Organic Matter
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (48) ◽  
Andrew G. McLeish ◽  
Paul Greenfield ◽  
David J. Midgley ◽  
Ian T. Paulsen

Subsurface coal seams contain microbial consortia with various taxa, each with a different role in the degradation of coal organic matter. This study presents the sequenced and annotated genome of Desulfovibrio sp. strain CSMB_222, a bacterium isolated from eastern Australian coal seams.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Le Van Dang ◽  
Ngo Phuong Ngoc ◽  
Ngo Ngoc Hung

Fruit orchards in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) are severely degraded due to many factors, such as low organic matter content, soil acidification, and poor soil management. Organic manures are considered to be a soil conservation measure that decreases soil degradation and acidity. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of soil organic amendments on the improvement of soil fertility and pomelo productivity. Two soil amendments, namely, chicken manure (CM) and cow dung (CD), were investigated for a period of three years at three pomelo orchards. The soil quality was assessed in two depths (0–20 and 20–50 cm), including the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (Ntot), available phosphorus (Pavail), soil organic matter (SOM), bulk density (BD), and exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K). The results indicated that CD and CM improved soil fertility in topsoil layer (0–20 cm) due to an increase in soil pH, SOM, exchangeable Ca, Ntot, and Pavail. In addition, soil BD significantly reduced after CD and CM were supplied in the three consecutive years of study. The soil quality properties that significantly affected pomelo yield were SOM, Ntot, Pavail, and soil BD. Thus, these soil qualities may be considered as key factors for determining and assessing soil quality in fruit orchards in the VMD. More studies on the influence of organic manures on nutrient uptake and pomelo fruit quality are warranted.

2021 ◽  
Rodrigo Ferreira Bastos ◽  
Alexandre Miranda Garcia ◽  
Kirk O. Winemiller ◽  
Nelson Ferreira Fontoura

Abstract Aquatic ecosystems exchange nutrients and organic matter with surrounding terrestrial ecosystems, and floods import allochthonous material from riparian areas into fluvial systems. We surveyed food web components of a wetland and shallow lake in a subtropical coastal region of Brazil to examine how community trophic structure and the entrance of allochthonous material into the food web were affected by floods. Stable isotope analysis was performed for samples of terrestrial and aquatic basal production sources and aquatic animals to trace the origin of organic matter assimilated by aquatic animals and estimate vertical trophic positions and food chain length. Lake and wetland trophic structures were compared for cool/wet and warm/dry seasons. Food web structure was hypothesized to differ based on hydrology, with the more stable lake having greater food web complexity, and seasonal flooding resulting in greater allochthonous inputs to the aquatic food web. We compared spatial and temporal variation in assemblage trophic structure using an adapted isotopic ellipse approach that plots assemblage elements according to δ13C on the x-axis and estimated TP on the y-axis. Lake trophic structure was more complex with longer food chains compared to that of the wetland. A greater contribution from terrestrial resources to animal biomass was observed in the wetland during the cool/wet period, and food chains in both habitats tended to be longer during the cool/wet period. Findings supported the hypothesis of greater assimilation of allochthonous sources during floods and greater trophic complexity in the more hydrologically stable system.

Geofluids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Weiwei Liu ◽  
Kun Zhang ◽  
Qianwen Li ◽  
Zhanhai Yu ◽  
Sihong Cheng ◽  

Due to the specificity of the geological background, terrestrial strata are widely distributed in the major hydrocarbon-bearing basins in China. In addition, terrestrial shales are generally featured with high thickness, multiple layers, high TOC content, ideal organic matter types, and moderate thermal evolution, laying a solid material foundation for hydrocarbon generation. However, the quantitative characterization study on their pore structure remains inadequate. In this study, core samples were selected from the Middle Jurassic Lianggaoshan Formation in the southeastern Sichuan Basin of the Upper Yangtze Region for analyses on its TOC content and mineral composition. Besides, experiments including oil washing, the adsorption/desorption of CO2 and nitrogen, and high-pressure mercury pressure experiments were carried out. The pore structure of different petrographic types of terrestrial shales can be accurately and quantitatively characterized with these works. The following conclusions were drawn: for organic-rich mixed shales and organic-rich clay shales, the TOC content is the highest; the pore volume, which is primarily provided by macropores and specific surface area, which is provided by mesopores, was the largest, thus providing more space for shale oil and gas reservation. The pores take on a shape either close to a parallel plate slit or close to or of an ink bottle. For organic-matter-bearing shales, both the pore volume and specific surface area are the second-largest and are provided by the same sized pores with organic-rich mixed shales. Its pores take on a shape approximating either a parallel plate slit or an ink bottle. Organic-matter-bearing mixed shales have the lowest pore volume and specific surface area; its pore volume is primarily provided by macropores, and the specific surface area by mesopores and the shape of the pores are close to an ink bottle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
Pâmela R. Gayer ◽  
Pablo S. Guimarães ◽  
Edélti F. Albertoni ◽  
Luiz U. Hepp

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 8045
Pul-Eip Lee ◽  
Won-Bae Lee ◽  
Heesung Moon ◽  
Junhwa Kwon ◽  
Hueon Namkung ◽  

Due to the ban on the use of food waste as wet swine feed after the outbreak of African swine fever (ASF), 2900 tons/day of food waste and 1083 tons/day of food waste leachate were additionally generated. As an alternative treatment method for food waste leachate, the input of food waste leachate on weekends (5% of food waste leachate inflow, 100 tons/day) and its increased input (merge ratio 21.7%, 227.01 tons/day → 27.8%, 453.71 tons/day) into the digesters operated in a public sewage treatment plant were investigated. Additionally, the feasibility of the method was evaluated by analyzing the operation parameters, evaluating the operation efficiency, and identifying other environmental effects on the sewage treatment plant. In the case of input on weekends, the organic matter decomposition rate and gas production rate decreased by 8.0% and 9.5%, respectively, although the input on weekends was judged to be feasible, considering that the inflow into the WWTP increased by up to 206% due to the long-term (7 weeks) monsoon. In the case of the increased input of food waste leachate, the organic matter decomposition and gas production rates increased by 2.5% and 4.8%, respectively, compared with before the increased input. The results of this study confirmed that the additional input of food waste leachate into existing biogasification facilities is feasible. When performed in a stable manner, the use of food waste for anaerobic digestion is considered an appropriate alternative treatment method to wet feed. This will lead to technological and industrial development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (23) ◽  
pp. 6167-6180
Tom Hull ◽  
Naomi Greenwood ◽  
Antony Birchill ◽  
Alexander Beaton ◽  
Matthew Palmer ◽  

Abstract. The continental shelf seas are important at a global scale for ecosystem services. These highly dynamic regions are under a wide range of stresses, and as such future management requires appropriate monitoring measures. A key metric to understanding and predicting future change are the rates of biological production. We present here the use of an autonomous underwater glider with an oxygen (O2) and a wet-chemical microfluidic total oxidised nitrogen (NOx-=NO3-+NO2-) sensor during a spring bloom as part of a 2019 pilot autonomous shelf sea monitoring study. We find exceptionally high rates of net community production using both O2 and NOx- water column inventory changes, corrected for air–sea gas exchange in case of O2. We compare these rates with 2007 and 2008 mooring observations finding similar rates of NOx- consumption. With these complementary methods we determine the O2:N amount ratio of the newly produced organic matter (7.8 ± 0.4) and the overall O2:N ratio for the total water column (5.7 ± 0.4). The former is close to the canonical Redfield O2:N ratio of 8.6 ± 1.0, whereas the latter may be explained by a combination of new organic matter production and preferential remineralisation of more reduced organic matter at a higher O2:N ratio below the euphotic zone.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 66-71
Aleksandra Anić Vučinić ◽  
Valentina Tuk ◽  
Snježana Šimunić ◽  
Ivana Presečki

One of most common types of municipal solid waste treatment is mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), which in practice has many variations depending on the method of conducting the technological process and it is possible to get different output fractions. In this paper is analysed waste generated after the MBT with biodrying, where waste after mechanical treatment undergoes process of biodrying, and then is RDF (recovery derived fuel) separated. Fine fraction remains with a high content of organic matter that without additional processing cannot be disposed of on a landfill. The aim of this research was to determine the possibility of fine fraction composting in different conditions – in the open, in the open and covered area, and indoors. In each area are formed three compost piles: 100% fine fraction (KH1, KH4, and KH7), 70% fine fraction and 30% wood chips (KH2, KH5, and KH8), 50% fine fraction and 50% wood chips (KH3, KH6, and KH9). Moisture content, temperature and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were monitored. Results show that after 13 weeks samples KH1, KH4, and KH7 (100% content of fine fractions) did not achieve DOC value less than 3 000 mg/l. The most effective composting in terms of reducing the DOC is achieved in samples KH3, KH6, KH9. Based on results obtained, it can be concluded that by adding wood chips in fine fraction in ratio 50:50, the most effective and fastest reduction of organic matter is achieved in the analysed samples.

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