Signaling Pathway
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BMC Genomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Haitao Gu ◽  
Zhiquan Xu ◽  
Jianbo Zhang ◽  
Yanbing Wei ◽  
Ling Cheng ◽  

Abstract Objective Colon cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers whose progression is regulated by a number of factors, including circular RNAs (circRNAs). Nonetheless, circ_0038718 is a novel circRNA, and its regulatory mechanism in CC remains unclear. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of circ_0038718, miR-195-5p and Axin2. Western blot was conducted to determine the protein expression of Axin2 and the key proteins on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Oligo (dT) 18 primers and RNase R were employed to identify the circular features of circ_0038718, and the location of circ_0038718 in cells was detected via nucleocytoplasmic separation. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation experiment were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of circ_0038718/miR-195-5p/Axin2. Additionally, MTT assay was conducted to assess cell proliferation; Transwell assay was performed to evaluate cell migration and invasion, respectively. The effect of circ_0038718 on CC tumor growth was tested through tumor formation in nude mice. Results circ_0038718 was highly expressed in CC and could sponge miR-195-5p in cytoplasm. Silencing circ_0038718 suppressed the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of CC cells, while the promoting effect of high circ_0038718 expression on CC cells was reversed upon miR-195-5p over-expression. Axin2 was a downstream target of miR-195-5p and could regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Axin2 expression was modulated by circ_0038718/miR-195-5p. Knockdown of Axin2 could also attenuate the promoting effect of high circ_0038718 expression on CC cell malignant progression, thus inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusion circ_0038718 is able to facilitate CC cell malignant progression via the miR-195-5p/Axin2 axis, which will provide a new idea for finding a novel targeted treatment of CC.

2021 ◽  
Mingyang Li ◽  
Xiang Song ◽  
Lichun Qi ◽  
Yanhui Gao ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: Zeaxanthin is a newly discovered natural product in β-carotenoid family with multiple bioactivities. Recently, it has been shown that zeaxanthin may have cardioprotective effects in several studies, but its mechanisms have not been fully investigated. Herein, we explored the role and mechanism of zeaxanthin in myocardial injury.Methods and Results: In this study, three different models were used to investigate the mechanism by which zeaxanthin alleviates myocardial injury. H9C2 Cardiomyocyte injury models were induced by H2O2. TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis showed that treatment with zeaxanthin significantly decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein expression. And reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement analysis and Western blot analysis showed that treatment with zeaxanthin also could reduce the production of ROS and affect the expression of p38-Mitogen activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-κ gene bindin (p38MAPK/NF-κB) signaling pathway. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was used to establish the fibrosis model in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). QRT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that treatment with zeaxanthin significantly decreased the expression of fibrosis markers in CFs. Myocardial injury animal models were induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Our results demonstrated that zeaxanthin improved fibrosis damage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in HFD mice. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that TGF-β/Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic2/3 (TGF-β/Smad2/3) signaling pathway related protein p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3, and TGF-β1 were significantly downregulated by zeaxanthin treatment.Conclusions: Zeaxanthin may alleviate HFD and H2O2-induced heart injury by regulating TGF-β/Smad2/3 and p38MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways, which is of immense clinical significance in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Yang Yue ◽  
Martin F. Engelke ◽  
T. Lynne Blasius ◽  
Kristen J. Verhey

The kinesin-4 motor KIF7 is a conserved regulator of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. In vertebrates, Hedgehog signaling requires the primary cilium, and KIF7 and Gli transcription factors accumulate at the cilium tip in response to Hedgehog activation. Unlike conventional kinesins, KIF7 is an immotile kinesin and its mechanism of ciliary accumulation is unknown. We generated KIF7 variants with altered microtubule binding or motility. We demonstrate that microtubule binding of KIF7 is not required for the increase in KIF7 or Gli localization at the cilium tip in response to Hedgehog signaling. In addition, we show that the immotile behavior of KIF7 is required to prevent ciliary localization of Gli transcription factors in the absence of Hedgehog signaling. Using an engineered kinesin-2 motor that enables acute inhibition of intraflagellar transport (IFT), we demonstrate that kinesin-2 KIF3A/KIF3B/KAP mediates the translocation of KIF7 to the cilium tip in response to Hedgehog pathway activation. Together, these results suggest that KIF7’s role at the tip of the cilium is unrelated to its ability to bind to microtubules.

2021 ◽  
Dongjie Li ◽  
Yanjiao Zhang ◽  
Zhongyi Li ◽  
Xiaolei Hu ◽  
He Li ◽  

Abstract Backgrounds: Remarkable interindividual variability in clopidogrel response is observed, genetic polymorphisms in P2RY12 and its signal pathway is supposed to affect clopidogrel response in CHD patients. Methods: 539 CHD patients treated with clopidogrel were recruited. The platelet reaction index (PRI) indicated by VASP-P level were detected in 12-24h after clopidogrel loading dose (LD) or within 5-7 days after initiation of maintain dose (MD) clopidogrel. A total of 13 SNPs in relevant genes were genotyped in sample A (239 CHD patients). The SNPs which have significant differences in PRI will be validated in another sample (sample B, 300 CHD patients). Results: CYP2C19*2 increased the risk of clopidogrel resistance significantly. When CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 were considered, CYP2C19 loss of function (LOF) alleles were associated with more obviously increased the risk of clopidogrel resistance; P2RY12 rs6809699 C>A polymorphism was also associated with increased risk of clopidogrel resistance (AA vs CC: P=0.0398). This difference still existed after stratification by CYP2C19 genotypes. It was also validated in sample B. The association was also still significant even in the case of stratification by CYP2C19 genotypes in all patients (sample A+B). Conclusion: Our data suggest that P2RY12 rs6809699 is associated with clopidogrel resistance in CHD patients. Meanwhile, the rs6809699 AA genotype can increase on-treatment platelet activity independent of CYP2C19 LOF polymorphisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Wei Wei ◽  
Wenqiang Xin ◽  
Yufeng Tang ◽  
Zhonglun Chen ◽  
Yue Heng ◽  

Stroke is an acute cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Stroke is the second leading cause of death after ischemic heart disease, which accounts for 9% of the global death toll. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the effects of the dysregulated factors, in the GEO database, we obtained transcriptome data from 24 h/72 h of mice with ischemic stroke and 24 h/72 h of normal mice. We then performed differential gene analysis, coexpression analysis, enrichment analysis, and regulator prediction bioinformatics analysis to identify the potential genes. We made a comparison between the ischemic stroke 72 h and the ischemic stroke for 24 h, and 5103 differential genes were obtained ( p < 0.05 ). Four functional barrier modules were obtained by weighted gene coexpression network analysis. The critical genes of each module were ASTL, Zfp472, Fmr1 gene, and Nap1l1. The results of the enrichment analysis showed ncRNA metabolism, microRNAs in cancer, and biosynthesis of amino acids. These three functions and pathways have the most considerable count value. The regulators of the regulatory dysfunction module were predicted by pivotal analysis of TF and noncoding RNA, and critical regulators including NFKB1 (NF-κB1), NFKBIA, CTNNB1, and SP1 were obtained. Finally, the pivotal target gene found that CTNNB1, NFKB1, NFKBia, and Sp1 are involved in 18, 32, 2, and 60 target genes, respectively. Therefore, we believe that NFKB1 and Sp1 have a potential role in the progression of ischemic stroke. The NFKB signaling pathway promotes inflammatory cytokines and regulates the progression of ischemic stroke.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Bingyan Li ◽  
Guang Zhang ◽  
Zhongyu Wang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Chenfeng Wang ◽  

AbstractThe c-Myc oncoprotein plays a prominent role in cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently emerging as critical regulators of the c-Myc signaling pathway. Here, we report the lncRNA USP2-AS1 as a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Functionally, USP2-AS1 inhibits cellular senescence and acts as an oncogenic molecule by inducing E2F1 expression. Mechanistically, USP2-AS1 associates with the RNA-binding protein G3BP1 and facilitates the interaction of G3BP1 to E2F1 3′-untranslated region, thereby leading to the stabilization of E2F1 messenger RNA. Furthermore, USP2-AS1 is shown as a mediator of the oncogenic function of c-Myc via the regulation of E2F1. Together, these findings suggest that USP2-AS1 is a negative regulator of cellular senescence and also implicates USP2-AS1 as an important player in mediating c-Myc function.

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