plastic pollution
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Mehjabin Tishan Mahfuz ◽  
M. Sarwar Jahan ◽  
Shakhawat Hossain ◽  
Mubarak A. Khan

2022 ◽  
Vol 128 ◽  
pp. 14-23
Sarah E. Nelms ◽  
Emily Easman ◽  
Nichola Anderson ◽  
Madeleine Berg ◽  
Sue Coates ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 806 ◽  
pp. 150392
Helen V. Ford ◽  
Nia H. Jones ◽  
Andrew J. Davies ◽  
Brendan J. Godley ◽  
Jenna R. Jambeck ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Diana Barrowclough ◽  
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck

International policy discussions on plastic pollution are entering a new phase, with more than 100 governments calling for the launch of negotiations for a new global plastics agreement in 2022. This article aims to contribute to efforts to identify effective international policy levers to address plastic pollution. It takes stock of the evolution of views and perceptions on this complex and multi-faceted topic—from concerns about marine pollution and waste management towards new strategic directions that involve the entire plastics life-cycle and include climate and health impacts associated with the proliferation of plastics. It also traces the progressive development of responses—from voluntary approaches invovling multiple stakeholders to national and international approaches focused on regulation. The paper is informed by desk research, a literature review and participation by the authors in informal and formal global governance processes on plastic pollution, the environment and development in the United Nations and World Trade Organization between 2019 and 2021. It also draws on empirical findings from a novel and original database on the life-cycle of plastic trade created by the authors. The paper argues that the important focus on downstream dimensions of plastic pollution—and strategies to address them—needs to be complemented by a broad life-cycle and “upstream” perspective that addresses plastic pollution at its source. It highlights the political economy tensions and inconsistencies at hand, observing that while some countries are taking concerted efforts to reduce pollution (including through bans on certain kinds of plastic and plastic products); to promote more circular plastic economies; and to reduce the carbon footprint of plastics (as part of a wider effort to decarbonize their economies), trade and investment in the plastic industry continues to rise. The paper argues that to reduce plastic pollution, emerging global governance efforts must integrate international environmental law and cooperation with a complementary and enabling global framework that addresses the economic, financial, industrial and trade policies needed to drive the necessary transformation of the plastics sector.

Shen Molloy ◽  
Andrew Medeiros ◽  
Tony Walker ◽  
Sarah Saunders

Government-led legislation is a key strategy to reduce plastic pollution; however, societal perception can heavily influence government intervention for environmental issues. To understand the public acceptability of government action to reduce plastic pollution, we examine the perception of existing and upcoming legislative action on single-use plastics by means of a structured survey with additional semi-structured interviews. Our focus is on the four Atlantic provinces of Canada, which was the first region in Canada to implement provincial-wide legislation for plastic reduction at the consumer level in 2019. Results show strong public support (77 %, n = 838) for bans on single-use plastic bags at the consumer level, and for further plastic pollution reduction legislation. However, the level of support differed between regions and by demographics. Semi-structured interviews show that decision-makers should increase efforts in raising consumer awareness and standardizing regulations across jurisdictions for smoother transitions prior to legislative action.

2022 ◽  
Phạm Hà Trang ◽  
Hoàng Trường Giang ◽  
Nguyen Cam Duong

Plastic pollution is an urgent global problem that threatens the entire ecosystem, causing climate change and many other consequences that humans have to bear. Therefore, citizens need to uphold their sense of responsibility, consciously change living habits, say no to single-use plastic products. Protecting the environment, limiting plastic waste is protecting ourselves.

2022 ◽  
Jai Krishna Mahto ◽  
Neetu Neetu ◽  
Monica Sharma ◽  
Monika Dubey ◽  
Bhanu Prakash Vellanki ◽  

Biodegradation of terephthalate (TPA) is a highly desired catabolic process for the bacterial utilization of this Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) depolymerization product, but to date, the structure of terephthalate dioxygenase (TPDO), a Rieske oxygenase (RO) that catalyzes the dihydroxylation of TPA to a cis -diol is unavailable. In this study, we characterized the steady-state kinetics and first crystal structure of TPDO from Comamonas testosteroni KF1 (TPDO KF1 ). The TPDO KF1 exhibited the substrate specificity for TPA ( k cat / K m = 57 ± 9 mM −1 s −1 ). The TPDO KF1 structure harbors characteristics RO features as well as a unique catalytic domain that rationalizes the enzyme’s function. The docking and mutagenesis studies reveal that its substrate specificity to TPA is mediated by Arg309 and Arg390 residues, two residues positioned on opposite faces of the active site. Additionally, residue Gln300 is also proven to be crucial for the activity, its substitution to alanine decreases the activity ( k cat ) by 80%. Together, this study delineates the structural features that dictate the substrate recognition and specificity of TPDO. Importance The global plastic pollution has become the most pressing environmental issue. Recent studies on enzymes depolymerizing polyethylene terephthalate plastic into terephthalate (TPA) show some potential in tackling this. Microbial utilization of this released product, TPA is an emerging and promising strategy for waste-to-value creation. Research from the last decade has discovered terephthalate dioxygenase (TPDO), as being responsible for initiating the enzymatic degradation of TPA in a few Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of TPDO from Comamonas testosteroni KF1 and revealed that it possesses a unique catalytic domain featuring two basic residues in the active site to recognize TPA. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies demonstrated the crucial residues responsible for the substrate specificity of this enzyme.

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