AbstractElectrical and optical monitoring of neural activity is major approaches for studying brain functions. Each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, such as the ability to determine cell types and temporal resolution. Although opto-electrical bimodal recording is beneficial by enabling us to exploit the strength of both approaches, it has not been widely used. In this study, we devised three methods of bimodal recording from a deep brain structure in awake head-fixed mice by chronically implanting a gradient-index (GRIN) lens and electrodes. First, we attached four stainless steel electrodes to the side of a GRIN lens and implanted them in a mouse expressing GCaMP6f in astrocytes. We simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) and GCaMP6f signal in astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 area. Second, implanting a silicon probe electrode mounted on a custom-made microdrive within the focal volume of a GRIN lens, we performed bimodal recording in the CA1 area. We monitored LFP and fluorescent changes of GCaMP6s-expressing neurons in the CA1. Third, we designed a 3D-printed scaffold to serve as a microdrive for a silicon probe and a holder for a GRIN lens. This scaffold simplifies the implantation process and makes it easier to place the lens and probe accurately. Using this method, we recorded single unit activity and LFP electrically and GCaMP6f signals of single neurons optically. Thus, we show that these opto-electrical bimodal recording methods using a GRIN lens and electrodes are viable approaches in awake head-fixed mice.
Continuous persist activity of the competitive network is related to many functions, such as working memory, oculomotor integrator and decision making. Many competition models with mutual inhibition structures achieve activity maintenance via positive feedback, which requires meticulous fine tuning of the network parameters strictly. Negative derivative feedback, according to recent research, might represent a novel mechanism for sustaining neural activity that is more resistant to multiple neural perturbations than positive feedback. Many classic models with only mutual inhibition structure are not capable of providing negative derivative feedback because double-inhibition acts as a positive feedback loop, and lack of negative feedback loop that is indispensable for negative derivative feedback. Here in the proposal, we aim to derive a new competition network with negative derivative feedback. The network is made up of two symmetric pairs of EI populations that the four population are completely connected. We conclude that the negative derivative occurs in two circumstances, in which one the activity of the two sides is synchronous but push-pull-like in the other, as well as the switch of two conditions in mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.
Oscillatory neural activity during sleep, such as that in the delta and sigma bands, is important for motor learning consolidation. This activity is reduced with typical aging, and this reduction may contribute to aging-related declines in motor learning consolidation. Evidence suggests that brain regions involved in motor learning contribute to oscillatory neural activity during subsequent sleep. However, aging-related differences in regional contributions to sleep oscillatory activity following motor learning are unclear. To characterize these differences, we estimated the cortical sources of consolidation-related oscillatory activity using individual anatomical information in young and older adults during non-rapid eye movement sleep after motor learning and analyzed them in light of cortical thickness and pre-sleep functional brain activation. High-density electroencephalogram was recorded from young and older adults during a midday nap, following completion of a functional magnetic resonance imaged serial reaction time task as part of a larger experimental protocol. Sleep delta activity was reduced with age in a left-weighted motor cortical network, including premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and pre-supplementary motor area, as well as non-motor regions in parietal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortices. Sleep theta activity was reduced with age in a similar left-weighted motor network, and in non-motor prefrontal and middle cingulate regions. Sleep sigma activity was reduced with age in left primary motor cortex, in a non-motor right-weighted prefrontal-temporal network, and in cingulate regions. Cortical thinning mediated aging-related sigma reductions in lateral orbitofrontal cortex and frontal pole, and partially mediated delta reductions in parahippocampal, fusiform, and lingual gyri. Putamen, caudate, and inferior parietal cortex activation prior to sleep predicted frontal and motor cortical contributions to sleep delta and theta activity in an age-moderated fashion, reflecting negative relationships in young adults and positive or absent relationships in older adults. Overall, these results support the local sleep hypothesis that brain regions active during learning contribute to consolidation-related neural activity during subsequent sleep and demonstrate that sleep oscillatory activity in these regions is reduced with aging.
Most human neuroscience research to date has focused on statistical approaches that describe stationary patterns of localized neural activity or blood flow. While these patterns are often interpreted in light of dynamic, information-processing concepts, the static, local and inferential nature of the statistical approach makes it challenging to directly link neuroimaging results to plausible underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we argue that dynamical systems theory provides the crucial mechanistic framework for characterizing both the brain’s time-varying quality and its partial stability in the face of perturbations, and hence, that this perspective can have a profound impact on the interpretation of human neuroimaging results and their relationship with behavior. After briefly reviewing some key terminology, we identify three key ways in which neuroimaging analyses can embrace a dynamical systems perspective: by shifting from a local to a more global perspective; by focusing on dynamics instead of static snapshots of neural activity; and by embracing modeling approaches that map neural dynamics using “forward” models. Through this approach, we envisage ample opportunities for neuroimaging researchers to enrich their understanding of the dynamic neural mechanisms that support a wide array of brain functions, both in health and in the setting of psychopathology.
A growing body of work has demonstrated the importance of ongoing oscillatory neural activity in sensory processing and the generation of sensorimotor behaviors. It has been shown, for several different brain areas, that sensory-evoked neural oscillations are generated from the modulation by sensory inputs of inherent self-sustained neural activity (SSA). This letter contributes to that strand of research by introducing a methodology to investigate how much of the sensory-evoked oscillatory activity is generated by SSA and how much is generated by sensory inputs within the context of sensorimotor behavior in a computational model. We develop an abstract model consisting of a network of three Kuramoto oscillators controlling the behavior of a simulated agent performing a categorical perception task. The effects of sensory inputs and SSAs on sensory-evoked oscillations are quantified by the cross product of velocity vectors in the phase space of the network under different conditions (disconnected without input, connected without input, and connected with input). We found that while the agent is carrying out the task, sensory-evoked activity is predominantly generated by SSA (93.10%) with much less influence from sensory inputs (6.90%). Furthermore, the influence of sensory inputs can be reduced by 10.4% (from 6.90% to 6.18%) with a decay in the agent's performance of only 2%. A dynamical analysis shows how sensory-evoked oscillations are generated from a dynamic coupling between the level of sensitivity of the network and the intensity of the input signals. This work may suggest interesting directions for neurophysiological experiments investigating how self-sustained neural activity influences sensory input processing, and ultimately affects behavior.
AbstractIn noisy but stationary environments, decisions should be based on the temporal integration of sequentially sampled evidence. This strategy has been supported by many behavioral studies and is qualitatively consistent with neural activity in multiple brain areas. By contrast, decision-making in the face of non-stationary sensory evidence remains poorly understood. Here, we trained monkeys to identify and respond via saccade to the dominant color of a dynamically refreshed bicolor patch that becomes informative after a variable delay. Animals’ behavioral responses were briefly suppressed after evidence changes, and many neurons in the frontal eye field displayed a corresponding dip in activity at this time, similar to that frequently observed after stimulus onset but sensitive to stimulus strength. Generalized drift-diffusion models revealed consistency of behavior and neural activity with brief suppression of motor output, but not with pausing or resetting of evidence accumulation. These results suggest that momentary arrest of motor preparation is important for dynamic perceptual decision making.
AbstractTraining in working memory tasks is associated with lasting changes in prefrontal cortical activity. To assess the neural activity changes induced by training, we recorded single units, multi-unit activity (MUA) and local field potentials (LFP) with chronic electrode arrays implanted in the prefrontal cortex of two monkeys, throughout the period they were trained to perform cognitive tasks. Mastering different task phases was associated with distinct changes in neural activity, which included recruitment of larger numbers of neurons, increases or decreases of their firing rate, changes in the correlation structure between neurons, and redistribution of power across LFP frequency bands. In every training phase, changes induced by the actively learned task were also observed in a control task, which remained the same across the training period. Our results reveal how learning to perform cognitive tasks induces plasticity of prefrontal cortical activity, and how activity changes may generalize between tasks.
AbstractThe emergence of distributed patterns of neural activity supporting brain functions and behavior can be understood by study of the brain’s low-dimensional topology. Functional neuroimaging demonstrates that brain activity linked to adaptive behavior is constrained to low-dimensional manifolds. In human participants, we tested whether these low-dimensional constraints preserve working memory performance following local neuronal perturbations. We combined multi-session functional magnetic resonance imaging, non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and methods translated from the fields of complex systems and computational biology to assess the functional link between changes in local neural activity and the reshaping of task-related low dimensional trajectories of brain activity. We show that specific reconfigurations of low-dimensional trajectories of brain activity sustain effective working memory performance following TMS manipulation of local activity on, but not off, the space traversed by these trajectories. We highlight an association between the multi-scale changes in brain activity underpinning cognitive function.
The globus pallidus internus is the main target for the treatment of dystonia by deep brain stimulation. Unfortunately, for some genetic etiologies, the therapeutic outcome of dystonia is less predictable. In particular, therapeutic outcomes for deep brain stimulation in craniocervical and orolaryngeal dystonia in DYT6-positive patients are poor. Little is known about the neurophysiology of the globus pallidus internus in DYT6-positive dystonia, and how symptomatic treatment affects the neural activity of this region.
We present here the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian female DYT6-dystonic patient with blepharospasm, spasmodic dysphonia, and oromandibular dystonia where single-unit and local field potential activity was recorded from the globus pallidus internus during two deep brain stimulation revision surgeries 4 years apart with no symptomatic improvement. Botulinum toxin injections consistently improved dysphonia, while some of the other symptoms were only inconsistently or marginally improved. Neural activity in the globus pallidus internus during both revision surgeries were compared with previously published results from an idiopathic dystonic cohort. Single-cell firing characteristics and local field potential from the first revision surgery showed no differences with our control group. However, during the second revision surgery, the mean firing rate of single units and local field potential power in the gamma range were lower than those present during the first revision surgery or the control group.
Symptoms related to facial movements were greatly improved by botulinum toxin treatment between revision surgeries, which coincided with lower discharge rate and changes in gamma local field oscillations.
Ascending neuromodulatory projections from the locus coeruleus (LC) affect cortical neural networks via the release of norepinephrine (NE). However, the exact nature of these neuromodulatory effects on neural activity patterns in vivo is not well understood. Here we show that in awake monkeys, LC activation is associated with changes in coordinated activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). These relationships, which are largely independent of changes in firing rates of individual ACC neurons, depend on the type of LC activation: ACC pairwise correlations tend to be reduced when ongoing (baseline) LC activity increases but enhanced when external events evoke transient LC responses. Both relationships covary with pupil changes that reflect LC activation and arousal. These results suggest that modulations of information processing that reflect changes in coordinated activity patterns in cortical networks can result partly from ongoing, context-dependent, arousal-related changes in activation of the LC-NE system.