Molecular Characteristics
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Fengtian Li ◽  
Kun Ye ◽  
Xin Li ◽  
Liyan Ye ◽  
Ling Guo ◽  

Abstract Background The molecular characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREco) remain unclear. Methods We conducted a multi-center bacterial resistance monitoring project from 2015 to 2017.The minimum inhibitory concentrations ofCREco were determined bybroth microdilution method. The genome sequencing of CREcoisolates was performed, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. Results A total of 144CREcoisolatescollected from 10 cities in China were involved in this study. ST167 (n = 43) is the most popular type, followed by ST410(n = 14), ST131(n = 9). There were 102 (70.83%) CREco isolates that produced various NDMs, including NDM-1 (n = 16), NDM-4(n = 1), NDM-5(n = 79), NDM-6(n = 2) and NDM-9(n = 4). In addition, 15 isolates produced KPC-2, three isolates wereIMP-4 positive, and three isolates produced OXA-48. Genetic relatedness and phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates with the same ST had a high degree of homology. Some STs (including ST167, ST410, ST131, ST46, ST405 and ST617) exhibited a trend of outbreak. Conclusions The majority of CREco belonged to ST167, followed by ST410 and ST131, and most of them carried various NDM-coding genes. The spread of high-risk clones of CREco has occurred in different regions of China.

2021 ◽  
Ruyi Zhang ◽  
Marco Puzzoni ◽  
Stefano Mariani ◽  
Yi Zheng ◽  
Nicole Liscia ◽  

Christina L. Hansen ◽  
Francisco Pelegri

The differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) occurs during early embryonic development and is critical for the survival and fitness of sexually reproducing species. Here, we review the two main mechanisms of PGC specification, induction, and preformation, in the context of four model vertebrate species: mouse, axolotl, Xenopus frogs, and zebrafish. We additionally discuss some notable molecular characteristics shared across PGC specification pathways, including the shared expression of products from three conserved germline gene families, DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia) genes, nanos-related genes, and DEAD-box RNA helicases. Then, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the distribution of germ cell determination systems across kingdom Animalia, with particular attention to vertebrate species, but include several categories of invertebrates – ranging from the “proto-vertebrate” cephalochordates to arthropods, cnidarians, and ctenophores. We also briefly highlight ongoing investigations and potential lines of inquiry that aim to understand the evolutionary relationships between these modes of specification.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tjitske E. Zandstra ◽  
Robbert G. E. Notenboom ◽  
Jeroen Wink ◽  
Philippine Kiès ◽  
Hubert W. Vliegen ◽  

The cardiac autonomic nervous system (cANS) regulates cardiac adaptation to different demands. The heart is an asymmetrical organ, and in the selection of adequate treatment of cardiac diseases it may be relevant to take into account that the cANS also has sidedness as well as regional differences in anatomical, functional, and molecular characteristics. The left and right ventricles respond differently to adrenergic stimulation. Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, which plays an important role in parasympathetic function, are also distributed asymmetrically across the heart. Treatment of cardiac disease heavily relies on affecting left-sided heart targets which are thought to apply to the right ventricle as well. Functional studies of the right ventricle have often been neglected. In addition, many principles have only been investigated in animals and not in humans. Anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the cANS in human tissue or subjects is highly valuable for understanding left- and right-sided cardiac pathology and for identifying novel treatment targets and modalities. Within this perspective, we aim to provide an overview and synthesis of anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the cANS in tissue or subjects, focusing on the human heart.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1255
Jiali Yan ◽  
Sixuan Zhang ◽  
Miaomiao Tong ◽  
Jinkai Lu ◽  
Tongfei Wang ◽  

Ginkgo biloba is a well-known long-lived tree with important economical, ornamental and research value. New stems often resprout naturally from the trunk or roots of old trees to realize rejuvenation. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlie the resprouting from old trees are still unknown. In this study, we investigated a 544-year-old female ginkgo tree with vigorous resprouters along the trunk base in Yangzhou, China. We compared the morphological and physiological traits of leaves between resprouters (SL) and old branches (OL) and found a significantly higher thickness, fresh weight, and water content in SL. In particular, the depth and number of leaf lobes were dramatically increased in SL, suggesting the juvenile characteristics of sprouters in old ginkgo trees. Transcriptome data showed that the expression of genes related to photosynthetic capacity, the auxin signaling pathway, and stress-associated hormones was upregulated in SL. Importantly, levels of the most important secondary metabolites, including kaempferol, isorhamnetin, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, and ginkgolide C, were significantly higher in SL. We also identified high expression of key genes in SL, such as PAL and FLS, which are involved in flavonoid synthesis, and GGPS, which is involved in the synthesis of terpene lactones. These findings reveal the distinct physiological and molecular characteristics as well as secondary metabolite synthesis in leaves of resprouting stems in old ginkgo trees, providing new insight into rejuvenation physiology in old tree aging.

2021 ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Yanbo Yu ◽  
Lixiang Li ◽  
Mengqi Zheng ◽  
Jiawei Zhou ◽  

Regional intestinal immune surveillance remains obscure. In this study, we integrated single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics to create a regional atlas of fetal and adult intestines, consisting of 59 cell subsets, of which eight new subsets and ILCs transition states were identified. Results revealed that microenvironment determines in-situ cell differentiation and shapes the regional molecular characteristics, allowing different intestinal segments with diverse functions. We characterized the regional expression of mucins, immunoglobulins, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their shift during development and in inflammatory bowel disease. Notably, α-defensins expressed most abundantly in small intestinal LGR5+ stem cells, rather than in Paneth cells, and down-regulated as cell maturing. Common upstream transcription factors controlled the AMPs expression, illuminating the concurrent change of AMPs during epithelial differentiation, and the spatial co-expression patterns. We demonstrated the correspondence of cell focus of risk genes to diseases' location susceptibility and identified distinct cell-cell crosstalk and spatial heterogeneity of immune cell homing in different gut segments. Overall, a cross-spatiotemporal approach to transcriptomes at single-cell resolution revealed that the regional milieu of the human intestine determined cellular and molecular cues of immune surveillance, dictating gut homeostasis and disease.

2021 ◽  
Hyundeok Kang ◽  
Mi-Kyoung Seo ◽  
BeumJin Park ◽  
Yoon Woo Koh ◽  
Dahee Kim ◽  

Abstract Background: Characterising the tumor microenvironment (TME) and immune landscape of cancer has been a promising step towards discovering new therapeutic biomarkers and guiding precision medicine; however, its application in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) has been sparse. Here, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptomic study to understand the properties of the TME and immune profiles of MEC.Methods: Molecular features in heterogeneous immunophenotypic subgroups of MEC and their intrinsic characteristics were determined by applying bioinformatic and immunoinformatic analyses on 20 matched primary MEC RNA-seq data.Results: In this study, distinct two immunophenotypic subgroups, hot and cold MECs, were uncovered with their distinct molecular features, and potential immune-oncologic therapeutic options for each subgroup were suggested. In search for immunophenotype defining molecular features, tumor mutational burden, CRTC1-MAML2 fusion status, and its fusion neoantigen were not discriminable factors. However, we demonstrate that a significant inverse correlation between lipid metabolism activity and immunogenic state, and lipid metabolic regulators, such as MLXIPL and FASN, which are associated suppression of immune activity, were under-expressed in the immune-hot subgroup, contributing significant role in high immunity of immune active subgroup.Conclusions: Our study has shown heterogeneous immunophenotypic MEC subgroups with their distinctive molecular characteristics and provided potential treatment options tailored to the immune context, which yields, for the first time, new insights into TME of MEC and may help the next step to studying this uncharted cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (9) ◽  
Qun Zhou ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Jian Huang ◽  
Nengsheng Fu ◽  
Xin Song ◽  

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is the causative agent of feline infectious peritonitis and diarrhoea in kittens worldwide. In this study, a total of 173 feline diarrhoeal faecal and ascetic samples were collected from 15 catteries and six veterinary hospitals in southwest China from 2017 to 2020. FCoV was detected in 80.35 % (139/173) of the samples using the RT-nPCR method; these included infections with 122 type I FCoV and 57 type II FCoV. Interestingly, 51 cases had co-infection with types I and II, the first such report in mainland China. To further analyse the genetic diversity of FCoV, we amplified 23 full-length spike (S) genes, including 18 type I and five type II FCoV. The type I FCoV and type II FCoV strains shared 85.5–98.7% and 97.4–98.9% nucleotide (nt) sequence identities between one another, respectively. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of 23 FCoV strains showed a high degree of variation (73.6–80.3 %). There was six type I FCoV strains with two amino acid insertions (159HL160) in the NTD. In addition, 18 strains of type I FCoV belonged to the Ie cluster, and five strains of type II FCoV were in the IIb cluster based on phylogenetic analysis. Notably, it was first time that two type I FCoV strains had recombination in the NTD, and the recombination regions was located 140–857 nt of the S gene. This study constitutes a systematic investigation of the current infection status and molecular characteristics of FCoV in southwest China.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11751
Ziwei Ren ◽  
Dong Yu ◽  
Wei Zhao ◽  
Yan Luo ◽  
Jianguo Cheng ◽  

Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) is an endangered, protected species in China. Intestinal coccidiosis is a significant problem for captive forest musk deer. However, there are few reports on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Eimeria sp. in forest musk deer. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria sp. in forest musk deer in the Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces in China. We also investigated the molecular characteristics of Eimeria sp. by analyzing the 18S rRNA gene. We collected a total of 328 fecal samples from forest musk deer on seven farms throughout the Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces. We extracted this parasite’s DNA and used this as a template for nested PCR amplification. The 18S rRNA gene fragment was associated with the plasmid vector, and these products were introduced into Escherichia coli (DH5α). The cultured bacterial solution was used as a PCR reaction template for identification purposes. We collected 328 fecal samples from forest musk deer in Lixian (n = 54), Maoxian (n = 52), Ma’erkang (n = 49), Dujiangyan (n = 55), Hanyuan (n = 41), Luding (n = 36) and Weinan (n = 41). One hundred ninety-eight (60.37%) fecal samples tested positive for Eimeria sp. . In our analysis of the 18S rRNA gene we found 34 types of Eimeria sp. with a similarity of 90.5–100%. We constructed a phylogenetic tree based on the parasite’s 18S rRNA gene sequence. Our findings indicated that the Eimeria sp. that parasitized the intestinal tract of forest musk deer was closely related to Eimeria alabamensis from Bos taurus and Eimeria ahsata from Ovis aries. To the best of our knowledge, ours was the first investigation and molecular identification of Eimeria sp. sampled from captive forest musk deer in China. Our results provide epidemiological data for the monitoring and prevention of Eimeria sp. in captive forest musk deer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chunrong Zhu ◽  
Liangjun Zhu ◽  
Yanhong Gu ◽  
Ping Liu ◽  
Xiaoling Tong ◽  

Gastrointestinal tract cancers have high incidence and mortality in China, but their molecular characteristics have not been fully investigated. We sequenced 432 tumor samples from the colorectum, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and biliary tract to investigate cancer-related mutations and detail the landscape of microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor mutation burden (TMB), and chromosomal instability (CIN). We observed the highest TMB in colorectal and gastric cancers and the lowest TMB in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Twenty-four hyper-mutated tumors were identified only in colorectal and gastric cancers, with a significant enrichment of mutations in the polymerase genes (POLE, POLD1, and POLH) and mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Additionally, CIN preferentially occurred in colorectal and gastric cancers, while pancreatic, gallbladder, and biliary duct cancers had a much lower CIN. High CIN was correlated with a higher prevalence of malfunctions in chromosome segregation and cell cycle genes, including the copy number loss of WRN, NAT1, NF2, and BUB1B, and the copy number gain of MYC, ERBB2, EGFR, and CDK6. In addition, TP53 mutations were more abundant in high-CIN tumors, while PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in low-CIN tumors. In colorectal and gastric cancers, tumors with MSI demonstrated much fewer copy number changes than microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. In colorectal and gastric cancers, the molecular characteristics of tumors revealed the mutational diversity between the different anatomical origins of tumors. This study provides novel insights into the molecular landscape of Chinese gastrointestinal cancers and the genetic differences between tumor locations, which could be useful for future clinical patient stratification and targeted interventions.

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