Early Diagnosis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 263-268
Author(s):  
Tina Rai ◽  
G.S Rai

FNAC plays an important role in the early diagnosis of the axillary swelling. This study was conducted to document the spectrum of lesions on the patients that came for FNAC with the complain of axillary swelling. Present study was carried out at the Department of Pathology. A total of 30 cases of axillary swelling which were referred for FNAC in the department of Pathology, over the period of 3 months were retrospectively evaluated. All the stained slides of the cases were also reviewed.: From 30 cases there were 13 males and 17 females. On examining the stained slides maximum number of cases presented with chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis followed by Reactive lymphadenitis , Lipoma, Ductal carcinoma metastasis of breast in axillary lymphnode, chronic non-specific lymphadenitis, One unusual case of Hydatid cyst who presenting with axillary swelling was also diagnosed. : FNAC is an important tool in differentiating benign and malignant lesions thus, helps in the proper management of the disease.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 67-72
Author(s):  
Aditya Arya Putra ◽  
Rahmad Rizal Budi Wicaksono ◽  
M. Besari Adi Pramono ◽  
Arsita Eka Rini

Background: Cases of fetal hydrothorax (FHT) are rare, with an occurrence probability of 1 in every 10,000-15,000 pregnancies. The condition may remain undiagnosed, and the fetus may be aborted, or death may occur soon after birth in outlying hospitals before transfer to a tertiary care center. The incidence rate of FHT is higher in males than females (2:1). One of the most effective methods of diagnosing fetal hydrothorax is sonography. Three forms of currently available treatments are: thoracentesis, thoracoamniotic shunting (TAS), and thoracomaternal cutaneous drainage. Fetal outcomes could be improved by performing the Extrauterine Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure.Case Presentation: We present two cases of first pregnancy primary FHT. In the first case, a 24-year-old woman was diagnosed with asymptomatic FHT in the 28th week of gestation without any prior history. In the second case, a 22-year-old woman with poor medical history was diagnosed in the 35th week of pregnancy and was experienced difficulty of breathing. Both pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section based on obstetric indications. Thoracentesis was performed on both neonates, and pathological examination of the pleural fluid was conducted. However, they died shortly after birth.Conclusion: The EXIT procedure is still a challenging method. A fetus with FHT is at significant risk of pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory distress following delivery. Early diagnosis and intervention of FHT are vital to ensure a good prognosis. Approaching multidisciplinary groups, providing supportive diagnostic facilities and financial support is essential in improving fetal outcomes and preventing FHT in subsequent pregnancies.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mona MohammadZahri ◽  
Hadi Cheraghi ◽  
Dariush Shirani ◽  
Ali Hatamkhani

Abstract BackgroundTransmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a wide tumor of canine, there are no effective markers to monitor the therapeutic response in real-time. Circulating biomarkers may be valuable for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers, so in this study, we aimed to investigate the significance of the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and cfDNA integrity index to monitor the response of TVT to vincristine and compare them with lysyl oxidase activity. Plasma and sera were collected before drug administration within four weeks from fifteen male dogs. The analytical method was mainly based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction for short and long cfDNA, and lysyl oxidase activity was measured in serum.ResultsThe results of cfDNA integrity index showed significant (p<0.05) difference in a baseline to 2nd and 3rd week (with cut-off value 1.118 and 93.33% specificity). We found that the cfDNA integrity index was increased during weeks due to the reduction of shorts cfDNA in the 1st week after treatment. lysyl Oxidase activity was increased during the 4th week (p<0.001) but there were no significant differences in the other weeks compared to baseline. ROC analysis of lysyl Oxidase revealed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (93%) 2nd, 3rd weeks on comparison between Baseline. Multivariate analysis between cfDNA integrity index and lysyl Oxidase showed significant correlation (p<0.05) only baseline results. ConclusionsTaken together, we propose short cfDNA, cfDNA integrity index, and lysyl Oxidase activity as a diagnostic biomarker and a putative prognostic candidate in TVT patients. These biomarkers could be used simultaneously for quickly diagnose TVT in combination with cytology.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Li Wang ◽  
Xingguo Song ◽  
Miao Yu ◽  
Limin Niu ◽  
Yajing Zhao ◽  
...  

Aim: This study aimed to identify specific and sensitive exosomal miRNAs in diagnosing patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum exosomes were isolated from 175 CRC patients and 172 healthy donors by ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blotting. Exosomal miRNA expression was detected by qPCR and the results analyzed by receiver operating characteristic analysis to illuminate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Both exosomal miR-377-3p and miR-381-3p were downregulated in CRC patients as well as in early-stage patients compared with healthy donors; they could serve as circulating biomarkers of diagnosis, including early diagnosis, for CRC, possessing favorable diagnostic efficiency. Conclusion: Exosomal miR-377-3p and miR-381-3p levels were downregulated in CRC patients and may be useful as novel and specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of CRC, especially early-stage CRC.


Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 3401
Author(s):  
Eleni Sfyri ◽  
Vasiliki Kefala ◽  
Effie Papageorgiou ◽  
Athena Mavridou ◽  
Apostolos Beloukas ◽  
...  

Molluscum contagiosum (MC) and warts are common viral infections of the skin. Data regarding the prevalence of MC and verruca in swimmers are very poor and lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of Molluscum Contagiosum (MC) and warts cases among young competitive swimmers participating in Greek swimming clubs. Of 244 swimmers enrolled in this study, 12.3% reported MC and 43% warts, during their swimming career, diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. There was no difference between sexes for MC but diagnoses of warts were higher in females. Axillae and trunk were the most common sites of primary infection for MC but warts mainly appeared on the soles. The incidence of MC and warts in swimmers who use outdoor facilities was higher. In our study, the incidence of warts and MC in Greek swimmers is considered high. Moist walking surfaces, placing towels on locker room benches, and sharing equipment are behaviors that cause infections. An early diagnosis of warts and MC lesions must be implemented in every swimmer through dermatological examination. Taking proper measures for reducing the risk of warts and MC transmission in Greek swimmers is mandatory.


2021 ◽  
pp. 028418512110558
Author(s):  
Pan Yang ◽  
Yajie Tang ◽  
Hongying Wang ◽  
Xiangxiang Zhang ◽  
Boyang Yang

Background Early diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) is an important clinical challenge. Purpose To summarize the latest diagnostic performance of different ultrasonic (US) features for BA. Material and Methods MeSH terms “biliary atresia” and “ultrasonography” and related hyponyms were used to search PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible articles were included and data were retrieved. The methodologic quality was assessed by version 2 of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of each US feature were calculated by Stata 14.0. Results Fifty eligible studies on 5622 patients were included. Respective summary sensitivity and specificity were 77% (95% CI=69–84) and 98% (95% CI=96–99) for triangular cord sign (TCS) in 32 studies, 86% (95% CI=78–92) and 86% (95% CI=72–94) for shear wave elastography (SWE) in seven studies, 75% (95% CI=65–83) and 92% (95% CI=86–95) for gallbladder and biliary system abnormality (GBA) in 25 studies, and 81% (95% CI=69–90) and 79% (95% CI=67–87) for hepatic artery (HA) enlargement in seven studies. The overall US features from 11 studies yielded a summary sensitivity of 84% (95% CI=72–92) and specificity of 86% (95% CI=77–92). Conclusion TCS and GBA were the two most widely accepted US features currently used for differential diagnosis of BA. The newly developed SWE was an objective and convenient method with good diagnostic performance. HA enlargement can be used as an auxiliary sign.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohabbat Ali ◽  
Gaurav Gupta ◽  
Manju Silu ◽  
Deep Chand ◽  
Vivek Samor

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (5-6) ◽  
pp. 339-341
Author(s):  
E. M. Lipnitsky ◽  
Yu. S. Medkova ◽  
E. A. Akhmetgalieva ◽  
D. N. Borisova

The study of intestinal and oral microflora and their metabolites playing an important role in intestinal homeostasis, has led to the identification of species closely related to the development of colorectal cancer, intracellular correlations of fungi and bacteria compared to control. The correlation between oral microbiota and intestinal microflora, as well as associated with the mucous membrane of the large intestine, was revealed. It was noted that the use of eu- and probiotics improved the immunological indices and the structure of the intestinal microbiota. Thus, studying the oral and intestinal microbiota and its metabolites may prove to be a simple, accessible and informative method for the early diagnosis of colon cancer. However, most studies indicate only changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the microbiota, hardly revealing its cause-effect relations with the processes of tumor formation in the colon. Therefore, it is necessary to continue studies of this problem.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatemeh hosseinpour-soleimani ◽  
Gholamreza Khamisipour ◽  
Zahra Derakhshan ◽  
Bahram Ahmadi

Abstract Background Currently, the role of serum-based biomarkers such as microRNAs in cancer diagnosis has been extensively established. This study aimed to determine expression levels of bioinformatically selected miRNAs and whether they can be used as biomarkers or a new therapeutic target in patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods The expression levels of serum miR-22, miR-122, miR-217, and miR-367 in 21 ALL patients and 21 healthy controls were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the associated area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess candidate miRNAs' diagnostic value as a biomarker. Results The results showed that miR-217 was markedly decreased in patients with ALL compared to controls. Moreover, miR-22, miR-122, and miR-367 were found to be upregulated. Furthermore, ROC analysis showed that serum miR-217 and miR-367 could differentiate ALL patients from the healthy individuals, while miR-22 has approximate discriminatory power that requires further investigation. Conclusion Collectively, the results suggested that miR-217 may play a tumor suppressor role in ALL, whereas miR-22, miR-122, and miR-367 could function as an oncogene. Overall, miR-22, miR-217, and miR-367 could be considered possible biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ALL.


2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
James J. Yahaya

Abstract Background Early diagnosis of spinal cord neoplasia serves patients from developing a number of complications and even death. Methods After obtaining ethical approval, retrospectively, a total of 53 tissue blocks of patients attended at the spinal ward were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0, and p value of less than 0.05 was applied to establish the existence of statistical significance between the compared categorical variables. Results The mean age of the patients was 30.7 ± 15.96 years. Most of the patients 32.1% (n = 17) were aged ≤ 19 years, and majority of the neoplasia 77.3% (n = 41) were extramedullary. Also, majority of the neoplasia 60.4% (n = 32) were benign and the malignant ones were 35.8% (n = 19). The mean duration of onset of symptoms for benign and malignant neoplasia in this study was 13.1 ± 16.4 and 3.4 ± 2.8 years, respectively, with statistical difference (95% CI 2.09–17.35, p = 0.014). Conclusion The patients with spinal cord neoplasia in the present study were of young age, and majority of them had benign neoplasia that were extramedullary located. The mean duration of onset of symptoms for patients with malignant neoplasia was significantly shorter than that of benign neoplasia.


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