Human Beings
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-51
Alberto Giaretta ◽  
Nicola Dragoni ◽  
Fabio Massacci

The Internet of Things (IoT) revolutionised the way devices, and human beings, cooperate and interact. The interconnectivity and mobility brought by IoT devices led to extremely variable networks, as well as unpredictable information flows. In turn, security proved to be a serious issue for the IoT, far more serious than it has been in the past for other technologies. We claim that IoT devices need detailed descriptions of their behaviour to achieve secure default configurations, sufficient security configurability, and self-configurability. In this article, we propose S×C4IoT, a framework that addresses these issues by combining two paradigms: Security by Contract (S×C) and Fog computing. First, we summarise the necessary background such as the basic S×C definitions. Then, we describe how devices interact within S×C4IoT and how our framework manages the dynamic evolution that naturally result from IoT devices life-cycles. Furthermore, we show that S×C4IoT can allow legacy S×C-noncompliant devices to participate with an S×C network, we illustrate two different integration approaches, and we show how they fit into S×C4IoT. Last, we implement the framework as a proof-of-concept. We show the feasibility of S×C4IoT and we run different experiments to evaluate its impact in terms of communication and storage space overhead.

Bashar Iqbal

Abstract: The requirement of tall building in recent years increase the construction to satisfy the need of human beings. Very tall buildings located in high velocity wind area are highly sensitive therefore calculation and analysis of wind load is very impotent. Due to change in climatic condition the basic wind speed are increases. The main aim of this paper is to introducing the different techniques which is used to reduce the effect of wind load or lateral loads. Keywords: wind analysis, comparative analysis, TMD (tuned mass damper),friction damper, shear wall

Problemos ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 100 ◽  
pp. 152-166
Vytis Silius

The article proposes to see Confucian role ethics as a philosophical project that puts forward metaethical and metaphilosophical arguments regarding the nature of ethics and the concept of human beings, instead of concentrating on its interpretational work in explicating the nature of early Confucian ethics. Thus, a more fitting context for evaluating the core claims of role ethics is suggested, one that is comprised of different positions, coming from a wide range of philosophical and cultural backgrounds, as well as different disciplines, all of which criticize individualism or formulate a non-individualistic concept of person. Role ethics concept of person, as a totality of one’s lived roles and relations, is discussed by concentrating on the specificity of two key notions in this position, that is, “relation” and “role”. The article ends with a suggestion that the deeper and fuller investigation and exposition of normativity, as stemming from the specific and concrete role-relationships, is the most needed and promising direction of further development of role ethics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 70-73
Praveen Kumar ◽  
Manish Rajak ◽  
Jai Kumar Singh

Addiction is a very common habitual psychological or physiological disorder in this modern era. It is a condition of dependence on any substances or drugs. It harms human beings along with its social consequence. Sudden withdrawal of addicted drugs produces different types of psychosomatic disorders. Addiction is not only about drug addiction or alcohol addiction or substance addiction. In the Ayurvedic view, overuse of any aspect and every aspect is considered an addiction. Addictions influence the physical, emotional and psychological behaviour of an individual with a wrong effect. Tobacco and alcohol are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs which are used worldwide. The common use of both increases the risk of noncommunicable diseases to many folds. Ayurvedic texts have described different types of De-addiction treatment which can be applied in this context along with replacement therapy with medicines described in the Madatyaya chapter of Charaka Samhita Chikitsa sthana. The main aim of this review article is to compile and evaluate the concept of tobacco addiction and its management. All the descriptions of addiction mentioned in different Ayurvedic texts were critically analyzed and discussed to check their relation.

Hailong Tu ◽  
Aizhen Zhang ◽  
Xiaolong Fu ◽  
Shiqi Xu ◽  
Xiaohui Bai ◽  

The small muscle protein, x-linked (SMPX) encodes a small protein containing 88 amino acids. Malfunction of this protein can cause a sex-linked non-syndromic hearing loss, named X-linked deafness 4 (DFNX4). Herein, we reported a point mutation and a frameshift mutation in two Chinese families who developed gradual hearing loss with age. To explore the impaired sites in the hearing system and the mechanism of DFNX4, we established and validated an Smpx null mouse model using CRISPR-Cas9. By analyzing auditory brainstem response (ABR), male Smpx null mice showed a progressive hearing loss starting from high frequency at the 3rd month. Hearing loss in female mice was milder and occurred later compared to male mice, which was very similar to human beings. Through morphological analyses of mice cochleas, we found the hair cell bundles progressively degenerated from the shortest row. Cellular edema occurred at the end phase of stereocilia degeneration, followed by cell death. By transfecting exogenous fluorescent Smpx into living hair cells, Smpx was observed to be expressed in stereocilia. Through noise exposure, it was shown that Smpx might participate in maintaining hair cell bundles. This Smpx knock-out mouse might be used as a suitable model to explore the pathology of DFNX4.

Xiaolin Xu ◽  
Rongmin Chen ◽  
Gaofeng Zhan ◽  
Danning Wang ◽  
Xi Tan ◽  

In recent years, increasing studies have been conducted on the mechanism of gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric diseases and non-neuropsychiatric diseases. The academic community has also recognized the existence of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Chronic pain has always been an urgent difficulty for human beings, which often causes anxiety, depression, and other mental symptoms, seriously affecting people’s quality of life. Hyperalgesia is one of the main adverse reactions of chronic pain. The mechanism of gut microbiota in hyperalgesia has been extensively studied, providing a new target for pain treatment. Enterochromaffin cells, as the chief sentinel for sensing gut microbiota and its metabolites, can play an important role in the interaction between the gut microbiota and hyperalgesia through paracrine or neural pathways. Therefore, this systematic review describes the role of gut microbiota in the pathological mechanism of hyperalgesia, learns about the role of enterochromaffin cell receptors and secretions in hyperalgesia, and provides a new strategy for pain treatment by targeting enterochromaffin cells through restoring disturbed gut microbiota or supplementing probiotics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yongjun Zhao ◽  
Juan Zhao ◽  
Liang Ding ◽  
Congcong Xie

The application of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) is more and more extensive, involving military, medical, communication and other major fields. The progress of science and technology has brought cross era changes to human beings, but also brought troubles to human beings. Because machines can replace most people, which leads to a significant reduction in human exercise, many people have the symptoms of obesity. Therefore, how to effectively detect human exercise energy consumption is of great significance to improve obesity symptoms. The energy consumption detector takes stm32f103zet6 as the core processor and uses the inertial sensor mpu6050 to build a MEMS sensor system to monitor the daily motion state and gait of human body in real time. In the design of the big data algorithm, the adaptive peak detection and step, decision tree two-level classification of motion recognition big data algorithm are organically integrated, and then combined with the acceleration vector value of the motion energy detection big data algorithm, to process the collected motion data, including the acceleration signal, gyroscope and other data processing, and finally complete the feature extraction, get the final recognition and detection results. Through the data reference, we can know that the system can recognize different human motion states. Among them, it has 95% accuracy in the motion recognition of sitting, standing, walking, running, going up and down stairs and lying back, which is basically the same as the top detectors on the market. In the energy consumption detection, it also has 95% accuracy, which proves the correctness of the experimental big data algorithm design, and also improves the accuracy It is proved that the system has good performance and high practicability, and can provide a new idea for obese individual motion detection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Xudong He ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Jiqiang Liu ◽  
Enze Yuan ◽  
Kailun Wang ◽  

The rapid development of the smart grid brings convenience to human beings. It enables users to know the real-time power supply capacity, the power quality, and the electricity price fluctuation of the grid. However, there are still some threats in the smart grid, which increase all kinds of expenses in the grid and cause great trouble to energy distribution. Among them, the man-made nontechnical loss (NTL) problem is particularly prominent. Recently, there are also some NTL detection programs. However, most of the schemes need huge amounts of supporting data and high labor costs. As a result, the NTL problem has not been well solved. In order to better avoid these risks, problems such as tampering of smart meter energy data, bypassing the smart meter directly connected to the grid, and imbalance between revenue and expenditure of the smart grid are tackled, and the threat scene of NTL is constructed. A hierarchical grid gateway blockchain is proposed and designed, and a new decentralized management MDMS system is constructed. The intelligent contract combined with the elliptic curve encryption technology is used to detect the storage and the acquisition of power data, and the detection of NTL problems is realized. At the same time, it has a certain ability to resist attacks such as replay, monitoring, and tampering. We tested the time consumption and throughput of this method on Hyperledger Fabric. At the same time, eight indexes of other methods proposed in the literature are compared. This method has a good effect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 ◽  
pp. 32-39
Doris Forster ◽  
Janika Rieder

The European Parliament has proposed legal personhood for artificial intelligence entities, to ensure honouring of rights and responsibility. The article discusses the question of legal personhood for non-human beings from a legal-historical and legal-sociological perspective. In addition, it examines legal personhood in the modern German legal system and discusses the implementation of a tertium genus for artificial intelligence as proposed by the European Parliament. This analysis leads to the conclusion that introduction of e-personhood would constitute a paradigm shift that blurs the boundaries between humans and machines.

Plant Methods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Xiaolong Guo ◽  
Xiangyu Ma ◽  
Jialiang Zhang ◽  
Jinghuan Zhu ◽  
Tian Lu ◽  

Abstract Background Zinc (Zn) is an important nutrient for human beings, which is also an essential micronutrient for crop growth. This study investigated the role of Zn in coordinating the mineral elements absorption in modern wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with a new developed method. Results A method was developed, and showed a robust capability to simultaneously investigate seven mineral elements uptake in wheat seedling. With this method, we found low Zn supply (<  1 μM) promoted the absorption of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in wheat seedling, while high Zn supply (>  1 μM) significantly inhibited the absorption of these elements. Cultivars with the green genes (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) showed a higher uptake capability on ammonium (NH4+), and cultivars with Rht-B1b allele can uptake more phosphors (P), K, calcium (Ca), Mn and Zn compared to cultivars with Rht-D1b. Further analysis indicated higher uptake capability of NH4+ in cultivars contained Rhts was independent of Zn. Conclusion The key role of Zn in coordinating for mineral elements absorption was identified in modern wheat cultivars, providing the reference for Zn application in wheat. Meanwhile, this study provides a robust method for quantifying the absorption of mineral elements, which may be adopted into the broadly investigations on the coordinated nutrients absorption of plant.

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