Ultrastructure of melanocyte-keratinocyte interactions and pigment transfer in vitro

Raul I. Garcia ◽  
Evelyn A. Flynn ◽  
George Szabo

Skin pigmentation in mammals involves the interaction of epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes in the structural and functional unit known as the Epidermal Melanin Unit. Melanocytes(M) synthesize melanin within specialized membrane-bound organelles, the melanosome or pigment granule. These are subsequently transferred by way of M dendrites to keratinocytes(K) by a mechanism still to be clearly defined. Three different, though not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms of melanosome transfer have been proposed: cytophagocytosis by K of M dendrite tips containing melanosomes, direct injection of melanosomes into the K cytoplasm through a cell-to-cell pore or communicating channel formed by localized fusion of M and K cell membranes, release of melanosomes into the extracellular space(ECS) by exocytosis followed by K uptake using conventional phagocytosis. Variability in methods of transfer has been noted both in vivo and in vitro and there is evidence in support of each transfer mechanism. We Have previously studied M-K interactions in vitro using time-lapse cinemicrography and in vivo at the ultrastructural level using lanthanum tracer and freeze-fracture.

2021 ◽  
Shigehiro Hashimoto ◽  
Hiroki Yonezawa

Abstract A cell deforms and migrates on the scaffold under mechanical stimuli in vivo. In this study, a cell with division during shear stress stimulation has been observed in vitro. Before and after division, both migration and deformation of each cell were analyzed. To make a Couette-type shear flow, the medium was sandwiched between parallel disks (the lower stationary culture-disc and the upper rotating disk) with a constant gap. The wall shear stress (1.5 Pa < τ < 2 Pa) on the surface of the lower culture plate was controlled by the rotational speed of the upper disc. Myoblasts (C2C12: mouse myoblast cell line) were used in the test. After cultivation without flow for 24 hours for adhesion of the cells to the lower disk, constant τ was applied to the cells in the incubator for 7 days. The behavior of each cell during shear was tracked by time-lapse images observed by an inverted phase contrast microscope placed in the incubator. Experimental results show that each cell tends to divide after higher activities: deformation and migration. The tendency is remarkable at the shear stress of 1.5 Pa.

Raul I. Garcia ◽  
Evelyn A. Flynn ◽  
George Szabo

The interactions of epidermal melanocytes(M) and keratinocytes(K) involve the unique process of melanosome transfer, from the melanin-synthesizing cell to the recipient, desquamative K, and are responsible for the skin color of man and other mammals. M-K interactions have been well studied in mammalian skin using thin section analysis, and there have been several freeze-fracture studies of skin. This study represents the first application of freeze-fracture to the study of M-K interactions and melanosome transfer. Several mechanisms of melanosome transfer have been proposed to explain the varied observations made in vivo and in vitro: melanosomes migrate from the M perikaryon peripherally into M dendrites, followed by cytophagocytosis by the K of the M dendrite tip containing melanosomes, formation of intercellular communicating channels between M and K through localized fusion of cell membranes with melanosome entry into K through this passage, release of melanosomes from M into the extracellular space(ECS) by exocytosis with subsequent phagocytosis by the K. Our own EM work using lanthanum tracer in skin in vivo has produced evidence supporting the second mechanism while cell culture studies suggest that a different mechanism may operate in vitro.

2019 ◽  
Vol 35 (6) ◽  
pp. 87-90
S.V. Nikulin ◽  
V.A. Petrov ◽  
D.A. Sakharov

The real-time monitoring of electric capacitance (impedance spectroscopy) allowed obtaining evidence that structures which look like intestinal villi can be formed during the cultivation under static conditions as well as during the cultivation in microfluidic chips. It was shown in this work via transcriptome analysis that the Hh signaling pathway is involved in the formation of villus-like structures in vitro, which was previously shown for their formation in vivo. impedance spectroscopy, intestine, villi, electric capacitance, Hh The study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (Project 16-19-10597).

Genetics ◽  
1998 ◽  
Vol 149 (3) ◽  
pp. 1465-1475 ◽  
T Kozlova ◽  
G V Pokholkova ◽  
G Tzertzinis ◽  
J D Sutherland ◽  
I F Zhimulev ◽  

Abstract DHR38 is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily in Drosophila homologous to the vertebrate NGFI-B-type orphan receptors. In addition to binding to specific response elements as a monomer, DHR38 interacts with the USP component of the ecdysone receptor complex in vitro, in yeast and in a cell line, suggesting that DHR38 might modulate ecdysone-triggered signals in the fly. We characterized the molecular structure and expression of the Dhr38 gene and initiated an in vivo analysis of its function(s) in development. The Dhr38 transcription unit spans more than 40 kb in length, includes four introns, and produces at least four mRNA isoforms differentially expressed in development; two of these are greatly enriched in the pupal stage and encode nested polypeptides. We characterized four alleles of Dhr38: a P-element enchancer trap line, l(2)02306, which shows exclusively epidermal staining in the late larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages, and three EMS-induced alleles. Dhr38 alleles cause localized fragility and rupturing of the adult cuticle, demonstrating that Dhr38 plays an important role in late stages of epidermal metamorphosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yorick Janssens ◽  
Nathan Debunne ◽  
Anton De Spiegeleer ◽  
Evelien Wynendaele ◽  
Marta Planas ◽  

AbstractQuorum sensing peptides (QSPs) are bacterial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria to communicate with their peers in a cell-density dependent manner. These peptides do not only act as interbacterial communication signals, but can also have effects on the host. Compelling evidence demonstrates the presence of a gut-brain axis and more specifically, the role of the gut microbiota in microglial functioning. The aim of this study is to investigate microglial activating properties of a selected QSP (PapRIV) which is produced by Bacillus cereus species. PapRIV showed in vitro activating properties of BV-2 microglia cells and was able to cross the in vitro Caco-2 cell model and reach the brain. In vivo peptide presence was also demonstrated in mouse plasma. The peptide caused induction of IL-6, TNFα and ROS expression and increased the fraction of ameboid BV-2 microglia cells in an NF-κB dependent manner. Different metabolites were identified in serum, of which the main metabolite still remained active. PapRIV is thus able to cross the gastro-intestinal tract and the blood–brain barrier and shows in vitro activating properties in BV-2 microglia cells, hereby indicating a potential role of this quorum sensing peptide in gut-brain interaction.

2002 ◽  
Vol 1 (5) ◽  
pp. 319-327 ◽  
M. P. Rols ◽  
M. Golzio ◽  
B. Gabriel ◽  
J. Teissié

Electric field pulses are a new approach for drug and gene delivery for cancer therapy. They induce a localized structural alteration of cell membranes. The associated physical mechanisms are well explained and can be safely controlled. A position dependent modulation of the membrane potential difference is induced when an electric field is applied to a cell. Electric field pulses with an overcritical intensity evoke a local membrane alteration. A free exchange of hydrophilic low molecular weight molecules takes place across the membrane. A leakage of cytosolic metabolites and a loading of polar drugs into the cytoplasm are obtained. The fraction of the cell surface which is competent for exchange is a function of the field intensity. The level of local exchange is strongly controlled by the pulse duration and the number of successive pulses. The permeabilised state is long lived. Its lifetime is under the control of the cumulated pulse duration. Cell viability can be preserved. Gene transfer is obtained but its mechanism is not a free diffusion. Plasmids are electrophoretically accumulated against the permeabilised cell surface and form aggregates due to the field effect. After the pulses, several steps follow: translocation to the cytoplasm, traffic to the nucleus and expression. Molecular structural and metabolic changes in cells remain mostly poorly understood. Nevertheless, while most studies were established on cells in culture ( in vitro), recent experiments show that similar effects are obtained on tissue ( in vivo). Transfer remains controlled by the physical parameters of the electrical treatment.

eLife ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Liang Ge ◽  
David Melville ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Randy Schekman

Autophagy is a catabolic process for bulk degradation of cytosolic materials mediated by double-membraned autophagosomes. The membrane determinant to initiate the formation of autophagosomes remains elusive. Here, we establish a cell-free assay based on LC3 lipidation to define the organelle membrane supporting early autophagosome formation. In vitro LC3 lipidation requires energy and is subject to regulation by the pathways modulating autophagy in vivo. We developed a systematic membrane isolation scheme to identify the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) as a primary membrane source both necessary and sufficient to trigger LC3 lipidation in vitro. Functional studies demonstrate that the ERGIC is required for autophagosome biogenesis in vivo. Moreover, we find that the ERGIC acts by recruiting the early autophagosome marker ATG14, a critical step for the generation of preautophagosomal membranes.

1991 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 2832-2841
N Mechti ◽  
M Piechaczyk ◽  
J M Blanchard ◽  
P Jeanteur ◽  
B Lebleu

A strong block to the elongation of nascent RNA transcripts by RNA polymerase II occurs in the 5' part of the mammalian c-fos proto-oncogene. In addition to the control of initiation, this mechanism contributes to transcriptional regulation of the gene. In vitro transcription experiments using nuclear extracts and purified transcription templates allowed us to map a unique arrest site within the mouse first intron 385 nucleotides downstream from the promoter. This position is in keeping with that estimated from nuclear run-on assays performed with short DNA probes and thus suggests that it corresponds to the actual block in vivo. Moreover, we have shown that neither the c-fos promoter nor upstream sequences are absolute requirements for an efficient transcription arrest both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we have characterized a 103-nucleotide-long intron 1 motif comprising the arrest site and sufficient for obtaining the block in a cell-free transcription assay.

2000 ◽  
Vol 113 (13) ◽  
pp. 2463-2470 ◽  
F. Santini ◽  
R.B. Penn ◽  
A.W. Gagnon ◽  
J.L. Benovic ◽  
J.H. Keen

Non-visual arrestins (arrestin-2 and arrestin-3) play critical roles in the desensitization and internalization of many G protein-coupled receptors. In vitro experiments have shown that both non-visual arrestins bind with high and approximately comparable affinities to activated, phosphorylated forms of receptors. They also exhibit high affinity binding, again of comparable magnitude, to clathrin. Further, agonist-promoted internalization of many receptors has been found to be stimulated by exogenous over-expression of either arrestin2 or arrestin3. The existence of multiple arrestins raises the question whether stimulated receptors are selective for a specific endogenous arrestin under more physiological conditions. Here we address this question in RBL-2H3 cells, a cell line that expresses comparable levels of endogenous arrestin-2 and arrestin-3. When (beta)(2)-adrenergic receptors are stably expressed in these cells the receptors internalize efficiently following agonist stimulation. However, by immunofluorescence microscopy we determine that only arrestin-3, but not arrestin-2, is rapidly recruited to clathrin coated pits upon receptor stimulation. Similarly, in RBL-2H3 cells that stably express physiological levels of m1AChR, the addition of carbachol selectively induces the localization of arrestin-3, but not arrestin-2, to coated pits. Thus, this work demonstrates coupling of G protein-coupled receptors to a specific non-visual arrestin in an in vivo setting.

Development ◽  
1997 ◽  
Vol 124 (8) ◽  
pp. 1433-1441 ◽  
A. Nose ◽  
T. Umeda ◽  
M. Takeichi

Drosophila Connectin (CON) is a cell surface protein of the leucine-rich repeat family. During the formation of neuromuscular connectivity, CON is expressed on the surface of a subset of embryonic muscles and on the growth cones and axons of the motoneurons that innervate these muscles, including primarily SNa motoneurons and their synaptic targets (lateral muscles). In vitro, CON can mediate homophilic cell adhesion. In this study, we generated transgenic lines that ectopically expressed CON on all muscles. In the transformant embryos and larvae, SNa motoneurons often inappropriately innervated a neighboring non-target muscle (muscle 12) that ectopically expressed CON. Furthermore, the ectopic synapse formation was dependent on the endogenous CON expression on the SNa motoneurons. These results show that CON can function as an attractive and homophilic target recognition molecule in vivo.

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