Proceedings of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences
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Published By The Royal Society

1471-2954, 0962-8452

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthieu Domenech de Cellès ◽  
Elizabeth Goult ◽  
Jean-Sebastien Casalegno ◽  
Sarah C. Kramer

There is growing experimental evidence that many respiratory viruses—including influenza and SARS-CoV-2—can interact, such that their epidemiological dynamics may not be independent. To assess these interactions, standard statistical tests of independence suggest that the prevalence ratio—defined as the ratio of co-infection prevalence to the product of single-infection prevalences—should equal unity for non-interacting pathogens. As a result, earlier epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the prevalence ratio from co-detection prevalence data, under the assumption that deviations from unity implied interaction. To examine the validity of this assumption, we designed a simulation study that built on a broadly applicable epidemiological model of co-circulation of two emerging or seasonal respiratory viruses. By focusing on the pair influenza–SARS-CoV-2, we first demonstrate that the prevalence ratio systematically underestimates the strength of interaction, and can even misclassify antagonistic or synergistic interactions that persist after clearance of infection. In a global sensitivity analysis, we further identify properties of viral infection—such as a high reproduction number or a short infectious period—that blur the interaction inferred from the prevalence ratio. Altogether, our results suggest that ecological or epidemiological studies based on co-detection prevalence data provide a poor guide to assess interactions among respiratory viruses.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Cecilia Estalles ◽  
Sheela P. Turbek ◽  
María José Rodríguez-Cajarville ◽  
Luís Fábio Silveira ◽  
Kazumasa Wakamatsu ◽  
...  

Coloration traits are central to animal communication; they often govern mate choice, promote reproductive isolation and catalyse speciation. Specific genetic changes can cause variation in coloration, yet far less is known about how overall coloration patterns—which involve combinations of multiple colour patches across the body—can arise and are genomically controlled. We performed genome-wide association analyses to link genomic changes to variation in melanin (eumelanin and pheomelanin) concentration in feathers from different body parts in the capuchino seedeaters, an avian radiation with diverse colour patterns despite remarkably low genetic differentiation across species. Cross-species colour variation in each plumage patch is associated with unique combinations of variants at a few genomic regions, which include mostly non-coding (presumably regulatory) areas close to known pigmentation genes. Genotype–phenotype associations can vary depending on patch colour and are stronger for eumelanin pigmentation, suggesting eumelanin production is tightly regulated. Although some genes are involved in colour variation in multiple patches, in some cases, the SNPs associated with colour changes in different patches segregate spatially. These results suggest that coloration patterning in capuchinos is generated by the modular combination of variants that regulate multiple melanogenesis genes, a mechanism that may have promoted this rapid radiation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Joshua P. Twining ◽  
Chris Sutherland ◽  
Neil Reid ◽  
David G. Tosh

Ongoing recovery of native predators has the potential to alter species interactions, with community and ecosystem wide implications. We estimated the co-occurrence of three species of conservation and management interest from a multi-species citizen science camera trap survey. We demonstrate fundamental differences in novel and coevolved predator–prey interactions that are mediated by habitat. Specifically, we demonstrate that anthropogenic habitat modification had no influence on the expansion of the recovering native pine marten in Ireland, nor does it affect the predator's suppressive influence on an invasive prey species, the grey squirrel. By contrast, the direction of the interaction between the pine marten and a native prey species, the red squirrel, is dependent on habitat. Pine martens had a positive influence on red squirrel occurrence at a landscape scale, especially in native broadleaf woodlands. However, in areas dominated by non-native conifer plantations, the pine marten reduced red squirrel occurrence. These findings suggest that following the recovery of a native predator, the benefits of competitive release are spatially structured and habitat-specific. The potential for past and future landscape modification to alter established interactions between predators and prey has global implications in the context of the ongoing recovery of predator populations in human-modified landscapes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Milica Mandic ◽  
Kaitlyn Flear ◽  
Pearl Qiu ◽  
Yihang K. Pan ◽  
Steve F. Perry ◽  
...  

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (Hif-1α), an important transcription factor regulating cellular responses to reductions in O 2 , previously was shown to improve hypoxia tolerance in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). Here, we examined the contribution of Hif-1α to hypoxic survival, focusing on the benefit of aquatic surface respiration (ASR). Wild-type and Hif-1α knockout lines of adult zebrafish were exposed to two levels (moderate or severe) of intermittent hypoxia. Survival was significantly compromised in Hif-1α knockout zebrafish prevented from accessing the surface during severe (16 mmHg) but not moderate (23 mmHg) hypoxia. When allowed access to the surface in severe hypoxia, survival times did not differ between wild-type and Hif-1α knockouts. Performing ASR mitigated the negative effects of the loss of Hif-1α with the knockouts initiating ASR at a higher P O 2 threshold and performing ASR for longer than wild-types. The loss of Hif-1α had little impact on survival in fish between 1 and 5 days post-fertilization, but as the larvae aged, their reliance on Hif-1α increased. Similar to adult fish, ASR compensated for the loss of Hif-1α on survival. Together, these results demonstrate that age, hypoxia severity and, in particular, the ability to perform ASR significantly modulate the impact of Hif-1α on survival in hypoxic zebrafish.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Priscila S. Rothier ◽  
Monique N. Simon ◽  
Gabriel Marroig ◽  
Anthony Herrel ◽  
Tiana Kohlsdorf

Selective regimes favouring the evolution of functional specialization probably affect covariation among phenotypic traits. Phalanges of most tetrapods develop from a conserved module that constrains their relative proportions. In geckos, however, biomechanical specializations associated with adhesive toepads involve morphological variation in the autopodium and might reorganize such modular structures. We tested two hypotheses to explain the modular architecture of hand bones in geckos, one based on developmental interactions and another incorporating functional associations related to locomotion, and compared the empirical support for each hypothetical module between padded and padless lineages. We found strong evidence for developmental modules in most species, which probably reflects embryological constraints during phalangeal formation. Although padded geckos exhibit a functional specialization involving the hyperextension of the distal phalanges that is absent in padless species, the padless species are the ones that show a distal functional module with high integration. Some ancestrally padless geckos apparently deviate from developmental predictions and present a relatively weak developmental module of phalanges and a strongly integrated distal module, which may reflect selective regimes involving incipient frictional adhesion in digit morphology. Modularity of digit elements seems dynamic along the evolutionary history of geckos, being associated with the presence/absence of adhesive toepads.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah N. Sells ◽  
Michael S. Mitchell ◽  
David E. Ausband ◽  
Angela D. Luis ◽  
Douglas J. Emlen ◽  
...  

Ecologists have long sought to understand space use and mechanisms underlying patterns observed in nature. We developed an optimality landscape and mechanistic territory model to understand mechanisms driving space use and compared model predictions to empirical reality. We demonstrate our approach using grey wolves ( Canis lupus ). In the model, simulated animals selected territories to economically acquire resources by selecting patches with greatest value, accounting for benefits, costs and trade-offs of defending and using space on the optimality landscape. Our approach successfully predicted and explained first- and second-order space use of wolves, including the population's distribution, territories of individual packs, and influences of prey density, competitor density, human-caused mortality risk and seasonality. It accomplished this using simple behavioural rules and limited data to inform the optimality landscape. Results contribute evidence that economical territory selection is a mechanistic bridge between space use and animal distribution on the landscape. This approach and resulting gains in knowledge enable predicting effects of a wide range of environmental conditions, contributing to both basic ecological understanding of natural systems and conservation. We expect this approach will demonstrate applicability across diverse habitats and species, and that its foundation can help continue to advance understanding of spatial behaviour.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tommaso Batistoni ◽  
Pat Barclay ◽  
Nichola J. Raihani

Third-party punishment is thought to act as an honest signal of cooperative intent and such signals might escalate when competing to be chosen as a partner. Here, we investigate whether partner choice competition prompts escalating investment in third-party punishment. We also consider the case of signalling via helpful acts to provide a direct test of the relative strength of the two types of signals. Individuals invested more in third-party helping than third-party punishment and invested more in both signals when observed compared to when investments would be unseen. We found no clear effect of partner choice (over and above mere observation) on investments in either punishment or helping. Third-parties who invested more than a partner were preferentially chosen for a subsequent Trust Game although the preference to interact with the higher investor was more pronounced in the help than in the punishment condition. Third-parties who invested more were entrusted with more money and investments in third-party punishment or helping reliably signalled trustworthiness. Individuals who did not invest in third-party helping were more likely to be untrustworthy than those who did not invest in third-party punishment. This supports the conception of punishment as a more ambiguous signal of cooperative intent compared to help.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elyse K. McMahon ◽  
Elizabeth Youatt ◽  
Sonia A. Cavigelli

Animal behaviour research has experienced a renewed interest in consistent individual differences (i.e. animal personality or temperament). Recent ecological studies have identified environmental conditions that give rise to the development and evolution of temperaments and to fitness-related outcomes of temperament. Additional literature has also described relationships between temperaments and physiological regulation. However, one-to-one relationships between one behavioural trait and one physiological system do not account for co-selection of behavioural and physiological traits, nor the complex signalling among physiological systems. In the current paper, we review the literature on multiple physiological processes associated with temperament, propose temperament-specific physiological profiles, and focus on next steps to understand the functional significance, evolution and maintenance of temperaments. We propose that to understand causes and consequences of temperament we need to characterize integrative physiological profiles associated with different temperaments.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Karin H. Olsson ◽  
Roi Gurka ◽  
Roi Holzman

Suction-feeding in fishes is a ubiquitous form of prey capture whose outcome depends both on the movements of the predator and the prey, and on the dynamics of the surrounding fluid, which exerts forces on the two organisms. The inherent complexity of suction-feeding has challenged previous efforts to understand how the feeding strikes are modified when species evolve to feed on different prey types. Here, we use the concept of dynamic similarity, commonly applied to understanding the mechanisms of swimming, flying, walking and aquatic feeding. We characterize the hydrodynamic regimes pertaining to (i) the forward movement of the fish (ram), and (ii) the suction flows for feeding strikes of 71 species of acanthomorph fishes. A discriminant function analysis revealed that feeding strikes of zooplanktivores, generalists and piscivores could be distinguished based on their hydrodynamic regimes. Furthermore, a phylogenetic comparative analysis revealed that there are distinctive hydrodynamic adaptive peaks associated with zooplanktivores, generalists and piscivores. The scaling of dynamic similarity across species, body sizes and feeding guilds in fishes indicates that elementary hydrodynamic principles govern the trophic evolution of suction-feeding in fishes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Author(s):  
Craig F. Purchase ◽  
Anna C. Rooke ◽  
Michael J. Gaudry ◽  
Jason R. Treberg ◽  
Elizabeth A. Mittell ◽  
...  

Senescence—the deterioration of functionality with age—varies widely across taxa in pattern and rate. Insights into why and how this variation occurs are hindered by the predominance of laboratory-focused research on short-lived model species with determinate growth. We synthesize evolutionary theories of senescence, highlight key information gaps and clarify predictions for species with low mortality and variable degrees of indeterminate growth. Lake trout are an ideal species to evaluate predictions in the wild. We monitored individual males from two populations (1976–2017) longitudinally for changes in adult mortality (actuarial senescence) and body condition (proxy for energy balance). A cross-sectional approach (2017) compared young (ages 4–10 years) and old (18–37 years) adults for (i) phenotypic performance in body condition, and semen quality—which is related to fertility under sperm competition (reproductive senescence)—and (ii) relative telomere length (potential proxy for cellular senescence). Adult growth in these particular populations is constrained by a simplified foodweb, and our data support predictions of negligible senescence when maximum size is only slightly larger than maturation size. Negative senescence (aka reverse senescence) may occur in other lake trout populations where diet shifts allow maximum sizes to greatly exceed maturation size.


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