Cultural Adaptation and Validation of Mullen Scales of Early Learning in Taiwanese children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Global Developmental Delay, and Typically Developing Children

2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 104158
Pou-Leng Cheong ◽  
Jung-Mei Tsai ◽  
Yen-Tzu Wu ◽  
Lu Lu ◽  
Yi-Lun Chiu ◽  
Autism ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
pp. 639-652 ◽  
Vanessa M Vogan ◽  
Benjamin R Morgan ◽  
Mary Lou Smith ◽  
Margot J Taylor

This study examined functional changes longitudinally over 2 years in neural correlates associated with working memory in youth with and without autism spectrum disorder, and the impact of increasing cognitive load. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a visuo-spatial 1-back task with four levels of difficulty. A total of 14 children with autism spectrum disorder and 15 typically developing children (ages 7–13) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 2 years later. Despite similar task performance between groups, differences were evident in the developmental trajectories of neural responses. Typically developing children showed greater load-dependent activation which intensified over time in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes and the right fusiform gyrus, compared to those with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed minimal age-related changes in load-dependent activation, but greater longitudinal load-dependent deactivation in default mode network compared to typically developing children. Results suggest inadequate modulation of neural activity with increasing cognitive demands in children with autism spectrum disorder, which does not mature into adolescence, unlike their typically developing peers. Diminished ability for children with autism spectrum disorder to modulate neural activity during this period of maturation suggests that they may be more vulnerable to the increasing complexity of social and academic demands as they progress through adolescence than their peers.

2019 ◽  
Vol 47 (1) ◽  
pp. 205-224 ◽  
Hanako YOSHIDA ◽  
Paul CIRINO ◽  
Sarah S. MIRE ◽  
Joseph M. BURLING ◽  
Sunbok LEE

AbstractThe present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children's attention. Participants were ten parent–child dyads; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups: (a) frequency of parent's gesture use; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child's face; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children's faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children's visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children's early learning, including for children with ASD.

Autism ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 199-211 ◽  
Lacey Chetcuti ◽  
Kristelle Hudry ◽  
Megan Grant ◽  
Giacomo Vivanti

We examined the role of social motivation and motor execution factors in object-directed imitation difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. A series of to-be-imitated actions was presented to 35 children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing children on an Apple® iPad® by a socially responsive or aloof model, under conditions of low and high motor demand. There were no differences in imitation performance (i.e. the number of actions reproduced within a fixed sequence), for either group, in response to a model who acted socially responsive or aloof. Children with autism spectrum disorder imitated the high motor demand task more poorly than the low motor demand task, while imitation performance for typically developing children was equivalent across the low and high motor demand conditions. Furthermore, imitative performance in the autism spectrum disorder group was unrelated to social reciprocity, though positively associated with fine motor coordination. These results suggest that difficulties in object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder are the result of motor execution difficulties, not reduced social motivation.

2019 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 559-571
Yaxuan Ren ◽  
Xiaoyi Hu ◽  
Zhuo Rachel Han ◽  
Xuan Yang ◽  
Mingyao Li

Abstract Objectives Parenting children with autism spectrum disorder may be different from parenting typically developing children. The current study systematically compared mindful parenting and parenting practices in families of children with autism spectrum disorder and in families of typically developing children in China. Methods 167 biological parents (Mage = 37.87) of Chinese children with autism spectrum disorder and 167 biological parents (Mage = 38.04) of typical developing children completed questionnaires regarding mindful parenting and parenting practices. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to compare between the two types of families with parent/child gender effects on mindful parenting and parenting practices. Then a series of path analyses were also conducted to examine the associations between mindful parenting and parenting practices in the two types of families. Results Compared to parents of typically developing children, parents of children with autism spectrum disorder showed less listening with full attention, less proactive parenting, less supportiveness, more lax control, and more physical control to their children; in families of children with autism spectrum disorder (but not in families of typically developing children), fathers showed less proactive parenting and supportiveness to their children than mothers. We also found that parents’ listening with full attention and awareness of children’s emotions were significantly related to both positive and negative parenting practices in families of children with autism spectrum disorder. Conclusions Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and parents of typically developing children display different parenting behaviors. These findings can provide us more future directions in studying parenting behaviors in Chinese families of children with autism spectrum disorder.

2015 ◽  
Vol 58 (2) ◽  
pp. 373-382 ◽  
Wing-Chee So ◽  
Ming Lui ◽  
Tze-Kiu Wong ◽  
Long-Tin Sit

Purpose The current study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison with typically developing children, perceive and produce gestures to identify nonpresent objects (i.e., referent-identifying gestures), which is crucial for communicating ideas in a discourse. Method An experimenter described the uses of daily-life objects to 6- to 12-year-old children both orally and with gestures. The children were then asked to describe how they performed daily activities using those objects. Results All children gestured. A gesture identified a nonpresent referent if it was produced in the same location that had previously been established by the experimenter. Children with ASD gestured at the specific locations less often than typically developing children. Verbal and spatial memory were positively correlated with the ability to produce referent-identifying gestures for all children. However, the positive correlation between Raven's Children Progressive Matrices score and the production of referent-identifying gestures was found only in children with ASD. Conclusions Children with ASD might be less able to perceive and produce referent-identifying gestures and may rely more heavily on visual–spatial skills in producing referent-identifying gestures. The results have clinical implications for designing an intervention program to enhance the ability of children with ASD to communicate about nonpresent objects with gestures.

Benjamin L. Handen ◽  
Johanna Taylor ◽  
Rameshwari Tumuluru

Abstract One of the most frequently reported behavioral concerns among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high rates of activity and inattention, symptoms that are often associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the appropriate treatment of ADHD symptoms among typically developing children, the research among children with ASD is more limited. The evidence to date suggests that medication response rates among children with ASD are considerably lower than among typically developing children and that children with ASD tend to be at greater risk for experiencing side effects. The purpose of the present paper is to review the available research on the treatment of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. This paper summarizes the data on a range of pharmacological options and provides specific recommendations for how best to clinically manage these symptoms.

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