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Author(s):  
Amjad Nuseir ◽  
Hasan Albalas ◽  
Aya Nuseir ◽  
Maulla Alali ◽  
Firas Zoubi ◽  
...  

This paper aims to use a new technique of computed tomography (CT) scan image processing to correlate the image analysis with sinonasal symptoms. A retrospective cross-sectional study is conducted by analyzing the digital records of 50 patients who attended the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan. The coronal plane CT scans are analyzed using our developed software. The purposes of this software are to calculate the surface area of the nasal passage at three different levels visible on coronal plane CT scans: i) the head of the inferior turbinate, ii) the head of the middle turbinate, and iii) the tail of the inferior turbinate. We employ image processing techniques to correlate the narrowing of nasal surface area with sinonasal symptoms. As a consequence, obstruction in the first level is correlated significantly with the symptoms of nasal obstruction while the narrowing in the second level is related to frontal headache. No other significant correlations are found with nasal symptoms at the third level. In our study, we find that image processing techniques can be very useful to predict the severity of common nasal symptoms and they can be used to suggest treatment and to follow up on the case progression.


Carbon ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 545
Author(s):  
Jing Wang ◽  
Shuang Chen ◽  
Jia-yu Xu ◽  
Li-cheng Liu ◽  
Ji-cheng Zhou ◽  
...  

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 554
Author(s):  
Faisal Ahmad ◽  
Aqel Albutti ◽  
Muhammad Hamza Tariq ◽  
Ghufranud Din ◽  
Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar ◽  
...  

Hendra virus (HeV) belongs to the paramyxoviridae family of viruses which is associated with the respiratory distress, neurological illness, and potential fatality of the affected individuals. So far, no competitive approved therapeutic substance is available for HeV. For that reason, the current research work was conducted to propose some novel compounds, by adopting a Computer Aided Drug Discovery approach, which could be used to combat HeV. The G attachment Glycoprotein (Ggp) of HeV was selected to achieve the primary objective of this study, as this protein makes the entry of HeV possible in the host cells. Briefly, a library of 6000 antiviral compounds was screened for potential drug-like properties, followed by the molecular docking of short-listed compounds with the Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure of Ggp. Docked complexes of top two hits, having maximum binding affinities with the active sites of Ggp, were further considered for molecular dynamic simulations of 200 ns to elucidate the results of molecular docking analysis. MD simulations and Molecular Mechanics Energies combined with the Generalized Born and Surface Area (MMGBSA) or Poisson–Boltzmann and Surface Area (MMPBSA) revealed that both docked complexes are stable in nature. Furthermore, the same methodology was used between lead compounds and HeV Ggp in complex with its functional receptor in human, Ephrin-B2. Surprisingly, no major differences were found in the results, which demonstrates that our identified compounds can also perform their action even when the Ggp is attached to the Ephrin-B2 ligand. Therefore, in light of all of these results, we strongly suggest that compounds (S)-5-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-(2-(4-methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-6-oxo-3,6-dihydropyridin-1-ium-3-ide and 5-(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)-1-(2-((2-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-6-oxo-3,6-dihydropyridin-1-ium-3-ide could be considered as potential therapeutic agents against HeV; however, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are required to validate this study.


Author(s):  
Rien Hoge ◽  
Suzan Detert Oude Weme ◽  
Walter Vervenne ◽  
Inge van Berlo - van de Laar ◽  
Carla van Herpen ◽  
...  

Aim: In our study we examined whether anthropometric and body composition parameters, i.e. body surface area (BSA), lean body mass (LBM) and total body weight (TBW), are correlated with docetaxel clearance and exposure. In addition, LBM, TBW and a fixed dose were compared to BSA as dosing parameters for dose individualisation of docetaxel. Methods: Thirty-six patients affected by breast or castration-resistant prostate carcinoma receiving docetaxel chemotherapy entered the study. LBM was measured by a Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner before treatment. Blood samples were collected up to 180 minutes after dosing to analyse docetaxel concentrations and to determine individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Results: No significant correlations were found between the docetaxel pharmacokinetic parameters clearance and volume of distribution and the anthropometric and body composition variables BSA, LBM and TBW. AUC was significantly but poorly correlated with BSA (r=0.452 [p=0.016]) and with TBW (r=0.476 (p=0.011]). The Mean Absolute Percentage Error and Mean Error of simulated dosing based on LBM and fixed dosing ME were not significant different compared to BSA. For TBW, only the MAPE of dosing was significant higher compared to BSA (24.1 vs. 17.1, P=0.001). Conclusion: There is no correlations between docetaxel pharmacokinetics and the anthropometric and body composition variables BSA, LBM and TBW. Dose individualisation of docetaxel based on LBM or TBW or fixed dosing cannot be recommended over BSA based dosing.


Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Author(s):  
Chu-Chin Hsieh ◽  
Jyong-Sian Tsai ◽  
Hwo-Shuenn Sheu ◽  
Jen-Ray Chang

V2O5/NaY-SiO2 adsorbents were prepared by soaking up vanadium oxalate precursors into pellet NaY-SiO2. The NaY-SiO2 supports were prepared from NaY-SiO2 dough followed by extrusion and calcination at 450 °C. Ethanol was used as a model adsorbate to test the performance of the adsorbents. The regeneration efficacy, defined as the ratio of the adsorption capacity of a regenerated adsorbent to that of the fresh adsorbent, was investigated through the dynamics of fixed-bed adsorption (breakthrough curve). TPO, DSC, and FT-IR were used to characterize carbonaceous species on the adsorbents; meanwhile, synchrotron XRPD, XAS, and the N2 isotherm were used to characterize the zeolite, vanadia structure, and surface area, respectively. The results indicated that in low temperature (300 °C) regeneration, adsorption sites covered by alkylated aromatic coke formed during regeneration, causing adsorbent deactivation. In contrast, during regeneration at a high temperature (450 °C), the deactivation was caused by the destruction of the NaY framework concomitant with channel blockage, as suggested by the BET surface area combined with Rietvelt XRPD refinement results. In addition, the appearance of V-O-V contribution in the EXAFS spectra indicated the aggregation of isolated VO4, which led to a decrease in the combustion rate of the carbonaceous species deposited on the adsorbents. For regeneration at 350 and 400 °C, only trace coke formation and minor structural destruction were observed. Long-term life tests indicated that regeneration at 400 °C presents a higher maintenance of stability.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Author(s):  
Xixi Wu ◽  
Changjie Cai ◽  
Javier Gil ◽  
Elizabeth Jantz ◽  
Yacoub Al Sakka ◽  
...  

Titanium particles embedded on peri-implant tissues are associated with a variety of detrimental effects. Given that the characteristics of these detached fragments (size, concentration, etc.) dictate the potential cytotoxicity and biological repercussions exerted, it is of paramount importance to investigate the properties of these debris. This study compares the characteristics of particles released among different implant systems (Group A: Straumann, Group B: BioHorizons and Group C: Zimmer) during implantoplasty. A novel experimental system was utilized for measuring and collecting particles generated from implantoplasty. A scanning mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, nano micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and scanning electron microscope were used to collect and analyze the particles by size. The chemical composition of the particles was analyzed by highly sensitive microanalysis, microstructures by scanning electron microscope and the mechanical properties by nanoindentation equipment. Particles released by implantoplasty showed bimodal size distributions, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine size range (<100 nm) for all groups. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference among all implant systems in terms of the particle number size distribution (p < 0.0001), with the highest concentration in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. Significant differences among all groups (p < 0.0001) were also observed for the other two metrics, with the highest concentration of particle mass and surface area in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. For coarse particles (>1 µm), no significant difference was detected among groups in terms of particle number or mass, but a significantly smaller surface area was found in Group A as compared to Group B (p = 0.02) and Group C (p = 0.005). The 1 first minute of procedures had a higher number concentration compared to the second and third minutes. SEM-EDS analysis showed different morphologies for various implant systems. These results can be explained by the differences in the chemical composition and microstructures of the different dental implants. Group B is softer than Groups A and C due to the laser treatment in the neck producing an increase of the grain size. The hardest implants were those of Group C due to the cold-strained titanium alloy, and consequently they displayed lower release than Groups A and B. Implantoplasty was associated with debris particle release, with the majority of particles at nanometric dimensions. BioHorizons implants released more particles compared to Straumann and Zimmer. Due to the widespread use of implantoplasty, it is of key importance to understand the characteristics of the generated debris. This is the first study to detect, quantify and analyze the debris/particles released from dental implants during implantoplasty including the full range of particle sizes, including both micro- and nano-scales.


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