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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 136-145
Damla Çınar ◽  
Sedanur Sarı ◽  
Hüseyin Alkan ◽  
Kübra Buket Ay ◽  
Enes Borcaktepe ◽  

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Bilal ◽  
F. Abbas ◽  
U. Atique ◽  
M. Hafeez-ur Rehman ◽  
M. Inayat ◽  

Abstract Reports abound on Lernaea parasitizing the brood stock, fingerlings, and marketable-sized culturable freshwater fish species in various parts of the world. We investigated seven small-scale aquaculture farms and how the prevailing Lernaea is impacting them. Randomly seven fish farms were selected to determine the prevalence percentage of lernaeid ectoparasites. Relevant information of the fishponds to estimate the various aspects such as effects of water source and quality, feed, stocking density, treatment used, and weight and length of fish, concerned with Lernaea infestation and prevalence was gathered. The results indicated that Catla catla (F. Hamilton, 1822) showed highest prevalence (41.7%) among the seven fish species, whereas Oreochromis niloticus showed zero. Other five fish species Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cirrhinus cirrhosis, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix showed 13.2%, 8.1%, 7.7%, 7.4%, 0.9% prevalence, respectively. In Royal Fish Farm 84.3% lernaeid infestation was observed, while no parasite was observed in the Vicent’s Chunnian fish farm. The water source, quality, feed, fertilizers, stocking density, water temperature, and potential treatment options displayed varying tendencies among fish farms and prevalence. Depending on the weight and length, the highest prevalence (56.7%, and 66.7%) was observed in 3501-4000 g and 81-90 cm groups. The infestation rate varied in various fish body parts with the dorsal fin the most vulnerable organ and showed 2.3% overall prevalence (while 18.4% contribution within total 12.6% infestation). Out of 147 infected fish samples, 45 were extensively contaminated by Lernaea spread. In conclusion, our findings confirm that Lernaea could pose a considerable threat to marketable fish, and various treatment options should be educated to the farmers to help mitigate the spread and potential losses. Furthermore, Catla catla is more vulnerable to Lernaea infestation (41.7%), so are the fish species being cultured at higher stocking densities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 108529
Saurabh R. Sinha ◽  
Jui-Chen Yang ◽  
Matthew J. Wallace ◽  
Kiran Grover ◽  
F. Reed Johnson ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  

BACKGROUND Posterior atlantoaxial dislocations (i.e., complete anterior odontoid dislocation) without C1 arch fractures are a rare hyperextension injury most often found in high-velocity trauma patients. Treatment options include either closed or open reduction and optional spinal fusion to address atlantoaxial instability due to ligamentous injury. OBSERVATIONS A 60-year-old male was struck while on his bicycle by a truck and sustained an odontoid dislocation without C1 arch fracture. Imaging findings additionally delineated a high suspicion for craniocervical instability. The patient had neurological issues due to both a head injury and ischemia secondary to an injured vertebral artery. He was stabilized and transferred to our facility for definitive neurosurgical care. LESSONS The patient underwent a successful transoral digital closed reduction and posterior occipital spinal fusion via a fiducial-based transcondylar, C1 lateral mass, C2 pedicle, and C3 lateral mass construct. This unique reduction technique has not been recorded in the literature before and avoided potential complications of overdistraction and the need for odontoidectomy. Furthermore, the use of bone fiducials for navigated screw fixation at the craniocervical junction is a novel technique and recommended particularly for placement of technically demanding transcondylar screws and C2 pedicle screws where pars anatomy is potentially unfavorable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Nicole F. Brackett ◽  
Anna Pomés ◽  
Martin D. Chapman

Genome engineering with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology offers the unique potential for unequivocally deleting allergen genes at the source. Compared to prior gene editing approaches, CRISPR boasts substantial improvements in editing efficiency, throughput, and precision. CRISPR has demonstrated success in several clinical applications such as sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, and preliminary knockout studies of allergenic proteins using CRISPR editing show promise. Given the advantages of CRISPR, as well as specific DNA targets in the allergen genes, CRISPR gene editing is a viable approach for tackling allergy, which may lead to significant disease improvement. This review will highlight recent applications of CRISPR editing of allergens, particularly cat allergen Fel d 1, and will discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach compared to existing treatment options.

Krunoslav Nikodem ◽  
Marko Ćurković ◽  
Ana Borovečki

Trust in healthcare systems and physicians is considered important for the delivery of good healthcare. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random three-stage sample of the general population of Croatia (N = 1230), stratified by regions. Of respondents, 58.7% displayed a high or very high level of trust in the healthcare system, 65.6% in physicians, and 78.3% in their family physician. Respondents’ views regarding patients’ roles in the discussion of treatment options, confidence in physicians’ expertise, and underlying motives of physicians were mixed. Respondents with a lower level of education, those with low monthly incomes, and those from smaller settlements had lower levels of trust in physicians and the healthcare system. Trust in other institutions, religiosity and religious beliefs, tolerance of personal choice, and experience of caring for the seriously ill and dying were predictors of trust in healthcare and physicians. Our findings suggest that levels of healthcare-related trust in Croatia are increasing in comparison with previous research, but need improvement. Levels of trust are lowest in populations that are most vulnerable and most in need of care and protection.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Erika N. Biernbaum ◽  
Indira T. Kudva

Foodborne diseases affect an estimated 600 million people worldwide annually, with the majority of these illnesses caused by Norovirus, Vibrio, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. To elicit infections in humans, bacterial pathogens express a combination of virulence factors and toxins. AB5 toxins are an example of such toxins that can cause various clinical manifestations, including dehydration, diarrhea, kidney damage, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of most bacterial foodborne illnesses consists of fluid replacement and antibiotics. However, antibiotics are not recommended for infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) because of the increased risk of HUS development, although there are conflicting views and results in this regard. Lack of effective treatment strategies for STEC infections pose a public health threat during outbreaks; therefore, the debate on antibiotic use for STEC infections could be further explored, along with investigations into antibiotic alternatives. The overall goal of this review is to provide a succinct summary on the mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of AB5 and related toxins, as expressed by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with a primary focus on Shiga toxins (Stx). The role of Stx in human STEC disease, detection methodologies, and available treatment options are also briefly discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 630-633
Kiran Kumar L ◽  
M S Smitha Gowda

The most common atopic ocular condition in clinical practice is allergic conjunctivitis. One of the preferred treatment options for allergic Conjunctivitis is anti histamines eye drops. The study purpose is to compare the clinical efficacy between topical alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% in allergic conjunctivitis patients.A prospective, randomized, open label, parallel group, comparative study was conducted on 60 Patients with bilateral allergic conjunctivitis (30 in each group) after taking an informed written consentand was evaluated from May 2018 to November 2018. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of 30 each, group A received topical Alcaftadine 0.25% twice daily and patients in Group B received topical olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% twice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated on first visit (baseline) followed by 7 and 14 day after starting the treatment. At each visit signs and symptoms were evaluated and rated using a scale from 0-3(0-Absent, 1- mild, 2 moderate and 3- severe). The change from baseline in the mean scores of itching, hyperemia, photophobia and tearing on day 14 is the primary outcome variable.: The signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis were reduced by 2 weeks from baseline after using both the drugs. Relative significant efficacy was achieved in alcaftadine group for Itching, hyperemia and photophobia, but not for tearing (p=0.3). When compared to 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride, 0.25% alcaftadine is more effective in reducing the symptoms of all types of allergic conjunctivitis except those mentioned in exclusion criteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-30
Rakesh Sharma ◽  
Dharam Singh ◽  
Jagsir Singh ◽  
Rajesh Kapila

Background: Distal radius fractures are the third most common osteoporotic fractures and are frequently treated in emergency department. They have a trimodal peak of occurrence and there has been a significant increase in incidence of involvement in elderly females and young males. Management of these fractures comes with lots of treatment options and challenges to provide good functional outcome. This prospective study was done for the management of communited intra/juxta articular fractures of distal end radius using a bridging external fixator on 25 patients. The principle of ligamentotaxis was used for alignment of fracture fragments and wrist spanning external fixator was used to maintain the fracture reduction.Methods:25 patients of either sex with age group 16 to 80 years were taken from the orthopedic department. After proper primary care, cases were classified using Fernandez classification, and posted for surgery as soon as investigations and fitness were taken.Results:Patients involved in the study were in range of 16 to 78 years with 16 patients having dominant side with road traffic accident as leading cause.Radiological union was seen at an average of 7.3 weeks, 4 patients had superficial pin tract infection, 3 patients had stiffnes and a single case had malunion. Conclusions:Modified clinical scoring system of Green and O’Brien was used to evaluate the overall functional results which showed excellent to good results in 84% of cases. Hence, properly planned and executed bridging external fixator is an easy, cost-effective and reliable treatment modality through the “Principle of Ligamentotaxis”.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Ashleigh N. Shields ◽  
Elise Taylor ◽  
Jessica R. Welch

Abstract Background Current research has found dramatic changes in the lives of those with eating disorders (EDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We build on existing research to investigate the long-term effects and adaptations that people with EDs have faced due to COVID-19 related changes. Method We collected 234 posts from three separate time periods from the subreddit r/EatingDisorders and analyzed them using thematic analysis. The posts were examined for initial patterns, and then those concepts were grouped into themes to reveal the authentic experiences of people living with EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Initially, we found “lack of control” and “familial influences (loved ones seeking support)” emerge as themes within our broader data set throughout all three timeframes. There were additional themes that were present in only one or two of the collection periods. These themes consisted of “symptom stress,” “technical stresses and concerns,” and “silver linings.” Conclusions Our analysis shows that people with EDs have fought significantly during the pandemic. Initially, the (lack of) control and routine in their lives has caused symptoms to become more challenging, while being forced to move back home also caused significant stress. However, concerns transformed as the pandemic progressed, resulting in new pressures causing people to exhibit novel ED symptoms or relapse altogether. Also notable is the relatively few COVID-specific posts as the pandemic progressed, suggesting that people have accepted COVID as their “new normal” and begun to build resilience to the challenges associated. These are vital factors for clinicians to consider as they begin taking existing and new patients, particularly as face-to-face treatment options become a possibility again. Plain English Summary Existing research shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the lives of people who live with eating disorders in various ways. First, the pandemic has placed barriers on the path to recovery by limiting coping mechanism (and sometimes removing them altogether) and changing their relationships with food and the people in their lives. Second, the pandemic has forced treatment options to change since ED patients can no longer seek treatment face-to-face. Finally, there have been unexpected benefits to the pandemic, such as allowing individuals time to slow down and focus on their mental health. Previous studies examined individuals in clinical contexts rather than in their natural environments. We explored an online forum for people with eating disorders for the various themes that were discussed at three points over the period of March 2020-December 2020 and found that many people with EDs report worsening symptoms or relapse. However, we also noted that, compared to the beginning of the pandemic, people seemed to be less frequently asking for support during the third data collection period, implying an adaptation to the “new normal” of life in a pandemic. We conclude with a discussion of the findings.

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