skin pigmentation
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Gang Wang ◽  
Ning Zhuo ◽  
Feng Tian ◽  
Jingyang Li ◽  
Zhenhua Wen

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 454
Hyoung Moon Kim ◽  
Seyeon Oh ◽  
Kyung-A Byun ◽  
Jin Young Yang ◽  
Hye Jin Sun ◽  

Dermal macrophages containing melanin increase skin pigmentation since dermal melanin removal is slower than epidermal melanin removal. Lymphatic vessels are also involved in melanin clearance. We evaluated whether radiofrequency (RF) irradiation induced an increase in HSP90, which promotes lymphangiogenesis by activating the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway and decreasing tyrosinase activity, in the UV-B exposed animal model. The HSP90/BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway was upregulated by RF. Tyrosinase activity and the VEGF-C/VEGFR 3/PI3K/pAKT1/2/pERK1/2 pathway, which increase lymphangiogenesis, as well as the expression of the lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1, were increased by RF. Additionally, the number of melanin-containing dermal macrophages, the melanin content in the lymph nodes, and melanin deposition in the skin were decreased by RF. In conclusion, RF increased HSP90/BRAF/MEK/ERK expression, which decreased tyrosinase activity and increased lymphangiogenesis to eventually promote the clearance of dermal melanin-containing macrophages, thereby decreasing skin pigmentation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 86-92
A. G. Mamontova ◽  
E. N. Usoltseva ◽  
T. P. Pisklakova ◽  
E. M. Lepikhina ◽  
K. V. Nikushkina

Introduction. External manifestations of aging, and especially skin aging are the most important for modern women.Aim. The aim of our study was to identify a set of adverse factors that effect on the skin of women in menopausal transition (MP) and in postmenopause (PM), and to identify markers of skin aging in this category of women.Materials and methods. The study included 36 women in MP and PM suffering from MS. At the first stage, anamnesis was collected, anthropometric data and severity of MS were evaluated, and the hormonal profile of patients was determined. At the second stage, computer mapping of the skin was performed using the digital video camera Aramo SG with the skin XPpro program. Statistic analysis was performed using the SPSS v13.0 program. Spearman’s analysis was used to determine the relationship between anthropometric, clinical and anamnestic data and the measurements of skin condition of women in MP and PM. Results. According to the obtained data, the main triggers of skin aging of women in MP and PM are: the presence of metabolic disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome), decrease of estradiol and progesterone levels in blood serum as well as increase of prolactin level and rhythm disturbance of melatonin secretion. Markers of skin aging in women with menopausal syndrome are decreased moisture, increased oiliness in T-zone, increased of skin pigmentation and enlarged pore size.Conclusions. The obtained data are useful for management involuting skin changes of women in PM and MP suffering from MS. The data justifies the relevancy to normalization not only the estradiol level, but other sex steroids, melatonin, as well as correction of metabolic endocrine processes, and treatment of MS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shenji Wu ◽  
Jinqiang Huang ◽  
Yongjuan Li ◽  
Lu Zhao ◽  
Zhe Liu

AbstractYellow mutant rainbow trout (YR), an economically important aquaculture species, is popular among consumers due to its excellent meat quality and attractive appearance. Skin color is a key economic trait for YR, but little is known about the molecular mechanism of skin color development. In this study, YR skin transcriptomes were analyzed to explore temporal expression patterns of pigmentation-related genes in three different stages of skin color development. In total, 16,590, 16,682, and 5619 genes were differentially expressed between fish at 1 day post-hatching (YR1d) and YR45d, YR1d and YR90d, and YR45d and YR90d. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with pigmentation were identified, and almost all of them involved in pteridine and carotenoid synthesis were significantly upregulated in YR45d and YR90d compared to YR1d, including GCH1, PTS, QDPR, CSFIR1, SLC2A11, SCARB1, DGAT2, PNPLA2, APOD, and BCO2. Interestingly, many DEGs enriched in melanin synthesis pathways were also significantly upregulated, including melanogenesis (MITF, MC1R, SLC45A2, OCA2, and GPR143), tyrosine metabolism (TYR, TYRP1, and DCT), and MAPK signaling (KITA) pathways. Using short time-series expression miner, we identified eight differential gene expression pattern profiles, and DEGs in profile 7 were associated with skin pigmentation. Protein–protein interaction network analysis showed that two modules were related to xanthophores and melanophores. In addition, 1,812,329 simple sequence repeats and 2,011,334 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were discovered. The results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying skin pigmentation in YR, and could accelerate the molecular breeding of fish species with valuable skin color traits and will likely be highly informative for developing new therapeutic approaches to treat pigmentation disorders and melanoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 030006052110677
Lu Wang ◽  
Daming Zuo ◽  
Ledong Sun

Cutaneous alterations are common in neonates and usually occur in the first few days of life. Most of these are transient and benign, appearing as physiological responses to birth. Skin pigmentation disorders are considered transitory dermatoses of newborn infants. Nail pigmentation manifests as asymptomatic brown to bluish-black skin pigmentation over the fingers and toes in newborns. Hyperpigmentation of the distal phalanx of both hands and feet is commonly found in dark-skinned newborns, but it is rare in fair-skinned newborns and East Asian populations. We herein describe a Chinese infant with transient neonatal hyperpigmentation of the proximal nail fold.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Chaoran Song ◽  
Laura Rojas Lorz ◽  
Jongsung Lee ◽  
Jae Youl Cho

UVB exposure causes DNA mutation and ROS generation, which lead to skin photoaging, skin wrinkling, skin sagging, and uneven skin pigmentation. ROS activate the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways leading to production of inflammatory molecules such as COX-2, collagen-degrading proteins such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and moisture-deficiency-related proteins such as hyaluronidases (HYALs). UVB exposure also induces irregular skin pigmentation though melanin overproduction, related to CREB transcription factor activity and transcription of melanogenesis genes. Here, we demonstrate that Chrysophyllum lucentifolium methanol extract (Cl-ME) has antioxidant activity; it dose-dependently decreased the expression of COX-2, MMP-1, MMP-9, HYAL-1, and HYAL-4 by downregulating the NF-κB (IKKα/β, IκBα) and MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) pathways and increased the expression of Col1a1, which encodes a protein important for maintaining skin elasticity. Cl-ME also showed promising antimelanogenic activity by decreasing the expression of CREB, a transcription factor, which in turn inhibited the expression of genes encoding tyrosinase, MITF, TYRP1, and TYRP2. In summary, a methanol extract of C. lucentifolium exhibited antiphotoaging and antimelanogenic activity and could be useful in the cosmeceutical industry.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7648
Hyoung Moon Kim ◽  
Seyeon Oh ◽  
Chang Hu Choi ◽  
Jin Young Yang ◽  
Sunggeun Kim ◽  

Excess melanin deposition in the skin causes cosmetic problems. HSP70 upregulation decreases microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, which eventually decreases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation upregulates p53, which increases the melanocortin receptor (MC1R) and MITF. Furthermore, HSP70 decreases p53 and radiofrequency irradiation (RF) increases HSP70. We evaluated whether RF increased HSP70 and decreased p53, consequently decreasing the MITF/tyrosinase pathway and melanogenesis in UV-B radiated animal skin. Various RF combinations with 50, 100, and 150 ms and 5, 10, and 15 W were performed on the UV-B radiated mouse skin every 2 d for 28 d. When RF was performed with 100 ms/10 W, melanin deposition, evaluated by Fontana–Masson staining, decreased without skin crust formation in the UV-B radiated skin. Thus, we evaluated the effect of RF on decreasing melanogenesis in the HEMn and UV-B radiated skin at a setting of 100 ms/10 W. HSP70 expression was decreased in the UV-B radiated skin but was increased by RF. The expression of p53, MC1R, and MITF increased in the UV-B radiated skin but was decreased by RF. The expression of p53, MC1R, and MITF increased in the α-MSH treated HEMn but was decreased by RF. The decreasing effects of RF on p53, MC1R, CREB and MITF were higher than those of HSP70-overexpressed HEMn. The decreasing effect of RF on p53, MC1R, CREB, and MITF disappeared in the HSP70-silenced HEMn. MC1R, CREB, and MITF were not significantly decreased by the p53 inhibitor in α-MSH treated HEMn. RF induced a greater decrease in MC1R, CREB, and MITF than the p53 inhibitor. Therefore, RF may have decreased melanin synthesis by increasing HSP70 and decreasing p53, thus decreasing MC1R/CREB/MITF and tyrosinase activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 106-110
N. S. Rudneva ◽  
E. V. Natarova ◽  
V. N. Sorotskaya ◽  
T. G. Sadunashvili

The article discusses the common pathogenetic pathways of autoimmune skin diseases – psoriasis and vitiligo. Currently proposed treatments for vitiligo do not significantly reduce or completely restore skin pigmentation. The use of adalimumab for 6 years in a patient suffering from psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), vitiligo and autoimmune thyroiditis made it possible to control the activity of psoriasis and PsA, and also contributed to the regression of depigmentation foci. The use of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy in this group of patients in order to achieve repigmentation may be promising. 

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6244
Aneta Ścieżyńska ◽  
Anna Sobiepanek ◽  
Patrycja D. Kowalska ◽  
Marta Soszyńska ◽  
Krzysztof Łuszczyński ◽  

The development of an effective method of melanocyte isolation and culture is necessary for basic and clinical studies concerning skin diseases, including skin pigmentation disorders and melanoma. In this paper, we describe a novel, non-enzymatic and effective method of skin melanocyte and metastatic melanoma cell isolation and culture (along with the spontaneous spheroid creation) from skin or lymph node explants. The method is based on the selective harvesting of melanocytes and melanoma cells emigrating from the cultured explants. Thereby, isolated cells retain their natural phenotypical features, such as expression of tyrosinase and Melan-A as well as melanin production and are not contaminated by keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Such melanocyte and melanoma cell cultures may be very useful for medical and cosmetology studies, including studies of antitumor therapies.

2021 ◽  
Christine Park ◽  
Hyeon Ki Jeong ◽  
Ricardo Henao ◽  
Meenal K. Kheterpal

BACKGROUND De-identifying facial images is critical for protecting patient anonymity in the era of increasing tools for automatic image analysis in dermatology. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature in the field of automatic facial de-identification algorithms. METHODS We conducted a systematic search using a combination of headings and keywords to encompass the concepts of facial de-identification and privacy preservation. The databases MEDLINE (via Pubmed), Embase (via Elsevier) and Web of Science (via Clarivate) were queried from inception to 5/1/2021. Studies of wrong design and outcomes were excluded during the screening and review process. RESULTS A total of 18 studies were included in the final review reporting various methodologies of facial de-identification algorithms. The study methods were rated individually for their utility for use cases in dermatology pertaining to skin color/pigmentation and texture preservation, data utility, and human detection. Most studies notable in the literature address feature preservation while sacrificing skin color and texture. CONCLUSIONS Facial de-identification algorithms are sparse and inadequate to preserve both facial features and skin pigmentation/texture quality in facial photographs. A novel approach is needed to ensure greater patient anonymity, while increasing data access for automated image analysis in dermatology for improved patient care.

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