closely related species
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Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 531 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-72

A novel species in Aspergillus section Fumigati is described as Aspergillus sibiricus. The new species was isolated from an open coal mine in Altai, Siberia, Russia and is represented by ex-type strain CBS 143307. We used a polyphasic taxonomic approach to characterise the species. A description based on morphological features is provided and shows that the new species differs morphologically from closely related species (A. assulatus, A. nishimurae and A. waksmanii). Partial sequences of the loci encoding β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM), ribosomal polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) were analyzed as well. Sequences data, macro- and micromorphological and physiological characteristics distinguish A. sibiricus from all known species in section Fumigati, series Unilaterales. A. sibiricus, isolated from an acidic habitat (pH 3.2–3.4), is able to grow at pH 2 and is considered an acid-resistant species.

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (2) ◽  
pp. 357-372

Six new species of the spider genus Tonsilla Wang & Yin, 1992 are described from southern China: T. jinyunensis sp. nov. (♂♀) from Chongqing, T. jiugongensis sp. nov. (♂♀) from Hubei, T. subtruculenta sp. nov. (♂♀), T. rutunda sp. nov. (♂♀) and T. yueliangensis sp. nov. (♂) from Guizhou and T. subrostrum sp. nov. (♂♀) from Hunan. In addition, T. yanlingensis (Zhang, Yin & Kim, 2000) is redescribed and its male is described here for the first time. Tonsilla subyanlingensis Liu & Xu, 2020 is transferred to Draconarius Ovtchinnikov, 1999, hence the new combination Draconarius subyanlingensis (Liu & Xu, 2020) comb. nov. is established. The female of T. subyanlingensis Liu & Xu, 2020 should be treated as T. yanlingensis (Zhang, Yin & Kim, 2000). Detailed descriptions, photographs of copulatory organs and somatic features, a distribution map and comparisons with closely related species are presented.  

2022 ◽  
Leeban Yusuf ◽  
Venera Tyukmaeva ◽  
Anneli Hoikkala ◽  
Michael G Ritchie

Speciation with gene flow is now widely regarded as common. However, the frequency of introgression between recently diverged species and the evolutionary consequences of gene flow are still poorly understood. The virilis group of Drosophila contains around a dozen species that are geographically widespread and show varying levels of pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolation. Here, we utilize de novo genome assemblies and whole-genome sequencing data to resolve phylogenetic relationships and describe patterns of introgression and divergence across the group. We suggest that the virilis group consists of three, rather than the traditional two, subgroups. We found evidence of pervasive phylogenetic discordance caused by ancient introgression events between distant lineages within the group, and much more recent gene flow between closely-related species. When assessing patterns of genome-wide divergence in species pairs across the group, we found no consistent genomic evidence of a disproportionate role for the X chromosome. Some genes undergoing rapid sequence divergence across the group were involved in chemical communication and may be related to the evolution of sexual isolation. We suggest that gene flow between closely-related species has potentially had an impact on lineage-specific adaptation and the evolution of reproductive barriers. Our results show how ancient and recent introgression confuse phylogenetic reconstruction, and suggest that shared variation can facilitate adaptation and speciation.

Haiyan Long ◽  
Ya Hu ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Zhiyong Zong

Klebsiella oxytoca complex comprises nine closely-related species causing human infections. We curated genomes labeled Klebsiella (n=14,256) in GenBank and identified 588 belonging to the complex, which were examined for precise species, sequence types, K- and O-antigen types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. The complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae share many K- and O-antigen types. Of the complex, K. oxytoca and Klebsiella michiganensis appear to carry more virulence genes and be more commonly associated with human infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qian Yang ◽  
Gao-Fei Fu ◽  
Zhi-Qiang Wu ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Jian-Li Zhao ◽  

Chloroplasts are critical to plant survival and adaptive evolution. The comparison of chloroplast genomes could provide insight into the adaptive evolution of closely related species. To identify potential adaptive evolution in the chloroplast genomes of four montane Zingiberaceae taxa (Cautleya, Roscoea, Rhynchanthus, and Pommereschea) that inhabit distinct habitats in the mountains of Yunnan, China, the nucleotide sequences of 13 complete chloroplast genomes, including five newly sequenced species, were characterized and compared. The five newly sequenced chloroplast genomes (162,878–163,831 bp) possessed typical quadripartite structures, which included a large single copy (LSC) region, a small single copy (SSC) region, and a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), and even though the structure was highly conserved among the 13 taxa, one of the rps19 genes was absent in Cautleya, possibly due to expansion of the LSC region. Positive selection of rpoA and ycf2 suggests that these montane species have experienced adaptive evolution to habitats with different sunlight intensities and that adaptation related to the chloroplast genome has played an important role in the evolution of Zingiberaceae taxa.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Katarzyna Patejuk ◽  
Anna Baturo-Cieśniewska ◽  
Wojciech Pusz ◽  
Agata Kaczmarek-Pieńczewska

Biscogniauxia nummularia (Bull.) Kuntze is a fungus which induces strip-cankers on beech, commonly referred to as charcoal canker. The symptoms of infection are visible on the host tree’s bark as elongated, blackish bark lesions on the trunk and branches. Recent years have shown that, due to climate change causing local epidemics, the species is increasing its economic impact in Mediterranean regions. Until recently, B. nummularia was considered rare and uncommon in central Europe. However, in the last few years it has been noticed more often, mostly in coniferous trees, which are out of B. nummularia’s host range. A similar situation has been observed with the closely related species Biscogniauxia mediterranea (De Not.) Kuntze, which prior to 2017 had not been observed in central Europe at all. This study shows the genetic diversity of mid-European strains of Biscogniauxia spp. (based on the ITS, TEF1, TUB2 and ACT regions) and, as the first in Europe, presents a molecular investigation of this species isolated from coniferous trees. It is also the first attempt at estimating the potential impact of this pathogenic fungus on European forestry management in the close future.

2022 ◽  
Jing Feng ◽  
Shu-Yan Liu ◽  
Uwe Braun ◽  
Susumu Takamatsu ◽  
Michael Bradshaw ◽  

Abstract Recently performed phylogenetic-taxonomic analyses of species belonging to Erysiphe sect. Uncinula on willows (Salix spp.) demonstrated a much higher diversity than previously assumed. Phylogenetic analyses and morphological examinations of Chinese Erysiphe collections on Salix abscondita (= S. raddeana), S. sinica and S. taraikensis, all belonging to Salix subgen. Vetrix sect. Vetrix, revealed an additional cryptic species in sister position to the E. salicis clade, which is described as Erysiphe salicina. The new species clearly distinguished from all allied species in morphological and genetical results. The phylogeny of the new species and closely related species on Populus and Salix spp. (Salicaceae) was reconstructed and discussed using a combined alignment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 28S rDNA sequences. The present phylogenetic analyses suggest that the recently described E. salicicola (on Salix gracilistyla in South Korea) has to be reduced to synonymy with E. salicis var. salicis-gracilistylae (º Uncinula salicis-gracilistylae).

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ching-Ho Chang ◽  
Lauren E Gregory ◽  
Kathleen E Gordon ◽  
Colin D Meiklejohn ◽  
Amanda M Larracuente

Y chromosomes across diverse species convergently evolve a gene-poor, heterochromatic organization enriched for duplicated genes, LTR retrotransposons, and satellite DNA. Sexual antagonism and a loss of recombination play major roles in the degeneration of young Y chromosomes. However, the processes shaping the evolution of mature, already degenerated Y chromosomes are less well-understood. Because Y chromosomes evolve rapidly, comparisons between closely related species are particularly useful. We generated de novo long read assemblies complemented with cytological validation to reveal Y chromosome organization in three closely related species of the Drosophila simulans complex, which diverged only 250,000 years ago and share >98% sequence identity. We find these Y chromosomes are divergent in their organization and repetitive DNA composition and discover new Y-linked gene families whose evolution is driven by both positive selection and gene conversion. These Y chromosomes are also enriched for large deletions, suggesting that the repair of double-strand breaks on Y chromosomes may be biased toward microhomology-mediated end joining over canonical non-homologous end-joining. We propose that this repair mechanism contributes to the convergent evolution of Y chromosome organization across organisms.

2022 ◽  
Dong Xu ◽  
Kangming Jin ◽  
Heling Jiang ◽  
Desheng Gong ◽  
Jinbao Yang ◽  

Sequence alignment is the basis of gene functional annotation for unknow sequences. Selecting closely related species as the reference species should be an effective way to improve the accuracy of gene annotation for plants, compared with only based on one or some model plants. Therefore, limited species number in previous software or website is disadvantageous for plant gene annotation. Here, we collected the protein sequences of 236 plant species with known genomic information from 63 families. After that, these sequences were annotated by pfam, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases to construct our databases. Furthermore, we developed the software, Gene Annotation Software for Plants (GFAP), to perform gene annotation using our databases. GFAP, an open-source software running on Windows and MacOS systems, is an efficient and network independent tool. GFAP can search the protein domain, GO and KEGG information for 43000 genes within 4 minutes. In addition, GFAP can also perform the sequence alignment, statistical analysis and drawing. The website of provides the software, databases, testing data and video tutorials for users. GFAP contained large amount of plant-species information. We believe that it will become a powerful tool in gene annotation using closely related species for phytologists.

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5087 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-74

Ischnura praematura sp. nov. (Holotype ♂, China, Yunnan, Lijiang, 26º31´03.54”N, 100º13’38.89”E, 2396 m, 04 xii 2015, I. Sanmartín-Villar & H. Zhang leg.) is morphologically described, illustrated and compared with close species of the genus. Ischnura praematura can be mainly distinguished from its congeners I. aurora, I. rubilio and I. asiatica by its abdominal and thoracic morphology and colouration. The posterior lobe of the prothorax is elevated in I. praematura and the mesostigmal plates possess dorsal triangular protuberances. Ischnura praematura shows pointed paraprocts, internalised wide cerci and lacks a dorsal tuberculum in the tenth abdominal segment. The blue abdominal colouration is present in the last three segments (incomplete for segment eight and ten in some individuals). No female polychromatism was detected and all females observed possessed different colouration than male (gynochrome). Morphological distinctiveness of the species is supported by genetic analyses, which show that I. praematura forms a well-supported, monophyletic clade, with I. asiatica, I. ezoin and I. pumilio as the most closely related species. In the field, mature females show strong reluctance to mate, and males were observed mating with newly emerged females.  

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