see whether their approach is efficient or not and to decide what machine learning algorithm is best to use.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Kin-Chung Wilson Leung ◽  
Yi-Jian Yang ◽  
Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui ◽  
Jean Woo

Most women live with an inactive lifestyle, which suggests a need for preference-based choices to promote their participation in physical activity. This systematic review synthesized key findings on the health benefits of Qigong among women. We conducted a systematic search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Qigong among women according to the PRISMA guidelines using the following databases from their inception through March 2021: PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and US National Library of Medicine. The risk of bias was examined using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials. Altogether, 18 RCTs were included for final review. Results showed that Qigong was a feasible exercise in improving health outcomes, particularly depressive symptoms (63% of trials), quality of life (43%), and fatigue (29%), among general women, intimate partner violence survivors, and women with chronic conditions (e.g., breast cancer patients or survivors). Almost 90% (7/8) of trials reported high adherence rates ranging from 73 to 95% for supervised group training and 63 to 80% for home self-practice. Thus far, there was no evidence of serious adverse effects from performing Qigong. For the risk of bias across trials, a lack of allocation concealment (72% of trials), no blinding of participants and personnel (67%), and incomplete outcome data (67%) were the major sources. In summary, Qigong is a safe, feasible, and beneficial exercise for general women, abused sufferers, and health-compromised women. However, given the potential risk of bias found in many studies, improved rigor of study design in future trials will be imperatively required.

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