developmental delay
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
N. Ismail ◽  
S. H. Hamzah ◽  
I. Wan Mokhtar

Cerebral palsy is a neurological and motor condition characterised by muscle balance and posture impairments. Bruxism and malocclusion were frequently observed in patients with cerebral palsy, in contrast to other oral anomalies. The report outlines how severe awake bruxism is managed in a 16-year-old Korean boy who has nonverbal spastic cerebral palsy and global developmental delay. The treatment protocol involved the fabrication of soft occlusal splints of three and four millimetres in thickness, followed by the placement of stainless-steel crowns on all first permanent molars whilst video recording and a bruxism diary was kept. Fixed restorations demonstrate increased endurance in withstanding bruxism force in persons who are dependent on their caretaker.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Yuqiang Lv ◽  
Mehdi Zarrei ◽  
Rui Dong ◽  
Xiaomeng Yang ◽  

AbstractCopy number variants (CNVs) are recognized as a crucial genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), the first-tier diagnostic test for individuals with NDDs, has been utilized to detect CNVs in clinical practice, but most reports are still from populations of European ancestry. To contribute more worldwide clinical genomics data, we investigated the genetic etiology of 410 Han Chinese patients with NDDs (151 with autism and 259 with unexplained intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD)) using CMA (Affymetrix) after G-banding karyotyping. Among all the NDD patients, 109 (26.6%) carried clinically relevant CNVs or uniparental disomies (UPDs), and 8 (2.0%) had aneuploidies (6 with trisomy 21 syndrome, 1 with 47,XXY, 1 with 47,XYY). In total, we found 129 clinically relevant CNVs and UPDs, including 32 CNVs in 30 ASD patients, and 92 CNVs and 5 UPDs in 79 ID/DD cases. When excluding the eight patients with aneuploidies, the diagnostic yield of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs and UPDs was 20.9% for all NDDs (84/402), 3.3% in ASD (5/151), and 31.5% in ID/DD (79/251). When aneuploidies were included, the diagnostic yield increased to 22.4% for all NDDs (92/410), and 33.6% for ID/DD (87/259). We identified a de novo CNV in 14.9% (60/402) of subjects with NDDs. Interestingly, a higher diagnostic yield was observed in females (31.3%, 40/128) compared to males (16.1%, 44/274) for all NDDs (P = 4.8 × 10−4), suggesting that a female protective mechanism exists for deleterious CNVs and UPDs.

Anna Winczewska-Wiktor ◽  
Adam Sebastian Hirschfeld ◽  
Magdalena Badura-Stronka ◽  
Irena Wojsyk-Banaszak ◽  
Paulina Sobkowiak ◽  

NALCN mutations lead to complex neurodevelopmental syndromes, including infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) and congenital contractures of limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD), which are recessively and dominantly inherited, respectively. We present a patient in whom congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) was suspected due to the occurrence of hypotonia and apnea episodes requiring resuscitation. For this reason, treatment with pyridostigmine was introduced. After starting the treatment, a significant improvement was observed in reducing the apnea episodes and slight psychomotor progress. In the course of further diagnostics, CMS was excluded, and CLIFAHDD syndrome was confirmed. Thus, we try to explain a possible mechanism of clinical improvement after the introduction of treatment with pyridostigmine in a patient with a mutation in the NALCN gene.

Conor McClenaghan ◽  
Novella Rapini ◽  
Domenico Umberto De Rose ◽  
Jian Gao ◽  
Jacob Roeglin ◽  

Background/Aims: Mutations in KCNJ11, the gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of pancreatic and neuronal KATP channels, are associated with a spectrum of neonatal diabetes diseases. Methods: Variant screening was used to identify cause of neonatal diabetes, and continuous glucose monitoring used to assess effectiveness of sulfonylurea treatment. Electrophysiological analysis of variant KATP channel function was used to determine molecular basis. Results: We identified a previously uncharacterized KCNJ11 mutation, c.988T>C [pTyr330His], in an Italian child diagnosed with sulfonylurea-resistant permanent neonatal diabetes and developmental delay (iDEND). Functional analysis of recombinant KATP channels reveals that this mutation causes a drastic gain-of-function, due to a reduction in ATP-inhibition. Further, we demonstrate that the Tyr330His substitution causes a significant decrease in sensitivity to the sulfonylurea, glibenclamide. Conclusions: In this subject, the KCNJ11(c.988T>C) mutation provoked neonatal diabetes, with mild developmental delay, which was insensitive to correction by sulfonylurea therapy. This is explained by the molecular loss of sulfonylurea sensitivity conferred by the Tyr330His substitution, and highlights the need for molecular analysis of such mutations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Katherine Cummings ◽  
Alice Watkins ◽  
Chris Jones ◽  
Renuka Dias ◽  
Alice Welham

Abstract Background Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a cancer suppressor gene. Constitutional mutations affecting this gene are associated with several conditions, collectively termed PTEN hamartoma tumour syndromes (PHTS). In addition to hamartomas, PTEN aberrations have been associated with a range of non-tumoural phenotypes such as macrocephaly, and research indicates possibly increased rates of developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for people with germline mutations affecting PTEN. Method A systematic review of literature reporting behavioural and psychological variables for people with constitutional PTEN mutations/PHTS was conducted using four databases. Following in-depth screening, 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and were used in the review. Fourteen papers reported the proportion of people with PTEN mutations/PTHS meeting criteria for or having characteristics of ASD and were thus used in a pooled prevalence meta-analysis. Results Meta-analysis using a random effects model estimated pooled prevalence of ASD characteristics at 25% (95% CI 16–33%), although this should be interpreted cautiously due to possible biases in existing literature. Intellectual disability and developmental delay (global, motor and speech and language) were also reported frequently. Emotional difficulties and impaired cognitive functioning in specific domains were noted but assessed/reported less frequently. Methods of assessment of psychological/behavioural factors varied widely (with retrospective examination of medical records common). Conclusions Existing research suggests approximately 25% of people with constitutional PTEN mutations may meet criteria for or have characteristics of ASD. Studies have also begun to establish a range of possible cognitive impairments in affected individuals, especially when ASD is also reported. However, further large-scale studies are needed to elucidate psychological/behavioural corollaries of this mutation, and how they may relate to physiological/physical characteristics.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Dolat Singh Shekhawat ◽  
Tanu Gupta ◽  
Pratibha Singh ◽  
Praveen Sharma ◽  
Kuldeep Singh

Ali Reza Tavasoli ◽  
Elmira Haji Esmaeil Memar ◽  
Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hosseini ◽  
Roya Haghighi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Justyna Paprocka ◽  
Michał Hutny ◽  
Jagoda Hofman ◽  
Agnieszka Tokarska ◽  
Magdalena Kłaniewska ◽  

Background: Mutations of genes involved in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins lead to rare syndromes called glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins biosynthesis defects. Alterations of their structure and function in these disorders impair often fundamental processes in cells, resulting in severe clinical image. This study aimed to provide a systematic review of GPIBD cases reports published in English-language literature.Methods: The browsing of open-access databases (PubMed, PubMed Central. and Medline) was conducted, followed by statistical analysis of gathered information concerning neurological symptomatology. The inclusion criteria were: studies on humans, age at onset (<18 y.o.), and report of GPIBD cases with adequate data on the genetic background and symptomatology. Exclusion criteria were: publication type (manuscripts, personal communication, review articles); reports of cases of GPI biosynthesis genes mutations in terms of other disorders; reports of GPIBD cases concentrating on non-neurological symptoms; or articles concentrating solely on the genetic issues of GPI biosynthesis. Risk of bias was assessed using Joanna Brigs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists. Data synthesis was conducted using STATISTICA 13.3.721.1 (StatSoft Polska Sp. z.o.o.). Used tests were chi-square, Fisher's exact test (for differences in phenotype), and Mann-Whitney U test (for differences in onset of developmental delay).Results: Browsing returned a total of 973 articles which, after ruling out the repetitions and assessing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, led to final inclusion of 77 articles (337 GPIBD cases) in the analysis. The main outcomes were prevalence of neurological symptoms, onset and semiology of seizures and their response to treatment, and onset of developmental delay. Based on this data a synthesis of phenotypical differences between the groups of GPIBD cases and the general GPIBD cases population was made.Discussion: A synthetical analysis of neurological components in clinical image of GPIBD patients was presented. It highlights the main features of these disorders, which might be useful in clinical practice for consideration in differential diagnosis with children presenting with early-onset seizures and developmental delay. The limitation of this review is the scarcity of the specific data in some reports, concerning the semiology and onset of two main features of GPIBD.

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