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CATENA ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 211 ◽  
pp. 106010
Author(s):  
Daniil I. Korobushkin ◽  
Ruslan A. Saifutdinov ◽  
Andrey G. Zuev ◽  
Andrey S. Zaitsev

Geosciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Author(s):  
Rebecca Julianne Duncan ◽  
Katherina Petrou

Microalgae growing on the underside of sea ice are key primary producers in polar marine environments. Their nutritional status, determined by their macromolecular composition, contributes to the region’s biochemistry and the unique temporal and spatial characteristics of their growth makes them essential for sustaining polar marine food webs. Here, we review the plasticity and taxonomic diversity of sea ice microalgae macromolecular composition, with a focus on how different environmental conditions influence macromolecular production and partitioning within cells and communities. The advantages and disadvantages of methodologies for assessing macromolecular composition are presented, including techniques that provide high throughput, whole macromolecular profile and/or species-specific resolution, which are particularly recommended for future studies. The directions of environmentally driven macromolecular changes are discussed, alongside anticipated consequences on nutrients supplied to the polar marine ecosystem. Given that polar regions are facing accelerated rates of environmental change, it is argued that a climate change signature will become evident in the biochemical composition of sea ice microalgal communities, highlighting the need for further research to understand the synergistic effects of multiple environmental stressors. The importance of sea ice microalgae as primary producers in polar marine ecosystems means that ongoing research into climate-change driven macromolecular phenotyping is critical to understanding the implications for the regions biochemical cycling and carbon transfer.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Libor Zavorka ◽  
Magnus Lovén Wallerius ◽  
Martin Kainz ◽  
Johan Höjesjö

Abstract Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are key structural lipids and their dietary intake is essential for brain development of virtually all vertebrates. The importance of n-3 LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in clinical and laboratory studies, but little is known about how differences in availability of n-3 LC-PUFA in natural prey influence brain development of wild consumers. The numerous consumers foraging on the interface of aquatic and terrestrial food webs can differ substantially in their intake of n-3 LC-PUFA, which may lead to differences in brain development, yet, this hypothesis remains to be tested. Here we use the previously demonstrated shift towards higher reliance on n-3 LC-PUFA deprived terrestrial prey of native brown trout Salmo trutta living in sympatry with invasive brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to explore this hypothesis. We found that the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in muscle tissues of brown trout decreased with increasing consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA deprived terrestrial prey. Brain volume was positively related to content of the n-3 LC-PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid, in muscle tissues of brown trout. Our study thus suggests that increased reliance on low quality diet of n-3 LC-PUFA deprived subsidies can have a significant negative impact on brain development of wild trout. Our findings are important, because ongoing global change is predicted to reduce the availability of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA across food webs and we showed here a first evidence of how brain of wild vertebrate consumers response to scarcity of n-3 LC-PUFA content in natural prey.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anton M. Potapov ◽  
Xin Sun ◽  
Maria J.I. Briones ◽  
George Brown ◽  
Erin Cameron ◽  
...  

Here we introduce the Soil BON Foodweb Team, a cross-continental collaborative network that aims to monitor soil animal communities and food webs using consistent methodology at a global scale. Soil animals support vital soil processes via soil structure modification, direct consumption of dead organic matter, and interactions with microbial and plant communities. Soil animal effects on ecosystem functions have been demonstrated by correlative analyses as well as in laboratory and field experiments, but these studies typically focus on selected animal groups or species at one or few sites with limited variation in environmental conditions. The lack of comprehensive harmonised large-scale soil animal community data including microfauna, mesofauna, and macrofauna, in conjunction with related soil functions, limits our understanding of biological interactions in soil communities and how these interactions affect ecosystem functioning. To provide such data, the Soil BON Foodweb Team invites researchers worldwide to use a common methodology to address six long-term goals: (1) to collect globally representative harmonised data on soil micro-, meso-, and macrofauna communities; (2) to describe key environmental drivers of soil animal communities and food webs; (3) to assess the efficiency of conservation approaches for the protection of soil animal communities; (4) to describe soil food webs and their association with soil functioning globally; (5) to establish a global research network for soil biodiversity monitoring and collaborative projects in related topics; (6) to reinforce local collaboration networks and expertise and support capacity building for soil animal research around the world. In this paper, we describe the vision of the global research network and the common sampling protocol to assess soil animal communities and advocate for the use of standard methodologies across observational and experimental soil animal studies. We will use this protocol to conduct soil animal assessments and reconstruct soil food webs on the sites included in the global soil biodiversity monitoring network, Soil BON, allowing us to assess linkages among soil biodiversity, vegetation, soil physico-chemical properties, and ecosystem functions. In the present paper, we call for researchers especially from countries and ecoregions that remain underrepresented in the majority of soil biodiversity assessments to join us. Together we will be able to provide science-based evidence to support soil biodiversity conservation and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Oksana L. Rozanova ◽  
Sergey M. Tsurikov ◽  
Marina G. Krivosheina ◽  
Andrei V. Tanasevitch ◽  
Dmitry N. Fedorenko ◽  
...  

AbstractForest canopy is densely populated by phyto-, sapro-, and microbiphages, as well as predators and parasitoids. Eventually, many of crown inhabitants fall down, forming so-called ‘arthropod rain’. Although arthropod rain can be an important food source for litter-dwelling predators and saprophages, its origin and composition remains unexplored. We measured stable isotope composition of the arthropod rain in a temperate mixed forest throughout the growing season. Invertebrates forming arthropod rain were on average depleted in 13C and 15N by 1.6‰ and 2.7‰, respectively, compared to the soil-dwelling animals. This difference can be used to detect the contribution of the arthropod rain to detrital food webs. Low average δ13C and δ15N values of the arthropod rain were primarily driven by the presence of wingless microhytophages, represented mainly by Collembola and Psocoptera, and macrophytophages, mainly aphids, caterpillars, and heteropterans. Winged arthropods were enriched in heavy isotopes relative to wingless specimens, being similar in the isotopic composition to soil-dwelling invertebrates. Moreover, there was no consistent difference in δ13C and δ15N values between saprophages and predators among winged insects, suggesting that winged insects in the arthropod rain represented a random assemblage of specimens originating in different biotopes, and are tightly linked to soil food webs.


2022 ◽  
pp. 517-547
Author(s):  
Ross N. Cuthbert ◽  
Ryan J. Wasserman ◽  
Chad Keates ◽  
Tatenda Dalu
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caryn C. Vaughn ◽  
Thomas B. Parr ◽  
Traci P. DuBose ◽  
Kiza K. Gates ◽  
Garrett W. Hopper ◽  
...  

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