micro computed tomography
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2022 ◽  
Vol 77 ◽  
pp. 110646
Tae-Hyeon Cho ◽  
Hyun-Jin Kwon ◽  
Jehoon O ◽  
Jaehee Cho ◽  
Shin Hyung Kim ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 316-322
Meng-Sheng Song ◽  
Xiao Yu ◽  
Peng-Ze Rong ◽  
Qing-Jiang Pang

Objectives: To compare the effects of signaling-selective parathyroid hormone analogs [G1, R19]hPTH(1–28) [GR(1–28)] and [G1, R19]hPTH(1–34) [GR(1–34)] on osteoporotic osteocyte apoptosis, and to explore the mechanism of the anti-osteoporotic difference. Methods: The osteoporosis model was established in eighty adult female C57BL/6 mice aged 12 weeks. The mice were subcutaneously administered with GR(1–28) and GR(1–34) 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Bilateral femur samples were collected at 4 and 8 weeks, and micro-computed tomography (CT), H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining analyses were performed. Results: From micro-CT analysis, GR(1–34) increased proximal femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and relative bone volume (BV/TV), which was higher than GR(1–28) did. In addition, more trabecular number (Tb.N), thinner trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and wider trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured at week 8 using GR(1–34). From H&E and immunohistochemical staining, a stronger apoptosis inhibition was induced by GR(1–34) with more Bcl-2 secretion but less Bax expression, as opposed to GR(1–28). Conclusions: GR(1–34) shows better anti-osteoporotic effects than GR(1–28), which appears to be attributed to the activation of the PLC-independent PKC signaling pathway triggered by the former, inhibiting osteocyte apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax to increase bone mass and improving trabecular bone microstructure to enhance bone quality by reducing trabecular number, increasing trabecular thickness and trabecular space.

2022 ◽  
Vol 319 ◽  
pp. 125953
Sang-Yeop Chung ◽  
Ji-Su Kim ◽  
Tong-Seok Han ◽  
Dietmar Stephan ◽  
Paul H. Kamm ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 231 ◽  
pp. 109590
Min Hee Joo ◽  
So Jeong Park ◽  
Sung-Min Hong ◽  
Choong Kyun Rhee ◽  
Dongsoo Kim ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 638
Ofer Tevet ◽  
David Svetlizky ◽  
David Harel ◽  
Zahava Barkay ◽  
Dolev Geva ◽  

Additively manufactured (AM) materials and hot rolled materials are typically orthotropic, and exhibit anisotropic elastic properties. This paper elucidates the anisotropic elastic properties (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) of Ti6Al4V alloy in four different conditions: three AM (by selective laser melting, SLM, electron beam melting, EBM, and directed energy deposition, DED, processes) and one wrought alloy (for comparison). A specially designed polygon sample allowed measurement of 12 sound wave velocities (SWVs), employing the dynamic pulse-echo ultrasonic technique. In conjunction with the measured density values, these SWVs enabled deriving of the tensor of elastic constants (Cij) and the three-dimensional (3D) Young’s moduli maps. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and micro-computed tomography (μCT) were employed to characterize the grain size and orientation as well as porosity and other defects which could explain the difference in the measured elastic constants of the four materials. All three types of AM materials showed only minor anisotropy. The wrought (hot rolled) alloy exhibited the highest density, virtually pore-free μCT images, and the highest ultrasonic anisotropy and polarity behavior. EBSD analysis revealed that a thin β-phase layer that formed along the elongated grain boundaries caused the ultrasonic polarity behavior. The finding that the elastic properties depend on the manufacturing process and on the angle relative to either the rolling direction or the AM build direction should be taken into account in the design of products. The data reported herein is valuable for materials selection and finite element analyses in mechanical design. The pulse-echo measurement procedure employed in this study may be further adapted and used for quality control of AM materials and parts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 769
Francesco Simone Mensa ◽  
Maurizio Muzzi ◽  
Federica Spani ◽  
Giuliana Tromba ◽  
Christian Dullin ◽  

Many techniques are used today to study insect morphology, including light and electron microscopy. Most of them require to specifically prepare the sample, precluding its use for further investigation. In contrast, micro-CT allows a sample to be studied in a non-destructive and rapid process, even without specific treatments that might hinder the use of rare and hard-to-find species in nature. We used synchrotron radiation (SR) micro-CT and conventional micro-CT to prepare 3D reconstructions of Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera species that had been processed with 4 common preparation procedures: critical-point drying, sputter-coating, resin embedding, and air-drying. Our results showed that it is possible to further utilize insect samples prepared with the aforementioned preparation techniques for the creation of 3D models. Specimens dried at the critical point showed the best results, allowing us to faithfully reconstruct both their external surface and their internal structures, while sputter-coated insects were the most troublesome for the 3D reconstruction procedure. Air-dried specimens were suitable for external morphological analyses, while anatomical investigation of soft internal organs was not possible due to their shrinking and collapsing. The sample included in resin allowed us to reconstruct and appreciate the external cuticle and the internal parts. In this work, we demonstrate that insect samples destined to different analyses can be used for new micro-CT studies, further deepening the possibility of state-of-the-art morphological analyses.

Sri Tapaswi Nori ◽  
Alejandro Figueroa Bengoa ◽  
Jonova Thomas ◽  
James Hunter ◽  
Peter Kenesei ◽  

AbstractHigh-temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steel is a potential structural material for advanced nuclear reactors; however, its irradiation response is not well understood. This research provides insight into irradiation-induced effects, such as precipitate evolution mechanisms and four-dimensional morphological evolution, in HT-UPS steel using synchrotron micro-computed tomography. Identical specimens were characterized pre-irradiation and post-irradiation following neutron exposure up to 0.3 displacements per atom at 600 °C. Irradiation effects were also differentiated from the annealing response of precipitates. Following neutron irradiation, the average Cr23C6 precipitate size reduced, affected by the synergy of nucleation and growth, ballistic dissolution, and inverse coarsening, which was observed at fluences an order of magnitude lower than previously observed. Annealing at 600 °C for 32 h increased the average Cr23C6 precipitate size and decreased the phase fraction, attributed to precipitate coarsening. The precipitate morphology evolution and resultant mechanisms can be utilized to parameterize and validate microstructural models simulating radiation damage or annealing. Graphical abstract

Tero Puolakkainen ◽  
Petri Rummukainen ◽  
Vappu Pihala-Nieminen ◽  
Olli Ritvos ◽  
Eriika Savontaus ◽  

Abstract Introduction In postmenopausal osteoporosis, hormonal changes lead to increased bone turnover and metabolic alterations including increased fat mass and insulin resistance. Activin type IIB receptors bind several growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily and have been demonstrated to increase muscle and bone mass. We hypothesized that ActRIIB-Fc treatment could improve bone and muscle mass, inhibit fat accumulation, and restore metabolic alterations in an ovariectomy (OVX) model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Materials and Methods Female C57Bl/6 N mice were subjected to SHAM or OVX procedures and received intraperitoneal injections of either PBS or ActRIIB-Fc (5 mg/kg) once weekly for 7 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT, respectively) were performed at 7 and 8 weeks, respectively. Bone samples were analyzed with micro-computed tomography imaging, histomorphometry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Bone mass decreased in OVX PBS mice compared to the SHAM PBS group but ActRIIB-Fc was able to prevent these changes as shown by µCT and histological analyses. This was due to decreased osteoclast numbers and function demonstrated by histomorphometric and qRT-PCR analyses. OVX induced adipocyte hypertrophy that was rescued by ActRIIB-Fc, which also decreased systemic adipose tissue accumulation. OVX itself did not affect glucose levels in GTT but ActRIIB-Fc treatment resulted in impaired glucose clearance in both SHAM and OVX groups. OVX induced mild insulin resistance in ITT but ActRIIB-Fc treatment did not affect this. Conclusion Our results reinforce the potency of ActRIIB-Fc as a bone-enhancing agent but also bring new insight into the metabolic effects of ActRIIB-Fc in normal and OVX mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Martin J. Schmidt ◽  
Daniela Farke ◽  
Carsten Staszyk ◽  
Antonia Lang ◽  
Kathrin Büttner ◽  

AbstractHuman-directed selective breeding has modified the phenotype of the modern Persian cat towards an extreme brachycephalic phenotype (‘peke-face’ Persian), which originates from a spontaneous mutation that first appeared in the 1950s in traditional Persian types. It was suggested that the peke-face phenotype results from pathologic skull development and might represent a craniosynostosis of the coronal sutures. We followed this hypothesis and investigated the time dependent status of the neurocranial sutures and synchondroses in an ontogenetic series of doll-faced and peke-faced Persian cats compared to Domestic Shorthair cats (DSHs). Cranial suture closure was assessed by examining an ontogenetic series of formalin-fixed head specimens (n = 55) and dry skulls (n = 32) using micro-computed tomography. Sagittal, metopic, coronal and lambdoid sutures as well as intersphenoidal, spheno-occipital and spheno-ethmoid synchondroses were examined. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the global effect of age on suture closure within a group of peke-face Persians, doll-face Persians and DSHs and the 50% probability of having a closed suture was calculated and compared between groups. Age was a perfect predictor for the condition of the coronal sutures in peke-face Persians. Coronal sutures were found to be closed at 0–0.3 months. In doll-face and DSHs, coronal sutures were open throughout the lifetime with the exception of a few very old cats. Results of this study confirmed a coronal craniosynostosis that likely causes the extreme brachycephalic skull morphology in the peke-face Persian.

Vivian Ronquete ◽  
Alexandre Sigrist de Martin ◽  
Karin Zuim ◽  
Thais Machado de Carvalho Coutinho ◽  
Eduardo Fagury Videira Marceliano ◽  

Abstract Objective This study compared the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States) and HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent AG, Alstätten, Switzerland) systems using micro–computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods Twenty-one mesial roots classified as Vertucci's type IV from extracted mandibular first molars with curvatures between 20 and 40 degrees were selected. The teeth were scanned using a micro-CT before and after root canal preparation by both systems, applied to the same root, in alternating canals. The following parameters were analyzed: canal centering, apical transportation, root canal diameter/root diameter. Results No statistically significant differences between both systems were observed for any of the assessed morphological parameters (p > 0.05). All canals presented diameter enlargement of more than 40% in relation to root diameter in the cervical and middle segments. No statistically significant difference was noted between the HEDM and PTN groups. The wear percentage for the HEDM group in the cervical and middle thirds were 49.66 ± 8.65 and 46.48 ± 14.29, respectively, and 51.02 ± 11.81 and 45.48 ± 10.79 for the PTN group, respectively. Conclusion Both systems displayed similar mandibular molar mesial canals preparation, with no differences noted for any of the assessed parameters. Both groups showed increased canal diameter in the cervical and middle thirds by more than 40%.

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