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Florencia Barreto-Zarza ◽  
Manuel Sánchez de Miguel ◽  
Enrique B. Arranz-Freijo ◽  
Joana Acha ◽  
Llúcia González ◽  

AbstractRecent research suggests that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be influenced by interactions between the individual and their social context. This study examined the predictive value of family context variables and attentional control levels on child ADHD symptoms. A new explanatory model of the relationship amongst these variables was also tested. A sample of 754 families with children aged 7 to 11 was assessed through the Conners Parent Rating Scale, the Haezi-Etxadi Family Assessment Scale, and the Attention Network Test. Path analysis models showed a predictive association between children ADHD symptoms and Social Support Network, Parental Stress, Parental Self-efficacy, Attentional Control and being male. Furthermore, a stronger Social Support Network was associated with greater Parental Self-efficacy, a variable that predicted Parental Stress levels and children ADHD symptoms. In conclusion, a new multi-influence model of variables linked to ADHD symptomatology during mid-childhood is provided, which may be useful to support the design of family interventions.

Anouck I. Staff ◽  
Saskia van der Oord ◽  
Jaap Oosterlaan ◽  
Rianne Hornstra ◽  
Pieter J. Hoekstra ◽  

AbstractBehavioral teacher training is an effective intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness may be enhanced by including intervention components that carry the strongest evidence for their effectiveness. A previous article of this group showed that both antecedent- (i.e., stimulus-control) and consequent-based (i.e., contingency management) techniques were highly effective in reducing daily teacher-rated, individually selected problem behaviors in a specific situation of the child. Effects were observed up to three months post intervention. Here, we tested whether effects were also present in teacher-rated and masked DSM-based assessments that comprise the full range of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, as well as on teacher-rated impairment. Teachers of 90 children with (subthreshold) ADHD (6–12 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a short (two sessions), individualized intervention consisting of either a) antecedent-based techniques or b) consequent-based techniques; or c) waitlist. Multilevel analyses showed that both sets of techniques were effective in reducing teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and impairment immediately after the intervention and up to three months later, as compared to waitlist. Masked observations of ADHD behavior were in line with teacher ratings, with effects being most pronounced for inattention. No effects on teacher-rated or masked ODD behavior were found. This study showed that antecedent- and consequent-based techniques were effective in improving classroom ADHD symptoms and impairment. Long-term changes in teacher-rated ADHD are promising. These results extend previous findings and show the potential of short individually tailored interventions in classroom settings as treatment of ADHD symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Tomasz Hanć ◽  
Aleksandra Gomula ◽  
Natalia Nowak-Szczepanska ◽  
Raja Chakraborty ◽  
Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the relation between early exposure to stressful event and a level of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, based on outcomes from a natural experiment. It was hypothesized that children pre- and postnatally exposed to cyclone Aila have a higher level of ADHD symptoms compared to the controls, and the effect depends on timing of exposure. Indian children (8-11y) prenatally (N=336) and early postnatally (N=216) exposed to Aila were compared to non-exposed control group of their peers (N=285). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the Conner’s Teacher Rating Scale Revised. The main effect of exposure to the cyclone on total ADHD symptoms’ score, ADHD index, Hyperactivity and Oppositional symptoms was significant and independent of covariates. Both prenatally and postnatally exposed girls, and only postnatally exposed boys, showed significantly higher level of Oppositional symptoms compared to the controls. Cognitive problems/Inattention symptoms were increased in both prenatally and postnatally exposed boys, but not girls, compared to non-exposed children. The timing of programming the later behavior characteristics by stressful experiences due to natural disaster is not limited to fetal life but extends at least into infancy. Sex is a significant modulator of the early stress-ADHD symptoms association.

Rachel Robinson ◽  
Polina Girchenko ◽  
Anna Pulakka ◽  
Kati Heinonen ◽  
Anna Lähdepuro ◽  

Abstract Background This study examined differences in ADHD symptoms and diagnosis between preterm and term-born adults (≥18 years), and tested if ADHD is related to gestational age, birth weight, multiple births, or neonatal complications in preterm borns. Methods (1) A systematic review compared ADHD symptom self-reports and diagnosis between preterm and term-born adults published in PubMed, Web of Science, and PROQUEST until April 2021; (2) a one-stage Individual Participant Data(IPD) meta-analysis (n = 1385 preterm, n = 1633 term; born 1978–1995) examined differences in self-reported ADHD symptoms[age 18–36 years]; and (3) a population-based register-linkage study of all live births in Finland (01/01/1987–31/12/1998; n = 37538 preterm, n = 691,616 term) examined ADHD diagnosis risk in adulthood (≥18 years) until 31/12/2016. Results Systematic review results were conflicting. In the IPD meta-analysis, ADHD symptoms levels were similar across groups (mean z-score difference 0.00;95% confidence interval [95% CI] −0.07, 0.07). Whereas in the register-linkage study, adults born preterm had a higher relative risk (RR) for ADHD diagnosis compared to term controls (RR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12, 1.41, p < 0.001). Among preterms, as gestation length (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.89, 0.97, p < 0.001) and SD birth weight z-score (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80, 0.97, p < 0.001) increased, ADHD risk decreased. Conclusions While preterm adults may not report higher levels of ADHD symptoms, their risk of ADHD diagnosis in adulthood is higher. Impact Preterm-born adults do not self-report higher levels of ADHD symptoms, yet are more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis in adulthood compared to term-borns. Previous evidence has consisted of limited sample sizes of adults and used different methods with inconsistent findings. This study assessed adult self-reported symptoms across 8 harmonized cohorts and contrasted the findings with diagnosed ADHD in a population-based register-linkage study. Preterm-born adults may not self-report increased ADHD symptoms. However, they have a higher risk of ADHD diagnosis, warranting preventive strategies and interventions to reduce the presentation of more severe ADHD symptomatology in adulthood.

2022 ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
James Janford Li

Objective: Parenting behavior is a well-established correlate of offspring ADHD. Yet, little is known about how parenting exerts its effects on offspring ADHD. We examined whether prospective associations between positive and negative parenting behaviors and child ADHD symptoms are mediated by deficits in child executive function (EF) and reward responsivity (RR). Method: A total of 135 children, with and without ADHD were assessed at mean ages 6 and 8. Children completed tasks on EF, and parents completed questionnaires about their parenting, and their children’s RR and children’s ADHD symptoms. Results: Negative parenting (but not positive parenting) was indirectly associated with offspring ADHD subtypes via the effects of Wave 1 EF and RR at Wave 2. Conclusion: Individual differences in EF and RR during the early childhood years may constitute a potential pathway by which negative parenting behaviors exerts its effects on subsequent offspring ADHD. Treatment implications are discussed.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Lin Li ◽  
Mark J. Taylor ◽  
Katarina Bälter ◽  
Tian Xie ◽  
Berit Skretting Solberg ◽  

Background: Dietary habits were investigated as environmental risk factors for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, no previous studies explored the effects of dietary factors on modifying the role of genetic factors on ADHD. Methods: Based on a Swedish population-based twin study with 1518 twin pairs aged 20–47 years, we tested whether the importance of genetic and environmental effects on ADHD varied as a function of dietary habits. Self-reported dietary habits and ADHD symptoms were collected. Twin methods were used to test the degree to which high-sugar and unhealthy food intake moderated the genetic and environmental influences on ADHD symptoms. Results: In middle-aged adults, genetic influences on inattention symptoms were statistically significantly higher among individuals with higher levels of high-sugar (45%, 95%CI: 25–54%) and unhealthy food intake (51%, 95%CI: 31–60%), compared with those with lower levels of consumption of high-sugar (36%, 95%CI: 25–47%) and unhealthy foods (30%, 95%CI: 20–41%). Similar patterns were also found for the associations between hyperactivity/impulsivity and high-sugar/unhealthy food intake, even though the moderation effects were not statistically significant. Conclusion The present study suggests that genetic factors play a more prominent role in individual differences of ADHD symptoms in the presence of the high consumption of sugar and unhealthy foods. Future longitudinal studies with multiple assessments of ADHD and dietary habits are needed to replicate our findings.

2021 ◽  
pp. 108705472110636
James R. D. Tucker ◽  
Christopher W. Hobson

Objective: The systematic review sought to understand the relationship between maternal depression and later ADHD in children. Method: Three databases were used to identify the studies (Medline, Web of Science and PsychInfo) resulting in 1,223 studies being screened and 14 articles being included in the review. Results: The majority of studies ( N = 11) reported a significant relationship between maternal depression (across both prenatal and postnatal periods) and ADHD symptoms in children. This relationship remained significant when temperament, or past ADHD symptoms were controlled for. Several methodological issues were identified including; overreliance on maternal report and parental ADHD not being accounted for in most studies. Conclusion: The review adds to the literature regarding the temporal relationship between maternal depression and the development of ADHD in children, and thus supports the case for improving access to mental health services for mothers as a preventative strategy in the development of child psychopathology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Luxi Wang ◽  
Shu Xie ◽  
Shixu Pan ◽  
Jingyi Zhao ◽  

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-exists with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may aggravate functional impairment. However, it is unclear how comorbid ADHD symptoms influence the adaptive behavior and social interaction deficits of children with ASD.Methods: The study enrolled 340 children (ranging from 2 to 14 years) with ASD, with comorbid ASD and ADHD, or with typical development (TD). A psychological evaluation involving adaptive behavior and social function was conducted using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Second Edition (VABS-II) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).Results: There was a high prevalence of ADHD symptoms (46.6%) in children with ASD, and children with ASD + ADHD presented the worse profile of ASD symptoms. The ASD + ADHD group had higher scores on VABS and lower scores on SRS in comparison with the ASD alone group and TD group. The regression analysis revealed that ASD symptoms and ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with greater impairments in adaptive behavior and social function. The ADHD symptoms were responsible for an additional 0.8% of the variance in adaptive behavior, and 9.5% of the variance in social function.Conclusions: More severe ASD symptoms and greater impairment in adaptive function and social ability were found in children with ASD and comorbid ADHD, highlighting the need to identify ADHD comorbidities early on in children with ASD and to reduce their negative impact on functioning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aneta D. Krakowski ◽  
Peter Szatmari ◽  
Jennifer Crosbie ◽  
Russell Schachar ◽  
Eric Duku ◽  

Background: Many phenotypic studies have estimated the degree of comorbidity between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but few have examined the latent, or unobserved, structure of combined ASD and ADHD symptoms. This is an important perquisite toward better understanding the overlap between ASD and ADHD.Methods: We conducted a scoping review of studies that examined the factor or latent class structure of ASD and ADHD symptoms within the same clinical or general population sample.Results: Eight studies met final inclusion criteria. Four factor analysis studies found that ASD and ADHD domains loaded separately and one found that some ASD and ADHD domains loaded together. In the three latent class studies, there were evidence of profiles with high levels of co-occurring ASD and ADHD symptoms.Conclusions: Our scoping review provides some evidence of phenotypic overlap between ASD and ADHD at the latent, or unobserved, level, particularly when using a “person-centered” (latent class analysis) vs. a “variable-centered” (factor analysis) approach.

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