Computed Tomography
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2022 ◽  
Vol 147 ◽  
pp. 110132
Author(s):  
Riccardo Cau ◽  
Adam Flanders ◽  
Lorenzo Mannelli ◽  
Carola Politi ◽  
Gavino Faa ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Ahmed Elaraby ◽  
Ayman Taha

<p><span>A novel approach for multimodal liver image contrast enhancement is put forward in this paper. The proposed approach utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of liver as a guide to enhance the structures of computed tomography (CT) liver. The enhancement process consists of two phases: The first phase is the transformation of MRI and CT modalities to be in the same range. Then the histogram of CT liver is adjusted to match the histogram of MRI. In the second phase, an adaptive histogram equalization technique is presented by splitting the CT histogram into two sub-histograms and replacing their cumulative distribution functions with two smooths sigmoid. The subjective and objective assessments of experimental results indicated that the proposed approach yields better results. In addition, the image contrast is effectively enhanced as well as the mean brightness and details are well preserved.</span></p>


Author(s):  
Amjad Nuseir ◽  
Hasan Albalas ◽  
Aya Nuseir ◽  
Maulla Alali ◽  
Firas Zoubi ◽  
...  

This paper aims to use a new technique of computed tomography (CT) scan image processing to correlate the image analysis with sinonasal symptoms. A retrospective cross-sectional study is conducted by analyzing the digital records of 50 patients who attended the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan. The coronal plane CT scans are analyzed using our developed software. The purposes of this software are to calculate the surface area of the nasal passage at three different levels visible on coronal plane CT scans: i) the head of the inferior turbinate, ii) the head of the middle turbinate, and iii) the tail of the inferior turbinate. We employ image processing techniques to correlate the narrowing of nasal surface area with sinonasal symptoms. As a consequence, obstruction in the first level is correlated significantly with the symptoms of nasal obstruction while the narrowing in the second level is related to frontal headache. No other significant correlations are found with nasal symptoms at the third level. In our study, we find that image processing techniques can be very useful to predict the severity of common nasal symptoms and they can be used to suggest treatment and to follow up on the case progression.


2022 ◽  
Vol 77 ◽  
pp. 110646
Author(s):  
Tae-Hyeon Cho ◽  
Hyun-Jin Kwon ◽  
Jehoon O ◽  
Jaehee Cho ◽  
Shin Hyung Kim ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-28
Author(s):  
哲朗 石田 ◽  
Murayama Tomonori

An 88-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital for cognitive impairment and right-sided paralysis. His head non-contrast computed tomography (CT) showed large low-density areas (LDA) and fibrous structures in the left occipital and temporal lobe regions. Despite the fact that it had been more than 10 years since his stroke, rehabilitation was effective. This is a rare case in which cerebellar culmen -substantia nigra tract assisted rehabilitation after stroke.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-58
Author(s):  
Digbijay Bikram Khadka ◽  
Anup Sharma ◽  
Ashish Bhatta ◽  
Prabir Maharjan ◽  
Sandesh Sharma

Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the commonly encountered surgical emergencies. The diagnostic modality that helps in optimum management of these patients includes chest and abdominal x-rays, Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma scan and Computed Tomography. In selected hemodynamically stable patients who are candidates for non-operative management, Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography is not considered essential and hence avoiding its own radiation hazards and decreasing extra financial burden to the patients. Aims: To evaluate whether Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography is necessary or not in case of blunt trauma abdomen. Methods: This is a hospital based prospective study done in the department of surgery at Nepalgunj Medical College, Kohalpur conducted from October 2020 to March 2021. The patients with blunt abdominal trauma who were hemodynamically stable at the time of presentation and those who became stable after resuscitation were included. These patient’s detailed history was taken, clinical examination done. Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma scan was done at the time of presentation along with chest x-ray and other necessary blood investigation. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25 and p-value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Out of total 53 patients, age group between 11-20 and 21-30 years comprising of 13 patients with male: female ratio of 1.94:1 were affected more. Fall injury, being the most common mode, comprised 20 patients. The commonest organ involved was spleen seen in 17 patients (32.1%), liver in 16 patients (30.2%). In 44 (83.0%) patients, Computed Tomography scan was done only in nine patients who were also managed conservatively, except one who underwent laparoscopic evacuation of collected blood. Seventeen (32.1%) patients underwent repeat ultrasonography without any new findings. Conclusion: Patients with blunt abdominal trauma with stable hemodynamics can be managed conservatively with limited use of Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography scan.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Ali Alkhaibary ◽  
Noura Alsubaie ◽  
Ahoud Alharbi ◽  
Noor Alghanim ◽  
Laila Baydhi ◽  
...  

Background. Hypothalamic lipomas are benign developmental lesions that tend to be discovered incidentally. This article describes the radiological features, outcome, and the postulated theories behind hypothalamic lipomas development. Methods. The electronic archive of neurosurgery was retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a neuroradiological diagnosis of hypothalamic lipoma, between 2005 and 2020, were included. Results. Out of 246 patients with intracranial lipomas, a total of six patients with hypothalamic lipomas have been identified. On computed tomography images, one of the hypothalamic lipomas demonstrated calcification. On magnetic resonance imaging, peripheral enhancement after contrast administration was noted in one of the lesions. Considering the benign nature of the lesions, neurosurgical intervention was not indicated. Conclusion. The majority of patients with hypothalamic lipomas are asymptomatic and undergo brain imaging for other indications. Although uncommon, such developmental lesions can be identified in the general population, especially with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Roberta Eufrasia Ledda ◽  
Gianluca Milanese ◽  
Francesca Milone ◽  
Ludovica Leo ◽  
Maurizio Balbi ◽  
...  

AbstractInterstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) represent radiologic abnormalities incidentally detected on chest computed tomography (CT) examination, potentially related to interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Numerous studies have demonstrated that ILAs are associated with increased risk of progression toward pulmonary fibrosis and mortality. Some radiological patterns have been proven to be at a higher risk of progression. In this setting, the role of radiologists in reporting these interstitial abnormalities is critical. This review aims to discuss the most recent advancements in understanding this radiological entity and the open issues that still prevent the translation from theory to practice, emphasizing the importance of ILA recognition and adequately reporting in clinical practice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Liqin Jing ◽  
Yanchun Song

Objective: To investigate the comparative diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for detecting infective endocarditis. Methods: Original publications published in English language before July, 2021 were thoroughly search in PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Google Scholar literature databases. Studies were included if they used CT and/or TEE as an index test, presented data on valvular complications related to infective endocarditis, and used surgical findings as to the reference standard. Results:­­­ Literature screening identified fifteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that CT sensitivity for detecting valvular abscesses was higher than that of TEE [0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82 to 0.94; 11 studies involving 842 subjects) versus 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.84) P = 0.015; 12 studies involving 917 subjects]. TEE showed statistically significantly greater sensitivity than CT for detecting valvular vegetation [0.91 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.97, 11 studies involving 971 subjects) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.82), 12 studies involving 915 subjects, P =0.019. In case of leaflet detection, TEE showed statistically significantly higher sensitivity than CT (0.76 vs 0.46, P =0.010). Conclusion: CT performs statistically significantly better than TEE for detecting abscesses while TEE provides statistically significant superior results for detecting vegetation. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies to further corroborate these findings. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5139 How to cite this:Jing L, Song Y. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography vs transoesophageal echocardiography for infective endocarditis − A meta-analysis . Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5139 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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