Functional Changes
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 91-93
Zeyu Si ◽  
Xiaoxuan Fan

Vascular aging refers to the structural and functional changes of the arterial wall with age. Vascular aging plays an important role in elderly diseases, such as hypertension. Therefore, the relationship between vascular aging and hypertension has attracted extensive attention. This article mainly reviews the mechanism of vascular aging and its influence on hypertension, so as to provide new ideas and directions for the research and prevention of hypertension.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3351
Michael Papanicolaou ◽  
Patrick He ◽  
Sandra Rutting ◽  
Alaina Ammit ◽  
Dikaia Xenaki ◽  

Chronic airway inflammation and oxidative stress play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases, with airway inflammation being a key driving mechanism of oxidative stress in the lungs. Inflammatory responses in the lungs activate neutrophils and/or eosinophils, leading to the generation of hypohalous acids (HOX). These HOX oxidants can damage the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and may influence cell–ECM interactions. The ECM of the lung provides structural, mechanical, and biochemical support for cells and determines the airway structure. One of the critical cells in chronic respiratory disease is the fibroblast. Thus, we hypothesised that primary human lung fibroblasts (PHLF) exposed to an oxidised cell-derived ECM will result in functional changes to the PHLF. Here, we show that PHLF adhesion, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine secretion is affected by exposure to HOX-induced oxidisation of the cell-derived ECM. Furthermore, we investigated the impact on fibroblast function from the presence of haloamines in the ECM. Haloamines are chemical by-products of HOX and, like the HOX, haloamines can also modify the ECM. In conclusion, this study revealed that oxidising the cell-derived ECM might contribute to functional changes in PHLF, a key mechanism behind the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases.

Namsrai Jargal ◽  
Ho-Seong Lee ◽  
Kwang-Guk An

Water quality degradation is one of the major problems with artificial lakes in estuaries. Long-term spatiotemporal patterns of water quality in a South Korean estuarine reservoir were analyzed using seasonal datasets from 2002 to 2020, and some functional changes in relations of trophic state variables due to the construction of serial weirs in the upper river were also investigated. A total of 19 water quality parameters were used for the study, including indicators of organic matter, nutrients, suspended solids, water clarity, and fecal pollution. In addition, chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) was used to assess algal biomass. An empirical regression model, trophic state index deviation (TSID), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied. Longitudinal fluctuations in nutrients, organic matter, sestonic CHL-a, and suspended solids were found along the axis of the riverine (Rz), transition (Tz), and lacustrine zones (Lz). The degradation of water quality was seasonally caused by resuspension of sediments, monsoon input due to rainfall inflow, and intensity of Asian monsoon, and was also related to intensive anthropic activities within the catchment. The empirical model and PCA showed that light availability was directly controlled by non-algal turbidity, which was a more important regulator of CHL-a than total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The TSID supported our hypothesis on the non-algal turbidity. We also found that the construction of serial upper weirs influenced nutrient regime, TSS, CHL-a level, and trophic state in the estuarine reservoir, resulting in lower TP and TN but high CHL-a and high TN/TP ratios. The proportions of both dissolved color clay particles and blue-green algae in the TSID additionally increased. Overall, the long-term patterns of nutrients, suspended solids, and algal biomass changed due to seasonal runoff, turnover time, and reservoir zones along with anthropic impacts of the upper weir constructions, resulting in changes in trophic state variables and their mutual relations in the estuarine reservoir.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (11) ◽  
pp. 1267
Claudia Brogna ◽  
Lara Cristiano ◽  
Tommaso Verdolotti ◽  
Giulia Norcia ◽  
Luana Ficociello ◽  

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes using both upper limb muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at shoulder, arm and forearm levels and Performance of upper limb (PUL) in ambulant and non-ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. We also wished to define whether baseline muscle MRI could help to predict functional changes after one year. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients had both baseline and 12month muscle MRI and PUL assessments one year later. Results: Ten were ambulant (age range 5–16 years), and 17 non ambulant (age range 10–30 years). Increased abnormalities equal or more than 1.5 point on muscle MRI at follow up were found on all domains: at shoulder level 12/27 patients (44%), at arm level 4/27 (15%) and at forearm level 6/27 (22%). Lower follow up PUL score were found in 8/27 patients (30%) at shoulder level, in 9/27 patients (33%) at mid-level whereas no functional changes were found at distal level. There was no constant association between baseline MRI scores and follow up PUL scores at arm and forearm levels but at shoulder level patients with moderate impairment on the baseline MRI scores between 16 and 34 had the highest risk of decreased function on PUL over a year. Conclusions: Our results confirmed that the integrated use of functional scales and imaging can help to monitor functional and MRI changes over time.

Satish Kumar Gupta ◽  
Ranjay Chakraborty ◽  
Pavan Kumar Verkicharla

AbstractThe stretching of a myopic eye is associated with several structural and functional changes in the retina and posterior segment of the eye. Recent research highlights the role of retinal signaling in ocular growth. Evidence from studies conducted on animal models and humans suggests that visual mechanisms regulating refractive development are primarily localized at the retina and that the visual signals from the retinal periphery are also critical for visually guided eye growth. Therefore, it is important to study the structural and functional changes in the retina in relation to refractive errors. This review will specifically focus on electroretinogram (ERG) changes in myopia and their implications in understanding the nature of retinal functioning in myopic eyes. Based on the available literature, we will discuss the fundamentals of retinal neurophysiology in the regulation of vision-dependent ocular growth, findings from various studies that investigated global and localized retinal functions in myopia using various types of ERGs.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Leandro Ryuchi Iuamoto ◽  
Marta Imamura ◽  
Koichi Sameshima ◽  
Alberto Meyer ◽  
Linamara Rizzo Battistella ◽  

2021 ◽  
Yanan Guo ◽  
Jing Fu ◽  
Jie Hong ◽  
Zhaohui Liu ◽  
Xueying He

Introduction: Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is the most common type of divergent squint. IXT is primarily a cortical neurologic dysfunction disorder, occurring as a result of insufficient maintaining of sensory and motor fusion. Recent reports have demonstrated the relationship between IXT and visual cortical impairment. We plan to assess blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)- functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in IXT patients during the pre-and post- operation follow-ups to evaluate the functional changes of the visual cortex. Methods and analysis: A total of 90 Chinese subjects will be recruited, and the age is between 18 and 60 years old. The subjects include the Surgical treatment (ST) group (45 IXT subjects who will perform surgery) and the Healthy control (HC) group (45 age - and sex - and education matched healthy volunteers). The assessments include the following aspects: general ophthalmic, optometry, binocular vision test, Newcastle Control Score (NCS), and fMRI. Each subject completes the rest-state BOLD-fMRI, and the sequences include echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse and 3-dimensional brain volume (3D-BRAVO) to acquire high-resolution images. The follow-up schedule is 6 and 12months after the surgery. The primary outcome will be determined by cortex changes in BOLD-fMRI in ST group before and after the surgery. We also compare the HC group with the pre-operation subjects in the ST group. The secondary outcomes are changes of strabismus examinations, binocular visual function examinations, and NCS. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of the Beijing Tongren Hospital. We plan to publish the results of this study in a peer-reviewed journal article. Trial registration number: ChiCTR2100048852 Keywords: Intermittent exotropia, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Fusion function, Strabismus, Visual cortex

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