Skin pigmentation in antisynthetase syndrome

Gang Wang ◽  
Ning Zhuo ◽  
Feng Tian ◽  
Jingyang Li ◽  
Zhenhua Wen
Raul I. Garcia ◽  
Evelyn A. Flynn ◽  
George Szabo

Skin pigmentation in mammals involves the interaction of epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes in the structural and functional unit known as the Epidermal Melanin Unit. Melanocytes(M) synthesize melanin within specialized membrane-bound organelles, the melanosome or pigment granule. These are subsequently transferred by way of M dendrites to keratinocytes(K) by a mechanism still to be clearly defined. Three different, though not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms of melanosome transfer have been proposed: cytophagocytosis by K of M dendrite tips containing melanosomes, direct injection of melanosomes into the K cytoplasm through a cell-to-cell pore or communicating channel formed by localized fusion of M and K cell membranes, release of melanosomes into the extracellular space(ECS) by exocytosis followed by K uptake using conventional phagocytosis. Variability in methods of transfer has been noted both in vivo and in vitro and there is evidence in support of each transfer mechanism. We Have previously studied M-K interactions in vitro using time-lapse cinemicrography and in vivo at the ultrastructural level using lanthanum tracer and freeze-fracture.

JAMA ◽  
1965 ◽  
Vol 194 (6) ◽  
pp. 670-672 ◽  
A. S. Zelickson

2020 ◽  
Vol 19 (7) ◽  
pp. 712-717 ◽  
Hawasatu Dumbuya ◽  
Pearl Grimes ◽  
Stephen Lynch ◽  
Kalli Ji ◽  
Manisha Brahmachary ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Mohammad Kashif Iqubal ◽  
Aiswarya Chaudhuri ◽  
Ashif Iqubal ◽  
Sadaf Saleem ◽  
Madan Mohan Gupta ◽  

: At present, skin cancer is a widespread malignancy in human beings. Among diverse population types, Caucasian populations are much more prone in comparison to darker skin populations due to the comparative lack of skin pigmentation. Skin cancer is divided into malignant and non-melanoma skin cancer, which is additionally categorized as basal and squamous cell carcinoma. The exposure to ultraviolet radiation, chemical carcinogen (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, tar, etc.), and viruses (herpes virus, human papillomavirus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type-1) are major contributing factors of skin cancer. There are distinct pathways available through which skin cancer develops, such as the JAKSTAT pathway, Akt pathway, MAPKs signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, to name a few. Currently, several targeted treatments are available, such as monoclonal antibodies, which have dramatically changed the line of treatment of this disease but possess major therapeutic limitations. Thus, recently many phytochemicals have been evaluated either alone or in combination with the existing synthetic drugs to overcome their limitations and have found to play a promising role in the prevention and treatment. In this review, complete tracery of skin cancer, starting from the signaling pathways involved, newer developed drugs with their targets and limitations along with the emerging role of natural products alone or in combination as potent anticancer agents and their molecular mechanism involved has been discussed. Apart from this, various nanocargos have also been mentioned here, which can play a significant role in the management and treatment of different types of skin cancer.

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