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Published By "Elife Sciences Publications, Ltd."

2050-084x
Updated Sunday, 17 October 2021

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julia Kuhn ◽  
Ilia D Vainchtein ◽  
Joao M Braz ◽  
Katherine Hamel ◽  
Mollie Bernstein ◽  
...  

Peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain is a chronic and debilitating condition characterized by mechanical hypersensitivity. We previously identified microglial activation via release of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) from injured sensory neurons as a mechanism contributing to nerve injury-induced pain. Here we show that intrathecal administration of CSF1, even in the absence of injury, is sufficient to induce pain behavior, but only in male mice. Transcriptional profiling and morphologic analyses after intrathecal CSF1 showed robust immune activation in male but not female microglia. CSF1 also induced marked expansion of lymphocytes within the spinal cord meninges, with preferential expansion of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in female mice. Consistent with the hypothesis that Tregs actively suppress microglial activation in females, Treg deficient (Foxp3DTR) female mice showed increased CSF1-induced microglial activation and pain hypersensitivity equivalent to males. We conclude that sexual dimorphism in the contribution of microglia to pain results from Treg-mediated suppression of microglial activation and pain hypersensitivity in female mice.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Olivier Thomine ◽  
Samuel Alizon ◽  
Corentin Boennec ◽  
Marc Barthelemy ◽  
Mircea Sofonea

Simulating nationwide realistic individual movements with a detailed geographical structure can help optimize public health policies. However, existing tools have limited resolution or can only account for a limited number of agents. We introduce Epidemap, a new framework that can capture the daily movement of more than 60 million people in a country at a building-level resolution in a realistic and computationally efficient way. By applying it to the case of an infectious disease spreading in France, we uncover hitherto neglected effects, such as the emergence of two distinct peaks in the daily number of cases or the importance of local density in the timing of arrival of the epidemic. Finally, we show that the importance of super-spreading events strongly varies over time.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tingting Zhao ◽  
Irina O Vvedenskaya ◽  
William KM Lai ◽  
Shrabani Basu ◽  
B Franklin Pugh ◽  
...  

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) selects transcription start sites (TSS) by a unidirectional scanning process. During scanning, a preinitiation complex (PIC) assembled at an upstream core promoter initiates at select positions within a window ~40-120 basepairs downstream. Several lines of evidence indicate that Ssl2, the yeast homolog of XPB and an essential and conserved subunit of the general transcription factor (GTF) TFIIH, drives scanning through its DNA-dependent ATPase activity, therefore potentially controlling both scanning rate and scanning extent (processivity). To address questions of how Ssl2 functions in promoter scanning and interacts with other initiation activities, we leveraged distinct initiation-sensitive reporters to identify novel ssl2 alleles. These ssl2 alleles, many of which alter residues conserved from yeast to human, confer either upstream or downstream TSS shifts at the model promoter ADH1 and genome-wide. Specifically, tested ssl2 alleles alter TSS selection by increasing or narrowing the distribution of TSSs used at individual promoters. Genetic interactions of ssl2 alleles with other initiation factors are consistent with ssl2 allele classes functioning through increasing or decreasing scanning processivity but not necessarily scanning rate. These alleles underpin a residue interaction network that likely modulates Ssl2 activity and TFIIH function in promoter scanning. We propose that the outcome of promoter scanning is determined by two functional networks, the first being Pol II activity and factors that modulate it to determine initiation efficiency within a scanning window, and the second being Ssl2/TFIIH and factors that modulate scanning processivity to determine the width of the scanning widow.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Isaac J jensen ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Patrick W McGonagill ◽  
Qiang Shan ◽  
Micaela G Fosdick ◽  
...  

The global health burden due to sepsis and the associated cytokine storm is substantial. While early intervention has improved survival during the cytokine storm, those that survive can enter a state of chronic immunoparalysis defined by transient lymphopenia and functional deficits of surviving cells. Memory CD8 T cells provide rapid cytolysis and cytokine production following re-encounter with their cognate antigen to promote long-term immunity, and CD8 T cell impairment due to sepsis can pre-dispose individuals to re-infection. While the acute influence of sepsis on memory CD8 T cells has been characterized, if and to what extent pre-existing memory CD8 T cells recover remains unknown. Here, we observed that central memory CD8 T cells (TCM) from septic patients proliferate more than those from healthy individuals. Utilizing LCMV immune mice and a CLP model to induce sepsis, we demonstrated that TCM proliferation is associated with numerical recovery of pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cells following sepsis-induced lymphopenia. This increased proliferation leads to changes in composition of memory CD8 T cell compartment and altered tissue localization. Further, memory CD8 T cells from sepsis survivors have an altered transcriptional profile and chromatin accessibility indicating long-lasting T cell intrinsic changes. The sepsis-induced changes in the composition of the memory CD8 T cell pool and transcriptional landscape culminated in altered T cell function and reduced capacity to control L. monocytogenes infection. Thus, sepsis leads to long-term alterations in memory CD8 T cell phenotype, protective function and localization potentially changing host capacity to respond to re-infection.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cathrine Bergh ◽  
Stephanie A Heusser ◽  
Rebecca Howard ◽  
Erik Lindahl

Ligand-gated ion channels conduct currents in response to chemical stimuli, mediating electrochemical signaling in neurons and other excitable cells. For many channels the details of gating remain unclear, partly due to limited structural data and simulation timescales. Here, we used enhanced sampling to simulate the pH-gated channel GLIC, and construct Markov state models (MSMs) of gating. Consistent with new functional recordings we report in oocytes, our analysis revealed differential effects of protonation and mutation on free-energy wells. Clustering of closed- versus open-like states enabled estimation of open probabilities and transition rates, while higher-order clustering affirmed conformational trends in gating. Furthermore, our models uncovered state- and protonation-dependent symmetrization. This demonstrates the applicability of MSMs to map energetic and conformational transitions between ion-channel functional states, and how they reproduce shifts upon activation or mutation, with implications for modeling neuronal function and developing state-selective drugs.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Milton T Drott

The fungus Aspergillus nidulans produces secondary metabolites during sexual development to protect itself from predators.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Deepika Sharma ◽  
Yilin Yu ◽  
Leyao Shen ◽  
Guo-Fang Zhang ◽  
Courtney M Karner

Osteoblast differentiation is sequentially characterized by high rates of proliferation followed by increased protein and matrix synthesis, processes that require substantial amino acid acquisition and production. How osteoblasts obtain or maintain intracellular amino acid production is poorly understood. Here we identify SLC1A5 as a critical amino acid transporter during bone development. Using a genetic and metabolomic approach, we show SLC1A5 acts cell autonomously to regulate protein synthesis and osteoblast differentiation. SLC1A5 provides both glutamine and asparagine which are essential for osteoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, glutamine and to a lesser extent asparagine support amino acid biosynthesis. Thus, osteoblasts depend on Slc1a5 to provide glutamine and asparagine, which are subsequently used to produce non-essential amino acids and support osteoblast differentiation and bone development.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jennifer C Robinson ◽  
Mark P Brandon

Envisioning the future is intuitively linked to our ability to remember the past. Within the memory system, substantial work has demonstrated the involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus in representing the past and present. Recent data shows that both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus encode future trajectories, which are segregated in time by alternating cycles of the theta rhythm. Here, we discuss how information is temporally organized by these brain regions supported by the medial septum, nucleus reuniens, and parahippocampal regions. Finally, we highlight a brain circuit that we predict is essential for the temporal segregation of future scenarios.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Raphael Vallat ◽  
Matthew P Walker

The clinical and societal measurement of human sleep has increased exponentially in recent years. However, unlike other fields of medical analysis that have become highly automated, basic and clinical sleep research still relies on human visual scoring. Such human-based evaluations are time-consuming, tedious, and can be prone to subjective bias. Here, we describe a novel algorithm trained and validated on +30,000 hr of polysomnographic sleep recordings across heterogeneous populations around the world. This tool offers high sleep-staging accuracy that matches human scoring accuracy and interscorer agreement no matter the population kind. The software is designed to be especially easy to use, computationally low-demanding, open source, and free. Our hope is that this software facilitates the broad adoption of an industry-standard automated sleep staging software package.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Auguste Schulz ◽  
Christoph Miehl ◽  
Michael J Berry ◽  
Julijana Gjorgjieva

Animals depend on fast and reliable detection of novel stimuli in their environment. Neurons in multiple sensory areas respond more strongly to novel in comparison to familiar stimuli. Yet, it remains unclear which circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms underlie those responses. Here, we show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity of inhibitory-to-excitatory synapses generates novelty responses in a recurrent spiking network model. Inhibitory plasticity increases the inhibition onto excitatory neurons tuned to familiar stimuli, while inhibition for novel stimuli remains low, leading to a network novelty response. The generation of novelty responses does not depend on the periodicity but rather on the distribution of presented stimuli. By including tuning of inhibitory neurons, the network further captures stimulus-specific adaptation. Finally, we suggest that disinhibition can control the amplification of novelty responses. Therefore, inhibitory plasticity provides a flexible, biologically plausible mechanism to detect the novelty of bottom-up stimuli, enabling us to make experimentally testable predictions.


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