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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hayfa Alajilani Abraheem Jamjoum ◽  
Khalid Umar ◽  
Rohana Adnan ◽  
Mohd. R. Razali ◽  
Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim

Sustainable water processing techniques have been extensively investigated and are capable of improving water quality. Among the techniques, photocatalytic technology has shown great potential in recent years as a low cost, environmentally friendly and sustainable technology. However, the major challenge in the industrial development of photocatalyst technology is to develop an ideal photocatalyst which must have high photocatalytic activity, a large specific surface area, harvest sunlight and shows recyclability. Keeping these views, the present review highlighted the synthesis approaches of graphene/metal oxide nanocomposite, characterization techniques and their prominent applications in photocatalysis. Various parameters such as photocatalyst loading, structure of photocatalyst, temperature, pH, effect of oxidizing species and wavelength of light were addressed which could affect the rate of degradation. Moreover, the formation of intermediates during photo-oxidation of organic pollutants using these photocatalysts is also discussed. The analysis concluded with a synopsis of the importance of graphene-based materials in pollutant removal. Finally, a brief overview of the problems and future approaches in the field is also presented.

Adam D Reese ◽  
John W Keyloun ◽  
Gaurav Garg ◽  
Melissa M McLawhorn ◽  
Lauren T Moffatt ◽  

Abstract Wound infections and sepsis are significant causes of morbidity after burn injury and can be alleviated by early excision and grafting. In situations that preclude early surgery, topical agents allow for a safer delay. Cerium nitrate compounded with silver sulfadiazine (Ce-SSD) is a burn cream that provides broad antibacterial activity, forms a temporary barrier, and promotes re-epithelialization. Methemoglobinemia is a rare, but oft-cited, systemic complication of Ce-SSD. In this retrospective review, 157 patients treated with Ce-SSD between July 2014 - July 2018 were identified and the monitoring protocol for methemoglobinemia during Ce-SSD treatment was evaluated. Median age was 59 years (IQR, 47-70.5 years), with total body surface area burn (TBSA) of 8.5% (IQR, 3-27), adjusted Baux score of 76 (IQR, 59-94), and inhalation injury present in 9.9% of patients. Primary endpoints included incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic methemoglobinemia. Of the 9.6% (n = 15) of patients with methemoglobinemia, 73.3% (n=11) had maximum methemoglobin levels ≥ 72 hours from time of first application. One patient developed clinically significant methemoglobinemia. Patients with TBSA ≥ 20% were more likely to develop methemoglobinemia (OR 9.318, 95% CI 2.078 to 65.73, p = 0.0078), however neither Ce-SSD doses nor days of exposure were significant predictors. Ce-SSD application to temporize burn wounds until excision and grafting is safe, effective, and, in asymptomatic patients with TBSA < 20%, can be used without serial blood gas monitoring. Vigilant monitoring for symptoms should be performed in patients with TBSA ≥ 20%, but routine blood gases are not necessary.

Plant Methods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Takuya Koyama ◽  
Shun Murakami ◽  
Toshihiko Karasawa ◽  
Masato Ejiri ◽  
Katsuhiro Shiono

Abstract Background Detailed datasets containing root system and its architecture in soil are required to improve understanding of resource capture by roots. However, most of the root study methods have paid little attention to make and preserve whole root specimens. This study introduces root system sampling equipment that makes the entire root specimen with minimum impairment and without displacement of the spatial arrangement of the root system in root boxes. The objectives are to assess: whether the equipment can rapidly sample the entire root system; whether root surface area is measurable from a scanned digital image of the root specimen; and whether staining of the entire root specimens would provide multidimensional visual information on the interaction between soil and physiological function of root system architecture (RSA). For validation, we examined the root response of two soybean cultivars to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation and the effect of waterlogging stress on the physiological activity of buckwheat RSA. Results The root boxes allowed soybean and buckwheat plants to grow uniformly across the replications. Both species showed significant differences between cultivars and/or among treatments in shoot and root traits. The equipment enabled to sample the whole-root specimens of soybean and buckwheat, where the tips of the fine roots were alive (diameter < 0.2 mm). Also, the whole root specimens of soybean were made in about 7 min. The root surface area calculated from the scanned soybean specimens showed a significant correlation with that calculated from the roots spread out in water (a common method). Staining of the soybean root specimens enabled us to observe the localized root proliferation induced by AM colonization. Moreover, staining of the buckwheat root specimens made it possible to examine the respiratory activity of each root at different depths. Conclusions The present method realized: fast and accurate production of the whole root specimen and precise calculation of the specimens’ root surface area. Moreover, staining of the root specimens enabled analyzing the interaction between soil and physiological function of RSA. The evaluation of root traits, using our methods, will contribute to developing agronomic management and breeding program for sustainable food production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. e261101220207
Luã Felipe Souza de Oliveira ◽  
Hérica Coelho Cordeiro ◽  
Helieverton Geraldo de Brito ◽  
Ana Cecília Barbosa Pinheiro ◽  
Marcos Antonio Barros dos Santos ◽  

Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and pattern recognition (PR) were used to draw potentially active pentamidine derivatives against Trypanosome brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense). PR models: Principal Component Analysis, PCA model; Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA model; K-Nearest Neighbor, KNN model; Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy, SIMCA model; and Stepwise Discriminant Analysis, SDA model, were built by reducing the dimensionality of a data matrix to twenty-eight pentamidine derivatives and allowed the compounds to be classified into two classes: more active and less active, according to their degrees of activity against T. b. rhodesiense. The study outlined that the properties HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) energy, VOL (molecular volume), and ASA_P (water accessible surface area of all polar (½qi½³0. 2) atoms) are the most relevant for the construction of the models. The key structural features required for biological activity investigated through MEP were used as guidelines in the design of thirteen new compounds, which were evaluated by PR models as more active or less active against T. b. rhodesiense. The application of PR models indicated nine promising compounds (29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39, and 40) for synthesis and biological assays.

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
pp. 20210026
Marisol Salva Ramirez ◽  
J. Carlos Santamarina

P. C. Vengaiah ◽  
S. Kaleemullah ◽  
M. Madhava ◽  
A. Mani ◽  
B. Sreekanth

Some physical properties of palmyrah fruit were investigated in this study. The average values of major, medium, minor and geometric mean diameters of fresh whole palmyrah fruit were 11.54,10.45, 9.85 and 10.64 cm respectively at 47.34 % (w.b) moisture content whereas that of palmyrah nut were 8.59, 7.35, 4.99 and 6.79 cm respectively at 8% (w.b) moisture content. Sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were found to be 91.94%, 359.17 cm2 and 0.90 for fruit and whereas that of nut were 79.19%, 145.16 cm2 and 0.86 respectively. The average mass of the individual palmyrah fruit and nut was 927.78 and 248.10 g whereas bulk density was 525.92 and 693.0 kg/m3 respectively. The coefficient of static friction on mild steel, glass and plywood surfaces were 0.27, 0.21 and 0.25 for palmyrah fruit and 0.36, 0.28 and 0.27 for nut respectively. The angle of repose of palmyrah fruit and nut were 30.77 and 44.03 respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-3
Okita AL ◽  

Psoriasis affecting the face, scalp, hands, feet, nail and genitals may cause disproportional impact on quality of life despite the small surface area compromised. Genital psoriasis can affect 33 to 63% of psoriasis patients at any time during their lives. Even though GenPs is relatively common, these lesions may be under-reported and under diagnosed because of embarrassment of patients, unfamiliarity with the disease or concerns about having a sexually transmitted disease. Several effective treatments have been reported for plaque psoriasis, however there are few studies and reports regarding GenPs treatment. We report here a case of successful treatment of a patient with genital, face and scalp psoriasis with risankizumab, an anti-IL23 drug

2021 ◽  
Maybellene P Gamboa ◽  
Cameron K Ghalambor ◽  
T Scott Sillett ◽  
W Chris Funk ◽  
Ross A Furbush ◽  

Inferring the environmental selection pressures responsible for phenotypic variation is a challenge in adaptation studies as traits often have multiple functions and are shaped by complex selection regimes. We provide experimental evidence that morphology of the multifunctional avian bill is related to climate, not foraging efficiency, in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on the California Channel Islands. Our research builds on a study in song sparrow museum specimens that demonstrated a positive correlation between bill surface area and maximum temperature, suggesting a greater demand for dry heat dissipation in hotter, xeric environments. We sampled contemporary sparrow populations across three climatically distinct islands to test the alternate hypotheses that song sparrow bill morphology is either a product of vegetative differences with functional consequences for foraging efficiency or related to maximum temperature and, consequently, important for thermoregulation. Measurements of >500 live individuals indicated a significant, positive relationship between maximum temperature and bill surface area when correcting for body size. In contrast, maximum bite force, seed extraction time, and vegetation on breeding territories (a proxy for food resources) were not significantly associated with bill dimensions. While we cannot exclude the influence of foraging ability and diet on bill morphology, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in song sparrows' need for thermoregulatory capacity across the northern Channel Islands selects for divergence in bill surface area.

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