inferior turbinate
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Amjad Nuseir ◽  
Hasan Albalas ◽  
Aya Nuseir ◽  
Maulla Alali ◽  
Firas Zoubi ◽  

This paper aims to use a new technique of computed tomography (CT) scan image processing to correlate the image analysis with sinonasal symptoms. A retrospective cross-sectional study is conducted by analyzing the digital records of 50 patients who attended the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan. The coronal plane CT scans are analyzed using our developed software. The purposes of this software are to calculate the surface area of the nasal passage at three different levels visible on coronal plane CT scans: i) the head of the inferior turbinate, ii) the head of the middle turbinate, and iii) the tail of the inferior turbinate. We employ image processing techniques to correlate the narrowing of nasal surface area with sinonasal symptoms. As a consequence, obstruction in the first level is correlated significantly with the symptoms of nasal obstruction while the narrowing in the second level is related to frontal headache. No other significant correlations are found with nasal symptoms at the third level. In our study, we find that image processing techniques can be very useful to predict the severity of common nasal symptoms and they can be used to suggest treatment and to follow up on the case progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuze Yuan ◽  
Chao Wang ◽  
Guoqiang Wang ◽  
Xiaoping Guo ◽  
Shengyu Jiang ◽  

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common heterogeneous chronic disease with a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis influenced by numerous factors, involving a combination of genetic and environmental factors. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of AR and to identity diagnostic biomarkers, we combined systems biology approach to analyze microbiome and serum composition. We collected inferior turbinate swabs and serum samples to study the microbiome and serum metabolome of 28 patients with allergic rhinitis and 15 healthy individuals. We sequenced the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rDNA gene from the upper respiratory samples. Metabolomics was used to examine serum samples. Finally, we combined differential microbiota and differential metabolites to find potential biomarkers. We found no significant differences in diversity between the disease and control groups, but changes in the structure of the microbiota. Compared to the HC group, the AR group showed a significantly higher abundance of 1 phylum (Actinobacteria) and 7 genera (Klebsiella, Prevotella and Staphylococcus, etc.) and a significantly lower abundance of 1 genus (Pelomonas). Serum metabolomics revealed 26 different metabolites (Prostaglandin D2, 20-Hydroxy-leukotriene B4 and Linoleic acid, etc.) and 16 disrupted metabolic pathways (Linoleic acid metabolism, Arachidonic acid metabolism and Tryptophan metabolism, etc.). The combined respiratory microbiome and serum metabolomics datasets showed a degree of correlation reflecting the influence of the microbiome on metabolic activity. Our results show that microbiome and metabolomics analyses provide important candidate biomarkers, and in particular, differential genera in the microbiome have also been validated by random forest prediction models. Differential microbes and differential metabolites have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. 205873922110529
Kota Takemoto ◽  
Sachio Takeno ◽  
Takashi Ishino ◽  
Tsutomu Ueda ◽  
Takao Hamamoto ◽  

Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized through NO synthase (NOS). The proximal NOS2 gene promoter contains the pentanucleotide CCTTT repeat polymorphism. We examined whether CCTTT repeats are associated with NOS2 expression in the sinonasal tissues and clinical manifestations in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods Mucosal specimens were obtained from the ethmoid sinus and inferior turbinate of 30 eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) and 28 non-ECRS patients. CCTTT repeats were classified into short alleles (S), with less than or equal to 14, and long alleles (L), with more than 14. The subjects were classified into the L/S + L/L and S/S groups. Results In ECRS, the NOS2 mRNA levels of the ethmoid sinus mucosa were significantly higher in the L/S + L/L group than in the S/S group (median, 1.66 and 0.77, respectively). On the ther hand, ECRS patients showed no significant difference in the NOS2 mRNA level of the inferior turbinate between the L/S + L/L group and the S/S group (median, 0.63 and 0.88, respectively). In ECRS, preoperative SNOT-22 were significantly higher in the L/S + L/L group than in the S/S group, whereas the former group showed a lower postoperative recurrence risk. Conclusion CCTTT repeat polymorphism in the NOS2 promotor gene may be a useful indicator to evaluate ECRS severity and prognosis.

Emily S. Sagalow ◽  
Vanessa Christopher ◽  
Kurren Gill ◽  
Raphael Banoub ◽  
Somya Shankar ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (Suppl-3) ◽  
pp. S598-602
Muhammad Ahmed Khan ◽  
Faiz Ul Hassan Nawaz ◽  
Muhammad Tahir ◽  
Hina Mazhar ◽  
Muhammad Dawood ◽  

Objective: To compare microdebrider-assisted turbinoplasty versus endoscopic partial turbinectomy in cases of inferior turbinate hypertrophy in allergic rhinitis patients in terms of relief/improvement of nasal obstruction, post operative bleeding, crusting and synechie formation. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Mardan and Combined Military Hospital Malir, from Jan 2019 to Jan 2020. Methodology: A total of 90 patients of allergic rhinitis with severe nasal obstruction due to bilateral inferior turbinate hypertrophy fulfilling the inclusion exclusion criteria were selected. Cases were randomly divided into two groups of 45 each. Group A cases underwent microdebrider assisted turbinoplasty and Group B cases underwent partial turbinectomy via endoscpic approach. They were comparedin terms of post op bleeding, relief of nasal obstruction, post op crusting & synechie/adhesions. All the data was entered on SPSS-17 and analyzed. Results: Out of 90 cases, there were 43 (47.8%) females and 47 (52.2%) males with age range from 15-65, mean age 37.68 ± 11.56 Years. There was only 1 case of post op bleeding after microdebrider assisted turbinoplasty requiring nasal packing in contrast to 6 cases of post op bleeding after endoscopic partial turbinectomy. On one month post op visit, there was no case of nasal crusting in turbinoplasty group in contrast to 7 of mild and 1 of moderate crusting & 3 synechie/adhesions in endoscopic partial turbinectomy group. Conclusion: Microdebrider-assisted turbinoplasty is associated with less post operative bleeding and synechie formation as compared to endoscopic turbinectomy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (Suppl-3) ◽  
pp. S617-21
Atif Rafique ◽  
Maqbool Raza ◽  
Shahid Farooq Khattak ◽  
Muhammad Ali ◽  
Khalid Azam ◽  

Objective: To compare efficacy of endoscopic turbinoplasty versus conventional inferior turbinectomy for hypertrophy of inferior turbinate. Study Design: Comparative prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Multan, from Jun 2019 to May 2020. Methodology: This study comprised of 50 patients of various age groups and both genders. Patients were grouped into two groups A and B, each group having 25 patients through random sampling. Patients in group A had endoscopic turbinoplasty whereas patients in group B had partial turbinectomy through conventional surgical method. Patients were followed regularly in both groups and were inspected postoperatively at 2 weeks, after 1 month and after 3 months. Results: Patients who underwent Endoscopic turbinoplasty experienced less pain (p˂0.05) postoperatively at 2 weeks compared to conventional surgical turbinectomy. In addition, these patients showed statistically significant healing and reduced crusting at 1 month postoperatively. At 3 months post operatively all patients had healed completely as opposed to only 72% with surgical turbinectomy. Conclusion: Endoscopic turbinoplasty is more effective than conventional surgical technique for inferior turbinate hypertrophy as it leads to less post-operative pain, reduced nasal crusting and earlier healing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (Suppl-3) ◽  
pp. S487-90
Habib -Ur- Rehman ◽  
Fazal -I- Wahid ◽  
Bakht Zada ◽  
Muhammad Javaid ◽  
Naseem Ul Haq

Objective: To determine the nasal patency after reducing the size of hypertrophied inferior turbinate with medication and surgery. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ear, Nose, Throat, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Teaching Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar Pakistan, from Jan to Dec 2019. Methodology: This study was conducted at the After-sample size calculation using an online sample size calculator (OpenEpi) and after obtaining informed consent patients were divided into two groups. Patients in group A were put on medicine only and in group B surgery was conducted to reduce the size of hypertrophied inferior turbinate. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: This study comprised of total 86 patients, in the age range 15-55 years with mean ± SD age 33.47 ± 9.57 years. Males were 47 (54.7%) and females were 39 (45.3%) with male to female ratio of 1.2:1. In group A, males were 22 (25.25%), females were 21 (24.41%), while in group B males were 25 (29.1%) and females were 18 (20.3%). There was no statistically significant difference in nasal patency between the two groups before treatment (p=0.59) and after 10 days of treatment (p=0.69). However, at the end of one month, there was a statistically significant difference in nasal patency between the medically treated and surgically treated groups of patients (p=0.023).Conclusion: Surgical treatment is significantly effective than medical treatment alone.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014556132110666
Huan Li ◽  
Yi-Lin Long ◽  
Shi-Fei Wang ◽  
Ling-Lin Su

Epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare tumor that occurs mainly in the major salivary glands. Cases occurring in the nasal cavity are rarely reported. The patient was a 48-year-old woman with a postoperative pathological diagnosis of EMC. The patient recovered well after surgery. We consulted and summarized all previous cases of nasal EMC. We also discuss the clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis of EMC of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (12) ◽  
pp. 959-964
Ki Ju Cho ◽  
Hyun-Jin Cho ◽  
Yeon-Hee Joo ◽  
Yung Jin Jeon ◽  
Sea-Yuong Jeon ◽  

Endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM) and its modifications are surgical techniques are used to treat recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis as well as maxillary sinus tumors. In this report, we propose a simple and efficient modification of EMM, called endoscopic trans-turbinal medial maxillectomy (ETTMM), by which the inferior turbinate (IT), nasolacrimal duct, and anatomical integrity of the nasal valve area are preserved. A total of 10 patients (five tumorous and five nontumorous maxillary diseases) underwent ETTMM. Briefly, a turbinate mucosal flap on the superior aspect of the IT was elevated after middle meatal antrostomy. Then a trans-turbinal window was developed to expose the inferior meatus, after which an extended maxillary antrostomy was generated. Finally, the turbinate mucosal flap was repositioned after complete removal of the antral lesions. All lesions were successfully treated using ETTMM. Our modification was easy to perform, and we achieved good endoscopic visualization and accessibility throughout the whole antrum by creating a trans-turbinal window and extended maxillary antrostomy. We could perform postoperative surveillance easily through the wide antrostomy using rigid endoscopes of various angles. ETTMM is a simple and useful modification of EMM that provides clear visualization and great accessibility to most aspects of the maxillary antrum while preserving the nasal functional units, including the IT and nasal valve area.

Suhani Jain ◽  
P. T. Deshmukh

The nasal septum separates the right and left part of the nasal cavity and columellar septum, membranous septum and septum proper are the parts of it. Deviation of nasal septum is a common case of nasal obstruction presented in a clinic. A lot of classifications have been developed to help ease the study of deviated nasal septum but none of them is used as a standard. Some of the classifications include the one given by Vidigal, Guyuron, Cerek, Mladina and Cottle’s. Apart from nasal obstruction other common clinical features involving deviated nasal septum are sinusitis especially in horizontal deviation type V. Pressure on lateral wall by spurs can also cause pressure headache. Due to increased air flow in the nasal cavity, dryness occurs causing epistaxis. Obstruction of nasal cavity causes mouth breathing in return either exaggerating or leading to obstructive sleep apnoea. Septal deviation also effects the choroidal thickness and choroidal blood supply. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration and squamous metaplasia occurs in septal mucosa. These changes occur mostly due to change in the aerodynamic flow. There is decreased cilia movement and inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Thickness of inferior turbinate gains importance while septoplasty as, if thickened a lot, the inferior turbinate demands excision. The deviated nasal septum is associated with sinusitis, chronic suppurative otitis media and Eustachian tube dysfunction. Management involves sub mucus resection or septoplasty. Out of the two, septoplasty is preferred as it is a conservative surgery. Only symptomatic and cosmetically grossly disfigured cases require a surgical treatment while the asymptomatic cases are generally not indicated for surgery. This study tries to review the Classification, Clinical Features and Management of Deviated Nasal Septum.

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