scholarly journals How the Easter Egg Weevils Got Their Spots: Phylogenomics reveals Müllerian Mimicry in Pachyrhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

2021 ◽  
Matthew H. Van Dam ◽  
Analyn Anzano Cabras ◽  
Athena W. Lam

ABSTRACTThe evolutionary origins of mimicry in the Easter Egg weevil, Pachyrhynchus, have fascinated researchers since first noted more than a century ago by Alfred Russel Wallace. Müllerian mimicry, or mimicry in which two or more distasteful species look similar, is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Given the varied but discrete color patterns in Pachyrhynchus, this genus presents one of the best opportunities to study the evolution of both perfect and imperfect mimicry. We analyzed more than 10,000 UCE loci using a novel partitioning strategy to resolve the relationships of closely related species in the genus. Our results indicate that many of the mimetic color patterns observed in sympatric species are due to convergent evolution. We suggest that this convergence is driven by frequency-dependent selection.

eLife ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Chuanfu Dong ◽  
Cameron J Weadick ◽  
Vincent Truffault ◽  
Ralf J Sommer

The small molecules that mediate chemical communication between nematodes—so-called ‘nematode-derived-modular-metabolites’ (NDMMs)—are of major interest because of their ability to regulate development, behavior, and life-history. Pristionchus pacificus nematodes produce an impressive diversity of structurally complex NDMMs, some of which act as primer pheromones that are capable of triggering irreversible developmental switches. Many of these NDMMs have only ever been found in P. pacificus but no attempts have been made to study their evolution by profiling closely related species. This study brings a comparative perspective to the biochemical study of NDMMs through the systematic MS/MS- and NMR-based analysis of exo-metabolomes from over 30 Pristionchus species. We identified 36 novel compounds and found evidence for the convergent evolution of complex NDMMs in separate branches of the Pristionchus phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that biochemical innovation is a recurrent process in Pristionchus nematodes, a pattern that is probably typical across the animal kingdom.

Genetics ◽  
2008 ◽  
Vol 180 (3) ◽  
pp. 1567-1577 ◽  
Simon W. Baxter ◽  
Riccardo Papa ◽  
Nicola Chamberlain ◽  
Sean J. Humphray ◽  
Mathieu Joron ◽  

Evolution ◽  
1977 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 452-453
P. M. Sheppard ◽  
J. R. G. Turner

1986 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 205 ◽  
ASY Leong ◽  
MJ Tyler ◽  
DJC Shearman

The phenomenon of gastric brooding and oral birth displayed by the Australian frog Rheobatrachus silus has not previously been observed in the Animal Kingdom. This report describes another example of gastric brooding in a recently discovered, closely related species, Rheobatrachus vitellinus. The stomach of a female R. vitellinus that had given birth to 22 froglets revealed morphologic changes which were quite different to those described in R. silus. Unlike the atrophy of the mucosa and acid-secreting oxyntic cells in the latter species, there was no evidence of major structural changes in the brooding stomach of R. vitellinus. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the light microscopic appearances of the stomach in the brooding female and that from a non-brooding female and male R. vitellinus. A striking finding not observed in the non-brooding stomachs of R. vitellinus nor in R. silus was the presence of widespread and numerous apoptotic bodies in the gastric epithelium. The apoptotic bodies were recognized as phagocytosed fragments of eosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclear material. Ultrastructurally, well preserved organelles were observed in the phagocytosed fragments. This diffuse deletion of cells and the striking absence of major structural changes in the brooding stomach may indicate a dichotomy in the evolution of this bizarre and unique reproductive habit.

2017 ◽  
Vol 284 (1849) ◽  
pp. 20162080 ◽  
Gabriel A. Jamie

‘Mimicry’ is used in the evolutionary and ecological literature to describe diverse phenomena. Many are textbook examples of natural selection's power to produce stunning adaptations. However, there remains a lack of clarity over how mimetic resemblances are conceptually related to each other. The result is that categories denoting the traditional subdivisions of mimicry are applied inconsistently across studies, hindering attempts at conceptual unification. This review critically examines the logic by which mimicry can be conceptually organized and analysed. It highlights the following three evolutionarily relevant distinctions. (i) Are the model's traits being mimicked signals or cues? (ii) Does the mimic signal a fitness benefit or fitness cost in order to manipulate the receiver's behaviour? (iii) Is the mimic's signal deceptive? The first distinction divides mimicry into two broad categories: ‘signal mimicry’ and ‘cue mimicry’. ‘Signal mimicry’ occurs when mimic and model share the same receiver, and ‘cue mimicry’ when mimic and model have different receivers or when there is no receiver for the model's trait. ‘Masquerade’ fits conceptually within cue mimicry. The second and third distinctions divide both signal and cue mimicry into four types each. These are the three traditional mimicry categories (aggressive, Batesian and Müllerian) and a fourth, often overlooked category for which the term ‘rewarding mimicry’ is suggested. Rewarding mimicry occurs when the mimic's signal is non-deceptive (as in Müllerian mimicry) but where the mimic signals a fitness benefit to the receiver (as in aggressive mimicry). The existence of rewarding mimicry is a logical extension of the criteria used to differentiate the three well-recognized forms of mimicry. These four forms of mimicry are not discrete, immutable types, but rather help to define important axes along which mimicry can vary.

2008 ◽  
Vol 95 (8) ◽  
pp. 681-695 ◽  
Thomas N. Sherratt

2012 ◽  
Vol 279 (1736) ◽  
pp. 2099-2105 ◽  
Eira Ihalainen ◽  
Hannah M. Rowland ◽  
Michael P. Speed ◽  
Graeme D. Ruxton ◽  
Johanna Mappes

Müllerian mimicry describes the close resemblance between aposematic prey species; it is thought to be beneficial because sharing a warning signal decreases the mortality caused by sampling by inexperienced predators learning to avoid the signal. It has been hypothesized that selection for mimicry is strongest in multi-species prey communities where predators are more prone to misidentify the prey than in simple communities. In this study, wild great tits ( Parus major ) foraged from either simple (few prey appearances) or complex (several prey appearances) artificial prey communities where a specific model prey was always present. Owing to slower learning, the model did suffer higher mortality in complex communities when the birds were inexperienced. However, in a subsequent generalization test to potential mimics of the model prey (a continuum of signal accuracy), only birds that had foraged from simple communities selected against inaccurate mimics. Therefore, accurate mimicry is more likely to evolve in simple communities even though predator avoidance learning is slower in complex communities. For mimicry to evolve, prey species must have a common predator; the effective community consists of the predator's diet. In diverse environments, the limited diets of specialist predators could create ‘simple community pockets’ where accurate mimicry is selected for.

2013 ◽  
Vol 337 ◽  
pp. 101-110 ◽  
V. Llaurens ◽  
S. Billiard ◽  
M. Joron

2008 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 362-368 ◽  
Eira Ihalainen ◽  
Leena Lindström ◽  
Johanna Mappes ◽  
Sari Puolakkainen

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document