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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. e00461
Author(s):  
Alvaro José Gomes de Faria ◽  
Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva ◽  
Renata Andrade ◽  
Marcelo Mancini ◽  
Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo Melo ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 805
Author(s):  
Tianjing Ren ◽  
Yu’e Li ◽  
Tiantian Miao ◽  
Waseem Hassan ◽  
Jiaqi Zhang ◽  
...  

Excessive nitrogen fertilizer application in greenhouses could cause a significant variation in the nitrogen-use efficiency at the regional scale. This study aims to quantify agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency (AEN) and identify its driving factors across Chinese greenhouse tomato cultivation. Three hundred and forty-eight AEN values were obtained from 64 papers, including mineral nitrogen (MN) and mineral combined with organic nitrogen (MON) treatments. The average AEN values for the MN and MON treatments were 56.6 ± 7.0 kg kg−1 and 34.6 ± 3.5 kg kg−1, respectively. The AEN of the MN treatment was higher than that of the MON treatment for cultivation using soil with an organic matter content of less than 10 g kg−1 and the drip fertigation method. The AENs of the MN and MON treatments were divided into two segments according to the nitrogen application rate. The inflection points of the nitrogen application rate were 290 and 1100 kg N ha−1 for the MN and MON treatments, respectively. When the ratio of organic nitrogen to total nitrogen was less than 0.4, it was beneficial for improving the AEN. The soil organic matter content and the nitrogen application rate were the most critical factors determining the AEN. These results suggest that rationally reducing the nitrogen input and partially substituting mineral nitrogen with organic nitrogen can help improve the nitrogen-use efficiency.


2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 690-700
Author(s):  
Maria Ivanova ◽  
Elena Yanchenko ◽  
Aleksey Yanchenko ◽  
Ivan Virchenko

Introduction. Green cabbage has a short shelf life. As a result, it becomes scarce by March and April, often due to miscalculated sell-by-date. The research objective was to establish qualitative indicators and optimal shelf life of late season green cabbage. Study objects and methods. The study featured eleven late season varieties of green cabbage grown in alluvial meadow soil using N150P150K180 as fertilizer. The samples (25 cabbage heads) were put in layers into wooden containers with a capacity of 200–250 kg each and stored at 0...+1°C and a relative humidity of 90–95% for 7 months. By the end of storage, the samples were tested for the yield of marketable products, weight loss, diseases, etc. Results and discussion. The highest yield belonged to Gertsoginya F1 (80.4%), Kilaton F1 (78.6%), and Beaumont Agro F1 (77.7%). The optimal shelf life did not exceed 5–6 months. The yield of commercial products depended on the solid matter content (r = 0.81) and, to a lesser degree, on the average content of ascorbic acid (r = 0.52), monosaccharides (r = 0.55), and nitrates (r = 0.55). The weight loss had a negative mean relationship with the content of solids (r = –0.55), ascorbic acid (r = –0.49), and nitrates (r = –0.59). Conclusion. The optimal shelf life for most varieties and hybrids of green cabbage proved to be 4–5 months, whereas for Beau Monde Agro F1, Gertsoginya F1, Idilliya F1, and Kilaton F1, it was 5–6 months. Further research might reveal hybrids with longer shelf life.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Author(s):  
Renli Ma ◽  
John R. Dean

The former St. Antony’s Lead Works site, now the central part of an urban recreational park (Walker Riverside Park) in the east end of Newcastle upon Tyne (England, UK), has been assessed based on the Pb concentration in topsoil according to recently derived Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL) for public open space–park (POSpark, 1300 mg/kg). The site was divided into eight sampling areas following its physical layout. In total 79 soil samples were collected, characterised for acidity and organic matter content, and analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). The Pb levels in most of the samples, particularly those from the fringes of the site, are below the generic guideline value (down to 70 mg/kg). More than 16% of the samples from nearly all sampling areas, especially those sampling points around the former horizontal condenser flue and main chimney, contain levels of Pb significantly exceeding the limit (up to 206,000 mg/kg). No correlation is found between the Pb concentration in soil samples and their acidity (mostly neutral, pH 7.0 ± 0.5) or organic matter content (15.5 ± 4.1%). Using the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model (version 1.071), the site-specific risk assessment criteria (SSAC) for Lead (C4SL child), 2862 mg/kg, is obtained based on adjusted exposure frequency and occupancy period. Nearly 9% of the individual sample Pb concentrations (n = 79) across sample locations B, C, D and H are still above the specific value. Further statistical evaluation based on 95% upper confidence limit confirms that the site still represents a potential human health risk. This is because Pb concentrations, from two areas in the centre of the site (sample locations B and C), are greatly over the SSAC specific threshold (sample mean at location B is 12,350 mg/kg and at location C is 11,745 mg/kg).


Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 45
Author(s):  
Damjana Levačić ◽  
Sven D. Jelaska

Alongside the direct destruction of natural habitats and changes in land use, invasive species are considered one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Daisy fleabane Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. is among the most widespread invasive plants in Croatia. Invasions of E. annuus may be aided by morphological variability, which this study investigates. The variability of life traits (stem height, fresh and dry leaf mass, length, width and leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) was examined among 18 locations throughout Zagreb and Medvednica Mt. Overall, 87 plant specimens and 435 leaves were measured and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics. Viable populations were recorded in diverse habitat types, mostly with marked human impact. We determined Grime’s CR plant life strategies for all, except for two localities with C/CR plant strategies. Two populations with a more pronounced competitive strategy had high leaf dry matter content, with smaller leaves and medium height stems. Significant differences between the localities were found, with the specific leaf area (SLA) and plant height being the most diverse. Despite its high morphological variability, daisy fleabane had a consistent CSR strategy, which likely enables its widespread invasions across variable habitats.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-24
Author(s):  
Iris Mariane da Silva Martins ◽  
◽  
Tatiane Carla Silva ◽  
Maria Julia Betiolo Troleis ◽  
Paulino Taveira de Souza ◽  
...  

Effects of soil attributes using the geostatistical tool improves the interpretation of specific soil management. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties of a Typical Haplustox (Oxisol), identifying those with the best linear and spatial correlation with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) vegetative growth. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching, Research, and Extension Farm (FEPE) of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus of Ilha Solteira. Thirty-five points spaced 13 meters apart were demarcated for analysis, which were distributed in 5 rows of 7 points each. From each point, 2 soil samples were collected from the 0-10 cm depth layer. The physical, chemical, and microbiological soil properties evaluated were: sand, silt, and clay contents; penetration resistance (PR), gravimetric moisture (GM), real density (RD), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), respirometry (CO2-C), metabolic quotient (qCO2), organic matter content (OM), and hydrogenionic potential (pH). The eucalyptus attributes assessed were: plant height (PH) and circumference at breast height (CBH). Each attribute was analyzed by descriptive statistics using the SAS software. Data frequency distribution was verified by the Shapiro Wilk method, and geospatial changes were analyzed by the GS+ software. The soil property that best explained the variability in eucalyptus dendrometric attributes was real density (RD). Except for RD, all properties did not show spatial dependence (i.e., pure nugget effect), which significantly represents eucalyptus vegetative performance.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 65
Author(s):  
Giulio Barone ◽  
Cinzia Corinaldesi ◽  
Eugenio Rastelli ◽  
Michael Tangherlini ◽  
Stefano Varrella ◽  
...  

Fungi are a ubiquitous component of marine systems, but their quantitative relevance, biodiversity and ecological role in benthic deep-sea ecosystems remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated fungal abundance, diversity and assemblage composition in two benthic deep-sea sites of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean, Antarctica), characterized by different environmental conditions (i.e., temperature, salinity, trophic availability). Our results indicate that fungal abundance (estimated as the number of 18S rDNA copies g−1) varied by almost one order of magnitude between the two benthic sites, consistently with changes in sediment characteristics and trophic availability. The highest fungal richness (in terms of Amplicon Sequence Variants−ASVs) was encountered in the sediments characterized by the highest organic matter content, indicating potential control of trophic availability on fungal diversity. The composition of fungal assemblages was highly diverse between sites and within each site (similarity less than 10%), suggesting that differences in environmental and ecological characteristics occurring even at a small spatial scale can promote high turnover diversity. Overall, this study provides new insights on the factors influencing the abundance and diversity of benthic deep-sea fungi inhabiting the Ross Sea, and also paves the way for a better understanding of the potential responses of benthic deep-sea fungi inhabiting Antarctic ecosystems in light of current and future climate changes.


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