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2099 ◽  
Vol 16 (02) ◽  
pp. 279-284
Azeez Bukhari ◽  
Muhammad Khurram Munir ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the awareness & practices regarding weaning in lactating mothers of infants. Design: A crosssectional descriptive study. Setting: At pediatrics OPD in Ghurki Trust Teaching hospital, Lahore. Period: From Octoberto December 2007.Methodology: A non probability convenience sampling was done to collect data from 50 mothers who were attending out patient departmentalong with their infants on a pre-formed questionnaire. After gathering, data was analyzed & presented in the form of tables & graphs.Results: In the present study, 66% mothers were in the age group of 20-29 years, all were house wives, 34 % were matriculate and 72%lived in joint family system, Mean age of weaning was 4-6 months in more than 64 % of the sample. Among the women interviewed, 44%used home-made weaning diets, 30% used mixture of homemade and commercially prepared diets, while 16% used only commerciallyprepared diets. Breast feeding was continued during and after weaning, by 64% of respondents along with weaning diets. Conclusion:Mothers need to be educated about the importance of weaning, the recommended age of weaning and about the types of weaning food.This can be achieved by using lady health workers and lady health visitors and the mass media. Importance of continued breast feedingwith weaning diet should be emphasized upon.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 365-383
Ubaid Ullah Ubaid ◽  
Joseph Ramanair ◽  
Souba Rethinasamy

This study aimed to investigate English as a second language (ESL) undergraduates’ sociocultural perspective of willingness to communicate (WTC) in English inside the classroom in relation to language use outside the classroom. The participants were 440 ESL undergraduates selected through the cluster sampling method from eight universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan. The data were collected through questionnaires on WTC in English inside the classroom and language use outside the classroom. The findings revealed that the participants’ level of WTC in English was high for most social interactions within the classroom, such as in groups, during activities, with the same gender, and when given preparation time in groups. The findings for language use showed that a mixture of languages, such as Pashto and Urdu, was predominantly used in the family, neighbourhood and friendship, religion, education, and transaction domains. In contrast, English was primarily used in the mass media and social media domains. Moreover, the findings revealed that WTC in English inside the classroom was positively correlated with social media, mass media, transaction and education domains but negatively correlated with the family domain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 72-80
Ivan S. Polyanskii ◽  
Inna V. Polyanskaya ◽  
Kirill O. Loginov

In the article, to solve the problem of assessing the information impact on the electorate during election campaigns, algorithmic solutions, including a mathematical model, a numerical scheme and algorithmic implementations, are formed. This assessment is reduced to determining the instantaneous values of the number of voters who prefer a candidate (party), taking into account: the positive or negative stochastic nature of the impact of mass media; interpersonal interaction; two-step assimilation of information; the presence of a variety of mass media, social groups and a list of candidates. The mathematical model is based on a generalized model of information confrontation in a structured society and, with the introduction of stochastic components in the intensity of agitation, it is reduced to solving the FokkerPlanckKolmogorov equation. For its study in the formulation of the Galerkin method, a numerical scheme is proposed and the order of its convergence is determined. In relation to the basic procedures of the numerical scheme, the features of the algorithmic implementation are clarified.

2022 ◽  
pp. 146144482110685
Hyunyi Cho ◽  
Julie Cannon ◽  
Rachel Lopez ◽  
Wenbo Li

Concerns over the harmful effects of social media have directed public attention to media literacy as a potential remedy. Current conceptions of media literacy are frequently based on mass media, focusing on the analysis of common content and evaluation of the content using common values. This article initiates a new conceptual framework of social media literacy (SoMeLit). Moving away from the mass media-based assumptions of extant approaches, SoMeLit centers on the user’s self in social media that is in dynamic causation with their choices of messages and networks. The foci of analysis in SoMeLit, therefore, are one’s selections and values that influence and are influenced by the construction of one’s reality on social media; and the evolving characteristics of social media platforms that set the boundaries of one’s social media reality construction. Implications of the new components and dimensions of SoMeLit for future research, education, and action are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
ابن عوف ، طارق حسن

This study tackles the issue of‘rape crime’ in 1991 Sudan Criminal laws in comparison with the 1974 & 1983 Sudan Criminal, 1983 Egyptian Criminal laws and the Islamic Jurisprudence.   The study defines the linguistic meaning of the word ‘rape’, then it explains the particular use of the term among the scholars of Sharia and in the Sudanese and Egyptian Criminal laws as well as other Criminal laws.   The study identifies the significant social, political, educational, and mass media factors that contribute to the prevalence of this criminal phenomenon.   Plus, the study investigates some of the Sudanese court verdicts on rape crime, particularly those incredible, absurd and gross rape cases which arc absolutely alien to the Muslim community.   The study explores all the legal factors of this crime and then the penalty prescribed in the 1991 Sudan Criminal laws in comparison with the 1974 & 1983 Sudan Criminal laws, 1983 Egyptian Criminal laws and the Islamic Jurisprudence.   The study concludes that its absolutely necessary to implement the Islamic penalties [Hidudl in the Muslim communities.   Also the study calls for the necessity of solving the relevant social and economic questions in the Muslim communities, propagation of the sound Islamic values, simplification of marriage ceremonies and brevention of harmful materials in mass media

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (01) ◽  
pp. 13-19
Salomé Berrocal-Gonzalo ◽  
Raquel Quevedo-Redondo ◽  
Virginia García-Beaudoux ◽  

In the midst of entertainment society, that started off at the end of the twentieth century, pop politics developed as a new communication formula used by the political leaders to share their image and their messages to the citi- zens by means of features from the entertainment environment or celebritiza- tion. In a similar way, the traditional mass media act, including formats of politi- cal infoentertainment to share the political information to the citizens in a frivolous, superficial or satiric format, aiming to increase their audience. This dominant situation of politainment has been transferred to the Internet envi- ronment, where the trend multiplies its effect due to the power of social net- works. In that case, political parties, mass media and prosumers, find a new space to gain votes, increase their audience and achieve advantage. The mono- graph included in index.comunicación introduces several research projects re- lated to politainment, aiming to study its impact upon traditional media and social networks. The new formulas adopted by spectacularized political infor- mation, the kind of issuers that produce them and the consequences upon those who intake them, are the object of analysis of the investigation works published in this thematic number.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (0) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Carlos Muñiz ◽  

During election campaigns the mass media favor political debate, giving relevant issues a particular framing. In this coverage the use of the conflict frame stands out, and although it usually presents politics as an exercise of confrontation and attack, it can also show it as a process of discussion and the exchange of opinions. A content analysis was conducted on television and press news during the 2018 presidential and the 2021 federal legislative elections in Mexico. The findings confirm the existence of two differentiated frames, that of “conflict” and that of “discussion and political agreement”. Furthermore, a connection between the two frames was detected in the media coverage of the campaigns.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Prem Shankar Mishra ◽  
Debashree Sinha ◽  
Pradeep Kumar ◽  
Shobhit Srivastava

Abstract Background Despite a significant increase in the skilled birth assisted (SBA) deliveries in India, there are huge gaps in availing maternity care services across social gradients - particularly across states and regions. Therefore, this study applies the spatial-regression model to examine the spatial distribution of SBA across districts of India. Furthermore, the study tries to understand the spatially associated population characteristics that influence the low coverage of SBA across districts of India and its regions. Methods The study used national representative cross-sectional survey data obtained from the fourth round of National Family Health Survey, conducted in 2015-16. The effective sample size was 259,469 for the analysis. Moran’s I statistics and bivariate Local Indicator for Spatial Association maps were used to understand spatial dependence and clustering of deliveries conducted by SBA coverage in districts of India. Ordinary least square, spatial lag and spatial error models were used to examine the correlates of deliveries conducted by SBA. Results Moran’s I value for SBA among women was 0.54, which represents a high spatial auto-correlation of deliveries conducted by SBA over 640 districts of India. There were 145 hotspots for deliveries conducted by SBA among women in India, which includes almost the entire southern part of India. The spatial error model revealed that with a 10% increase in exposure to mass media in a particular district, the deliveries conducted by SBA increased significantly by 2.5%. Interestingly, also with the 10% increase in the four or more antenatal care (ANC) in a particular district, the deliveries conducted by SBA increased significantly by 2.5%. Again, if there was a 10% increase of women with first birth order in a particular district, then the deliveries conducted by SBA significantly increased by 6.1%. If the district experienced an increase of 10% household as female-headed, then the deliveries conducted by SBA significantly increased by 1.4%. Conclusion The present study highlights the important role of ANC visits, mass media exposure, education, female household headship that augment the use of an SBA for delivery. Attention should be given in promoting regular ANC visits and strengthening women’s education.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rabia S. Allari ◽  
Khaldoun Hamdan ◽  
Maha Alkaid Albqoor ◽  
Abeer Shaheen

PurposeTo describe the perceived level of information competency among nursing students in Jordan.Design/methodology/approachCross sectional-correlational design was utilized. Data were collected using an electronic self-administered questionnaire from graduate and undergraduate nursing students in Jordan.FindingsNursing students showed a moderate mean total score of information competency (184.11 out of 280, SD = 22.92). Among information competency subscales, using the information technologies subscale had the highest mean score, while information from the mass media subscale had the lowest mean score. Information competency of nursing students was positively correlated with students' age. Significant differences were found in information competency according to the academic level, addressing scientific research and research in databases in the course of the study, frequency of meeting the supervisor to discuss the research and university sector.Originality/valueAlthough there are numerous studies worldwide that assessed nursing students' information literacy, this paper represents the first study of information literacy competencies among nursing students in Jordan. While the content supports conclusions that have been drawn from other studies, this study is novel in terms of the student population it addressed. Information competency among nursing students can be improved by integrating standard research and information competency courses at the undergraduate level and involving mass media platforms in the nursing education curricula.

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