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Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt ◽  
Jie Song ◽  
Marc Cheah-Mane ◽  
Eduardo Prieto-Araujo

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Willy Wong

Measurements of the peripheral sensory adaptation response were compared to a simple mathematical relationship involving the spontaneous, peak, and steady-state activities. This relationship is based on the geometric mean and is found to be obeyed to good approximation in peripheral sensory units showing a sustained response to prolonged stimulation. From an extensive review of past studies, the geometric mean relationship is shown to be independent of modality and is satisfied in a wide range of animal species. The consilience of evidence, from nearly 100 years of experiments beginning with the work of Edgar Adrian, suggests that this is a fundamental result of neurophysiology.

2021 ◽  
Gemma M. Rodríguez-Muñiz ◽  
Theodoros Mikroulis ◽  
Anna Pantelia ◽  
Georgios Rotas ◽  
M. Consuelo Cuquerella ◽  

Abstract Mitochondria-targeting drugs and diagnostics are used in the monitoring and treatment of mitochondrial pathologies. In this respect, a great number of functional compounds have been made mitotropic by covalently attaching the active moiety onto a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation. Among these compounds, a number of molecular detectors for reactive oxygen species (ROS) are based on fluorescent and chemiluminescent probes. In this regard, luminol (probably the most widely known chemiluminescent molecule) has been employed for a number of biological applications, including ROS detection. Its oxidation under specific conditions triggers a cascade of reactions, ultimately leading to the excited 3-aminophthalate (3AP*), which emits light upon deactivation. Hence, the photophysical interaction between the light emitting species 3AP* and TPP cations needs to be evaluated, as it can add valuable information on the design of novel emission-based mitotropic systems. We herein investigate the quenching effect of ethyltriphenylphosphonium cation onto substituted 3-aminophthalates. These were prepared in situ upon the hydrolysis of the corresponding anhydrides, which were synthesized from 3-aminophthalimides. Steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved experiments were employed for the evaluation of a possible electron transfer quenching by phosphonium ions. Our experimental results confirmed such quenching, suggesting it is mainly dynamic in nature. A minor contribution of static quenching that was also detected is attributed to complex formation in the ground state. Accordingly, the chemiluminescence of luminol was indeed strongly reduced in the presence of phosphonium ions. Our results have to be taken into account during the design of new chemiluminescent mitotropic drugs or diagnostic agents of the luminol family.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Hodam Kim ◽  
Chang-Hwan Im

There remains an active investigation on elevating the classification accuracy and information transfer rate of brain-computer interfaces based on steady-state visual evoked potential. However, it has often been ignored that the performance of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be affected through the minor displacement of the electrodes from their optimal locations in practical applications because of the mislocation of electrodes and/or concurrent use of electroencephalography (EEG) devices with external devices, such as virtual reality headsets. In this study, we evaluated the performance robustness of SSVEP-based BCIs with respect to the changes in electrode locations for various channel configurations and classification algorithms. Our experiments involved 21 participants, where EEG signals were recorded from the scalp electrodes densely attached to the occipital area of the participants. The classification accuracies for all the possible cases of electrode location shifts for various channel configurations (1–3 channels) were calculated using five training-free SSVEP classification algorithms, i.e., the canonical correlation analysis (CCA), extended CCA, filter bank CCA, multivariate synchronization index (MSI), and extended MSI (EMSI). Then, the performances of the BCIs were evaluated using two measures, i.e., the average classification accuracy (ACA) across the electrode shifts and robustness to the electrode shift (RES). Our results showed that the ACA increased with an increase in the number of channels regardless of the algorithm. However, the RES was enhanced with an increase in the number of channels only when MSI and EMSI were employed. While both ACA and RES values for the five algorithms were similar under the single-channel condition, both ACA and RES values for MSI and EMSI were higher than those of the other algorithms under the multichannel (i.e., two or three electrodes) conditions. In addition, EMSI outperformed MSI when comparing the ACA and RES values under the multichannel conditions. In conclusion, our results suggested that the use of multichannel configuration and employment of EMSI could make the performance of SSVEP-based BCIs more robust to the electrode shift from the optimal locations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 75-94

Criticisms of the neoclassical economic framework and perpetual growth in GDP terms are not a new phenomenon, although recent years have seen increasing interest in alternative and ecological discourses including degrowth, steady-state and circular economics. Although these may initially appear as distinctly different discourses, they are highly compatible and comparable, sharing similar, often nearly identical principles and policy proposals. A more collaborative, joined-up approach aimed at integrating alternative discourses is required in order to build a coherent, credible, well-supported alternative, as there is more uniting than dividing these critical voices, particularly in the face of mainstream political and economic debates that are shaped by neoclassical economics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 11650
Hegazy Rezk ◽  
Mohammed Mazen Alhato ◽  
Mujahed Al-Dhaifallah ◽  
Soufiene Bouallègue

Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are equipment for transforming thermal power into electricity via the Seebeck effect. These modules have gained increasing interest in research fields related to sustainable energy. The harvested energy is mostly reliant on the differential temperature between the hot and cold areas of the TEGs. Hence, a reliable maximum power point tracker is necessary to operate TEGs too close to their maximum power point (MPP) under an operational and climate variation. In this paper, an optimized fractional incremental resistance tracker (OF-INRT) is suggested to enhance the output performance of a TEG. The introduced tracker is based on the fractional-order PIλDμ control concepts. The optimal parameters of the OF-INRT are determined using a population-based sine cosine algorithm (SCA). To confirm the optimality of the introduced SCA, experiments were conducted and the results compared with those of particle swarm optimization- (PSO) and whale optimization algorithm (WOA) -based techniques. The key goal of the suggested OF-INRT is to overcome the two main issues in conventional trackers, i.e., the slow dynamics of traditional incremental resistance trackers (INRT) and the high steady-state fluctuation around the MPP in the prevalent perturb and observe trackers (POTs). The main findings prove the superiority of the OF-INRT in comparison with the INRT and POT, for both dynamic and steady-state responses.

2021 ◽  
Jing Dong ◽  
Rouba Ibrahim

The shortest-remaining-processing-time (SRPT) scheduling policy has been extensively studied, for more than 50 years, in single-server queues with infinitely patient jobs. Yet, much less is known about its performance in multiserver queues. In this paper, we present the first theoretical analysis of SRPT in multiserver queues with abandonment. In particular, we consider the [Formula: see text] queue and demonstrate that, in the many-sever overloaded regime, performance in the SRPT queue is equivalent, asymptotically in steady state, to a preemptive two-class priority queue where customers with short service times (below a threshold) are served without wait, and customers with long service times (above a threshold) eventually abandon without service. We prove that the SRPT discipline maximizes, asymptotically, the system throughput, among all scheduling disciplines. We also compare the performance of the SRPT policy to blind policies and study the effects of the patience-time and service-time distributions. This paper was accepted by Baris Ata, stochastic models & simulation.

2021 ◽  
Maria Lopez-Acosta ◽  
Manuel Maldonado ◽  
Jacques Grall ◽  
Axel Ehrhold ◽  
Celia Sitja ◽  

In coastal systems, planktonic and benthic silicifiers compete for the pool of dissolved silicon, a nutrient required to make their skeletons. The contribution of planktonic diatoms to the cycling of silicon in coastal systems is often well characterized, while that of benthic silicifiers such as sponges has rarely been quantified. Herein, silicon fluxes and stocks are quantified for the sponge fauna in the benthic communities of the Bay of Brest (France). A total of 45 siliceous sponge species living in the Bay account for a silicon standing stock of 1215 tons, while that of diatoms is only 27 tons. The silicon reservoir accumulated as sponge skeletons in the superficial sediments of the Bay rises to 1775 tons, while that of diatom skeletons is only 248 tons. These comparatively large stocks of sponge silicon were estimated to cycle two orders of magnitude slower than the diatom stocks. Sponge silicon stocks need years to decades to be renewed, while diatom turnover lasts only days. Although the sponge monitoring over the last 6 years indicates no major changes of the sponge stocks, our results do not allow to conclude if the silicon sponge budget of the Bay is at steady state, and potential scenarios are discussed. The findings buttress the idea that sponges and diatoms play contrasting roles in the marine silicon cycle. The budgets of these silicon major users need to be integrated and their connections revealed, if we aim to reach a full understanding of the silicon cycling in coastal ecosystems.

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