18 article(s) in Žurnalistikos Tyrimai

The Necessity Of The Digital Single Market Strategy For Small Media Markets: Case Of The Biggest Video-On-Demand Platforms In Lithuania And Estonia

this article analyzes the biggest lithuanian and estonian video-on-demand (vod) platforms including telia, their capabilities for fostering european film production and mass media in general. it is important to accentuate that non-linear tv and vod services are attracting more and more users in europe, and it is even considered that vod could become a strong competitor for theatrical releases in film distribution, while, in the context of mass media, the growth of users might be associated with potential threats of propaganda, which still has its own distribution mechanisms within linear tv. however, the audiovisual content that is being supplied for the users of vod platforms and tv is also regulated by the audiovisual media service directive (avmsd). without regulation, the users of vod platforms and tv might face a limited choice of audiovisual content. therefore, the digital single market (dsm) strategy is aimed at creating a single market in europe and eliminating the geo-blocking that limits user abilities to use vod services during travel across borders while also establishing better access to digital goods and services at the same time. looking from the perspective of the vod platform, a dsm strategy might bring about a monopolization of vod services in europe; in that case, the little markets of the baltic states would suffer. another important issue that small media markets come across is related to the level of propaganda that is being transmitted from russian tv channels that are registered in different eu countries. the article argues, and the research results show, that a dsm strategy and the elimination of geo-blocking do not eliminate the problem of fostering european audiovisual content that is and could be available to the users of vod platforms in lithuania and estonia, and that these measures do not pay significant attention to eu’s consumer protection issues Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Single Market
  • Mass Media
  • Video On Demand
  • Media Markets
Immigrants In Polish And German Online Media: A Comparative Analysis

in this article, the authors present the results of their research conducted in polish and german online media in 2016. the major topic of the abovementioned research was the european refugee crisis in poland and germany and its representation in websites of four quality newspapers: wyborcza.pl, rp.pl, faz.net and sz.de. the aim of this article is to analize the role of media in public opinion-shaping in both countries. through a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the data, the authors answered the following questions: 1) are the media narratives of both countries different from each other? b) if so, how is the migration problem presented in poland and in germany? c) what are their most noticeable features? among the most important conclusions are the following: 1) the media coverage of both countries is highly politicized; 2) neither german nor polish journalists of the opinion-forming quality newspapers did measurably support an isolationist policy. the research has been conducted within the scope of an international project called lemel (l’europe dans les médias en ligne). this program was initiated by cergy-pontoise university and is now held annually. several european countries participate in it (scientists from france, germany, italy, poland and romania are permanent members of the project’s research group). the aim of the project is a synchronous and diachronic comparative analysis of the content presented in their respective national online media. the analysis focuses on the way europe and its problems are presented in the abovementioned media content Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Online Media
  • Comparative Analysis
  • The Media
  • European Refugee Crisis
Amerikos Lietuvių Autorių Darbai Apie Lietuvių Žurnalistikos Istoriją

šis straipsnis – tai mokslo darbų žurnalo „žurnalistikos tyrimų“ 2008 m. paskelbtos autoriaus publikacijos „amerikos lietuvių au­torių darbai apie lietuvių žurnalistikos istoriją“ tąsa.1 tai antroji minėtos publikacijos dalis, kuri apims tolesnį laikotarpį – 1905–1919 m. straips­nyje nagrinėjami tik tuo laiku amerikos spaudoje, atskiruose leidiniuose skelbti amerikos lietuvių tekstai lietuvių periodikos istorijos temomis. dar­be siekiama atskleisti, kas nauja tuo laikotarpiu atsirado amerikos lietuvių autorių darbuose, kokių pakitimų atsirado palyginti su ankstesniu (1879– 1904 m.) periodu Show More ... ... Show Less

Pamėgdžiojamoji Ir Atavistinė Žiniasklaidos Politikos Kryptis: Lietuvos Radijo Ir Televizijos Atvejis

straipsnyje, vadovaujantis karolio jakubowicziaus išskiria­momis penkiomis teorinėmis pokomunistinės žiniasklaidos politikos kryp­timis, nagrinėjami probleminiai lietuvos radijo ir televizijos (nuo 1987 m. iki 1996 m., kai buvo priimtas visuomenės informavimo įstatymas bei lie­tuvos nacionalinio radijo ir televizijos įstatymas) pokyčiai žlugus sovietinei totalitarinei politinei sistemai. subyrėjusi sovietų sąjunga atnešė didelių pokyčių visose visuomenės gyvenimo srityse. jie patvirtino žiniasklaidos teorijoje įtvirtintą apibrėžtį, kad keičiantis politinei santvarkai neišvengia­mai kinta ir iki tol egzistavusi žiniasklaidos sistema. sovietmečiu valdžios įrankiu buvęs lietuvos radijas ir televizija taip pat turėjo keistis. pagrin­dinis straipsnio tikslas – išanalizuoti, kokią pokomunistinės žiniasklaidos politikos kryptį rinkosi lietuvos radijas ir televizija žlugus sovietinei komu­nistinei sistemai. straipsnyje naudoti interviu, autorės atlikti su domijonu šniuku1, ku­ris 1989 metų vasario 13 d. tapo lietuvos sovietų socialistinės respublikos (lssr) valstybinio televizijos ir radijo (rtv) komiteto prie lssr ministrų tarybos pirmininku, o nuo 1990 metų kovo iki 1990 metų birže­lio 19 d. ėjo lietuvos radijo ir televizijos generalinio direktoriaus pareigas.taip pat su juozu neverausku2 – nuo 1982 metų minėto rtv komite­to pirmininko pavaduotoju, nuo 1995 metų sausio 17 d. iki 1996 metų gruodžio 13 d. laikinai ėjusiu lietuvos radijo ir televizijos generalinio di­rektoriaus pareigas, su dalia kutraite3, kuri nuo 1997 metų sausio 21 d. iki 1997 m. vasario 18 d. laikinai ėjo lietuvos radijo ir televizijos genera­linio direktoriaus pareigas, su algirdu kaušpėdu4 – 1990 metų gegužę – 1993 metų sausį lietuvos radijo ir televizijos generalinio direktoriaus pava­duotoju televizijai ir su nerijum maliukevičiumi5 – 1989 metų – 1992 metų lietuvos radijo ir televizijos generalinio direktoriaus pavaduotoju radijui Show More ... ... Show Less

Teisės Ir Etikos Problemos Šiaurės Lietuvos Periodinėje Spaudoje

straipsnio1 tikslas – aptarti septyniuose šiaurės lietuvos rajonuose leidžiamų dešimt periodinės spaudos leidinių teisės ir etikos problemų aspektu, nustatyti dažniausiai daromų galimų pažeidimų tendencijas, palyginti leidinius Show More ... ... Show Less

Antraščių Negatyvumo, Nuotaikos Ir Skaitytojų Reakcijos Konstravimas

straipsnyje aptariama antraštės svarba šiandieninėje lie­tuvos interneto žiniasklaidoje, jos panaudojimas formuojant skaitytojų nuomonę bei optimizuojant naujienų sklaidą. pristatomas dviejų populia­riausių lietuvos interneto leidinių (delfi.lt ir 15min.lt) tyrimas, kuriame at­skleidžiama, kokią įtaką antraštės negatyvumas ir kuriama nuotaika daro skaitytojų aktyvumui, šiuo aspektu lyginami lietuvos ir užsienio naujienų srautai. nors laikraščių antraštės tyrinėjamos nuolat, autorė straipsnyje nu­tarė išsiaiškinti, kaip jos konstruojamos ir kokio pobūdžio antraštės domi­nuoja Show More ... ... Show Less

Neapykantos Kalbos Raiška Lietuvos Interneto Dienraščių Publikacijose Apie Pabėgėlius

straipsnis skirtas išanalizuoti neapykantos kalbos koncep­ciją ir ištirti neapykantos kalbos atvejus lietuvos interneto dienraščių aktu­alijose apie pabėgėlius. tyrimu aiškinamasi, kaip žurnalistinėse publikacijo­se neapykantos kalba naudojama konstruojant pabėgėlio portretą, aprašant su pabėgėliais susijusius migracijos bei integracijos procesus. straipsnyje taip pat nustatomos neapykantos kalbos poveikio prielaidos. tyrimas atliktas 2015 m. rugpjūčio – spalio mėnesiais, ištirti 4 lietuvos interneto dienraščiai: „delfi.lt“, „15min.lt“, „lrytas.lt“ ir „alfa.lt“. tyrimo rezultatai parodė, kad neapykantos kalba pabėgėlių atžvilgiu skleidžiama pasitelkiant stereotipus, išankstines nuostatas, rasistinius pareiškimus. pabėgėliai dažnai apibūdinami kaip grėsmingi atvykėliai, nesugebėsiantys integruotis europos šalyse, pakenksiantys europietiškąjai kultūrai ir saugumui Show More ... ... Show Less

Kremliaus Propagandinių Matricų, Taikomų Baltijos Šalims Ir Ukrainai, Panašumai Ir Skirtumai

straipsnyje analizuojamos propagandinės matricos, suda­rytos iš propagandinių naratyvų paradigmų, naudojamų kremliaus pro­pagandiniam puolimui prieš baltijos šalis ir ukrainą. aiškinami matricų formavimo principai, išskiriamos ir tiriamos jų ypatybės. darbe taip pat tarpusavyje lyginamos rusijos informacinėje erdvėje formuojamos baltijos šalių ir ukrainos pozicijos propagandinėse matricose. fiksuojami analizuo­jamų matricų panašumai ir skirtumai. tokio pobūdžio tyrimas ypač aktualus tampa naujausių geopolitinių realijų kontekste, atsižvelgiant į 2014 metais ukrainos atžvilgiu rusijos naudotą hibridinio karo taktiką ir tai, kokį vaidmenį čia atliko propaganda Show More ... ... Show Less

The Influence Of Business And Government Structures On The Autonomy Of Lithuanian Online Media

this article is aimed at presenting a complex approach to the media autonomy concept, with particular focus on the most real aspects of journalistic activity and the factors affecting them. the paper actualizes the notion of media and professional autonomy, introduces the western tradition of journalistic culture and considers the decisions being made and how they affect professional independence in lithuanian newsrooms. the practical research part of this piece mostly focuses on newsrooms operating online. based on the findings of the research conducted on the relationships of business and government structures with the media, and the data of the survey of editors and journalists, it can be stated that several factors affect the autonomy of newsrooms and journalists of lithuanian internet portals: 1) the owners of a media outlet; 2) the political and business interests of the owners; 3) an absence of ethical norms, such as documents regulating professional activities; 4) an absence of mechanisms for feedback and resolution of conflicts of interests; 5) a lack of transparency and impartiality in internet portals; 6) political and business interests; 7) the hierarchical structure of an editorial office. an analysis of the information about owners and documents published in internet portals revealed that the editorial offices either do not provide any information about the shareholders (owners) altogether or this information is provided to the general public in a laconic and sleek manner. regardless of the fact that some of the portals provide information that shareholders do not interfere with the work of the editorial office, none of them referred to a mechanism for dissociating the editorial office from the interests of the owners (shareholders). the portals do not provide information about the mechanisms for resolving conflicts (between the readers and the newsroom) operated in the newsrooms. moreover, there is no information on how the conflicts of editors and journalists pertaining to professional ethics are resolved. the majority of newsrooms (except for delfi.lt) do not familiarize readers with their work culture. the survey of the journalists and editors of internet media outlets revealed that the newsrooms are not sufficiently autonomous – the majority of those surveyed do not think they work in autonomous newsrooms. the lack of autonomy of newsrooms of the internet portals was also corroborated by the fact that there are topics avoided by journalists and editors alike. generally, they are associated with competitors, politicians or business structures, advertising customers and the interests of owners. it can be assumed, based on the corpus of the replies given by editors and journalists, that a strong hierarchical structure prevails in editorial offices influencing the individual autonomy of journalists. the overall analysis of the journalist replies shows that the journalists do not complete the texts themselves (texts are corrected; titles are changed). although the corrections are coordinated with the journalists, the editors make the final decision concerning them. moreover, the lack of professional autonomy of the journalists is also shown by the fact that journalists are commissioned to write articles, whereas certain articles are removed from the internet space Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Internet Portals
  • Editorial Office
  • Hierarchical Structure
  • Professional Autonomy
  • The Internet
The Darkest Page In The History Of Lithuanian Journalism: Anti-Semitism In Legal Press During The Second Half Of 1941

there is a saying of warfare: inter arma silent musae – when arms speak, muses are silent. and yet some lithuanian journalists had found their inspiration even in 1941 – when lithuania was at the epicenter of war and the holocaust. later on, this period will be defined as the darkest page in the history of lithuanian journalism,1 because the genocide of the jews had been accompanied by an outbreak (on a scale previously unseen) of anti-semitism in lithuanian press. it is a well-known but little-studied case. moreover, usually anti-semitism within the press was interpreted only as an integral part of the nazi propaganda in lithuania. it is not surpris­ing, since this already mythical concept appears as a “phantom,” most often when someone wishes to employ easily understandable arguments for justi­fication or explanation. political activists sought to restore the independence of lithuania in the summer of 1941. it was the main reason why they also rebuilt press orga­nizations in the country. initially, it was certainly not a nazi propaganda project. therefore, the same lithuanian activists could be held responsible for the escalation of hate aimed at jews as much as the germans. on the other hand, lithuanian anti-semitism can be seen in many ways: as a form of revenge, a collaboration strategy or an uncritical adoption of totalitar­ian nazi rhetoric, finally, as an integral part of lithuanian nationalism or national socialism – a pragmatic ideology used to achieve political goals. so, this essay revolves around two main questions: who and why pub­lished the anti-semitic writings within lithuanian press in 1941? study findings are based on a combination of primary sources and secondary liter­ature. this study was also supplemented by an analysis of hundreds of anti- semitic articles (their headlines and content) published june 24-december 31, 1941. the purpose of this analysis is to characterize the discourse of anti-semitism in lithuanian press. our study seeks to identify the authors of these publications and their sources, determine the most common topics and genres, as well as to see whether there was a proposition (direct or indirect) to prosecute and use physical violence or even murder jewish individuals Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Anti Semitism
  • National Socialism
  • Physical Violence
  • The Other
The Image Of Refugees And The Features Of Its Development In Lithuanian Online Newspapers

the considerable number of refugees fleeing to europe has an impact on countries’ economic, political and social agenda, as well as the processes of society. the european refugee (migrant) crisis, which began in 2015, brought out not only different attitudes toward refugees among eu­ropean union politicians, but also revealed how diverse the coverage of na­tional media may get on the refugee topic. refugees flee to europe from various countries and diverse cultural back­grounds. however, society lacks the knowledge about their religious beliefs, lifestyles and outlooks. moreover, the media has the power to decide which events and individuals to portray, and in such a way constructs the audi­ence’s perception about the world they live in. refugee-related messages in the media usually occur in a negative context: terrorist attacks, refugee deaths, criminal activity and protests. however, the media does not only construct, but also has the power to change prejudice toward refugees, ensuring that one of its aims is interaction between diverse social groups. the author combines quantitative and qualitative research methods for media messages and analyzes dominant stereotypes about refugees in lithu­anian online media. the types of refugee-related publications are also exam­ined. three research periods were chosen: 1-31 july 2015, 1-30 november 2015 and 1-31 january 2016. the main goals are to theoretically discuss the media’s role and peculiarities in shaping certain images which society main­tains, as well as to define the stereotypes and their role in society. lithuanian online newspapers are commercial institutions, which – in order to compete in the market – strive to engage consumers. delivering mes­sages quickly and in large quantities often matters more than their content and the reliability of sources. this, in turn, leads to the information being distorted or superficial. lithuanian newspapers construct a negative refugee image, where the most dominant images of refugees are as individuals who are uncontrollable, aggressive and prone to commit crime, being either gang members, terrorists or benefit recipients Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Media
  • Online Newspapers
  • Qualitative Research
  • Research Methods
  • The World
Censorship In People’S Poland

the range and power of how media is transferred – since the time when printing machines were invented in the fifteenth century – has been quite a challenge for specific environments, institutions, ideas and be­liefs; for both, the clerical and secular authorities wanted to influence the distribution of content. the actions of the catholic church, in this respect, were to exclude the promotion of heretical ideas, whereas the political power cared about shaping the attitudes of obedience and loyalty (pokorna-igna­towicz, 2002). attempts made to restrict the freedom of the printed word had failed because not all of the authors, publishers and printers conformed to the church and its rulers; instead, they spread opinions in accordance with their convictions. reformation can be considered as the first ideological revolution, the success of which was closely related with media coverage (in this case – with the use of print) (łęcicki, 2013 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Fifteenth Century
  • Catholic Church
  • Media Coverage
  • The Political
  • The Church
Deficit Of Trust And The Decline Of Print Media In Lithuania

since the turn of the 21st century, the global decline of print media has become a universally accepted inevitability, along with the broad consensus that this has been brought about by the internet and social media. the ascendancy of new media and the vicissitudes of digital transformation, along with shrinking advertising revenues and the sudden death of classified advertisements, have been piling up pressure on print media worldwide. in the meantime, there are some additional local factors at work in lithuania that could propel lithuania to be become one of the first countries in europe to lose the printed press for good. the decline of lithuanian print media has been caused not only by technological progress and new innovative media business models, but also by a rather flawed development of the traditional media, as the tested instruments of trust building have faced serious difficulties in taking root in the country’s print media culture. the downturn in the print media points to the limited ability of the lithuanian press to strike a right balance between the public interest and the efficiency of the business model, as well as to a lack of willingness to create and uphold certain standards of transparency and journalist ethics. reluctance to discuss deficiencies of the trade in an open way and weak motivation to develop an honest, efficient and credible media regulation environment have also been responsible for the print media’s decline. the vicious circle of the controversial business model which diminishes trust, and low trust which further undermines the financial viability of lithuanian newspapers are in effect pushing the print media out of the market earlier than pure technological progress is asking for. the predicament of the press is making an impact on the lithuanian media in general, by narrowing the advertising market. on the other hand, choices made by the public, unfavorable to the printed press, are giving the media valuable directions to move faster towards new forms of media that are more sensitive to the public interest and, accordingly, can command higher trust Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Print Media
  • The Public
  • Business Model
  • Public Interest
  • Technological Progress
The Dynamics Of Europeanness Of Lithuania’S Media Elite (2008–2015

this article presents insights about lithuania’s media elite, gained during research carried out on the basis of a complex europeanness model, developed by heinrich best (best 2012: 208-233). data describing lithuania’s media elite are analyzed with reference to three dimensions or facets, identified in the original model of europeanness: emotive, cognitive-evaluative and projective-conative. however, the list of variables examined in the study is considerably longer as compared to the initial static model offered by best, and the analysis is much more detailed. this comparative study is aimed at identifying and describing the evolution of emotive identi­fication of lithuania’s media elite with europe in terms of the objective and judging approach of the eu in the period from 2008 to 2015. results of the research revealed a clear trend that lithuania’s media elite have been be­coming european. it was noticed that it tends to increasingly associate itself emotionally with europe. besides, the number of representatives of this elite group that assesses the common eu governance negatively (when the eu’s common foreign policy in respect of countries found beyond the eu borders is becoming increasingly accepted) has been consistently decreasing and the trust in the eu institutions has been enhancing. looking to the future, the representatives of lithuania’s media elite tend to assess the eu prospects in the medium-term and long-term (10 years) optimistically. they also hold the view that 10 years later the eu, as a geopolitical, political and economic entity will be stronger, and that both social and economic differences among the eu member states will not be so sharp. euroscepticism is seen not only on the cultural plane. correlation analysis has revealed that young age (people under 40) and an intensive socialization in the eu networks (constant com­munication with the eu partners) determine that lithuania’s media elite have been becoming european Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Eu
  • Foreign Policy
  • Correlation Analysis
  • The Future
  • The Common