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2021 ◽  
Vol 47 ◽  
Deon J. Kleynhans ◽  
Marita M. Heyns ◽  
Marius W. Stander

Orientation: In a business context characterised by precariousness and uncertainty, the importance of trusting leader-follower relationships is becoming critical to navigate imminent challenges preventing organisational sustainability and progress. The potential negative impact of related challenges could be reduced by encouraging leaders to adopt an authentic leadership style, culminating in various positive employee and organisational outcomes.Research purpose: This study investigated the impact of authentic leadership (AL) on follower trust in the leader (TL), while considering the possible indirect influence of perceived precariousness in the form of job insecurity.Motivation for the study: Establishing a high level of trust among the followers and their leaders employed by a manufacturing organisation under operational and financial pressure might contribute to a more effective functioning of the entity.Research approach/design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was applied. The Authentic Leadership Inventory, Workplace Trust Survey, and Job Insecurity Scale were administered.Main findings: Authentic leadership was a significant predictor of TL. Job insecurity did not moderate the relationship between AL and TL.Practical/managerial implications: Promoting an AL style will benefit manufacturing organisations as it will elevate the trustful relationship between leaders and followers, despite precarious working conditions.Contribution/value-add: The study emphasises AL’s critical role in cultivating a trustful relationship between followers and their leaders. The non-significant influence of job insecurity on a trustful relationship in a precarious work context was also highlighted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hongyao Yu ◽  
Fan Su ◽  
Le-Bing Wang ◽  
Kari Hemminki ◽  
Shyamali C. Dharmage ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the associations between childhood, parental, and grandparental asthma.Methods: We studied 59,484 children randomly selected from 94 kindergartens, elementary, and middle schools in seven Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013, using a cross-sectional survey-based study design. Information on their and their family members' (parents, paternal grandparents, and maternal grandparents) asthma status were reported by children's parents or guardians. Mixed effects logistic regressions were used to assess hereditary patterns of asthma and mediation analysis was performed to estimate the potential mediation effect of parents on the association between grandparental asthma and childhood asthma.Results: The magnitude of ORs for childhood asthma increased as the number of family members affected by asthma increased. Among children who had one family member with asthma, childhood asthma was associated with asthma in maternal grandmothers (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.67–2.59), maternal grandfathers (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.71–2.53), paternal grandmothers (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.93–2.99), and paternal grandfathers (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 2.14–3.13). Among children who had two family members with asthma, the highest asthma risk was found when both parents had asthma (OR: 15.92, 95% CI: 4.66–54.45). Parents had a small proportion of mediation effect (9–12%) on the association between grandparental asthma and childhood asthma.Conclusions: Grandparents with asthma were associated with childhood asthma and parents with asthma partially mediated the association.

2021 ◽  
Bola Grace ◽  
Jill Shawe ◽  
Geraldine Barrett ◽  
Nafisat Ohunene Usman ◽  
Judith Stephenson

Abstract Introduction The importance of improving men’s and women’s knowledge of sexual and reproductive health has been emphasised in numerous global health policies. Fertility awareness literature highlights a disproportionately higher number of articles related to pregnancy-prevention compared to pregnancy-planning, which is justifiable in many contexts. However, the recent concerted effort to improve fertility awareness warrants a closer investigation of basic terminologies in the field. For example, although the term family planning encompasses attaining the desired number of children and spacing pregnancies, it is typically attributed to the practice of limiting the number of children.MethodsWe conducted 35 qualitative in-depth interviews on men, women and healthcare professionals who were sampled from a UK cross-sectional survey. We asked participants about terms such as ‘family planning’ and ‘family building’ to elicit views and explored the appropriateness of the term “family building.” Data were transcribed and analysed via Framework analysis. Results When asked what ‘family planning’ meant to them, study participants stated that the term meant the avoidance of pregnancy. They viewed it as an “umbrella term for the use of contraception methods,” that “paradoxically, the term family planning almost has a negative connotation regarding having a family,” but could not state similar terminology for planning a family. Reasons cited for this perspective include the focus of school education and usage in clinical settings. Conclusions In the absence of an explicit definition in literature, we generated a new definition for family building as follows: “Family building refers to the construction or formation of a family, which can include steps or actions taken by an individual towards having children. In contrast to family planning, the intent focuses on pregnancy planning and childbearing rather than pregnancy prevention. However, it can also include actions taken to space the number of children one has.” Some balance in the global public health messages, including bridging the gap in reproductive health literature, may contribute to the effort to improve fertility knowledge. Additionally, this has implications for promotion of preconception and optimising reproductive health in order to enable men and women achieve their desired fertility intentions, whatever they may be.

Nora K. Schaal ◽  
Janine Zöllkau ◽  
Philip Hepp ◽  
Tanja Fehm ◽  
Carsten Hagenbeck

Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.

Kaitlyn Howden ◽  
Adam P. Yan ◽  
Camille Glidden ◽  
Razvan G. Romanescu ◽  
Ian Scott ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Vinaya Manchaiah ◽  
Alicia Brazelton ◽  
Hansapani Rodrigo ◽  
Eldré W. Beukes ◽  
Marc A. Fagelson ◽  

Purpose This study examined medication use by individuals with tinnitus who were seeking help for their tinnitus by means of a psychological intervention. Method This study used a cross-sectional survey design and included individuals with tinnitus enrolled in an Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy trial ( n = 439). Study participants provided demographic details, completed various structured questionnaires and provided details about the medications used. The self-reported medications were classified using the United States Pharmacopeial Medicare Model Guidelines v7.0. Results Current medication use was reported by 67% ( n = 293) of the study participants. Those currently using medication were older; had consulted their primary care physician, had greater tinnitus severity, depression, anxiety, and insomnia when compared with those not reporting any current medication use. The top 10 medication used included cardiovascular agents ( n = 162; 55.3%), antidepressants ( n = 80; 27.3%), electrolytes/minerals/metals/vitamins ( n = 70; 23.9%), respiratory tract/pulmonary agents ( n = 62; 21.2%), anxiolytics ( n = 59; 20.1%), hormonal agents/stimulant/replacement/modifying (thyroid; n = 45; 15.4%), gastrointestinal agents ( n = 43; 14.7%), analgesics ( n = 33; 11.3%), blood glucose regulators ( n = 32; 10.9%), and anticonvulsants ( n = 26; 8.87%). Some associations between type of medication used and demographic or tinnitus-related variables were noted especially for the cardiovascular agents, electrolytes/minerals/metals/vitamins, and anxiolytics. Conclusions This exploratory study indicated a large percentage of patients using medication and a range of medications. Further studies are required to assess the effects of such medications on the tinnitus percept and concurrent medication moderate treatment effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lori Kogan ◽  
Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher ◽  
Patrick Carney ◽  
Peter Hellyer ◽  
Mark Rishniw

Objective: To assess the impact of on-call duties on veterinarians' job satisfaction, well-being and personal relationships.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Sample: The sample was obtained from Veterinary Information Network (VIN) members in private practice within the United States.Procedures: A link to an anonymous online survey was distributed via an email invitation to all Veterinary Information Network (VIN) members with access from August 15, 2017 to October 21, 2017.Results: A total of 1,945 responses were recorded. The majority of those who reported having on-call duties were female associates. Composite scales were created to assess the impact of on-call shifts on job satisfaction and well-being. Multiple linear regression was conducted and found that gender (p = 0.0311), associate status (p < 0.0001), and age (p = 0.0293) were all significantly associated with on-call related job satisfaction. Additionally, multiple linear regression found that gender (p = 0.0039), associate status (p < 0.0057), and age (p < 0.0001) were all significantly associated with on-call related well-being. On-call shifts were reported by many to have a negative impact on job satisfaction and well-being; this was especially pronounced for female associates. Females had on-call related job satisfaction scores that were, on average, 1.27 points lower than that of males (lower scores equates to lower job satisfaction). Further, females' average on-call related well-being scores were 1.15 points higher than that of males (lower scores equates to higher well-being).Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This study suggests that on-call shifts have a negative impact on veterinarian job satisfaction, well-being and personal relationships. The negative impact on job satisfaction and well-being is greatest for female associates. Veterinary medicine has been identified as a stressful occupation that can lead to psychological distress. It is therefore important to critically assess current practices that appear to increase stress and reduce emotional well-being. For this reason, it is suggested that veterinary hospitals explore alternative options to traditional on-call shifts.

Christophe Demoulin ◽  
Laura Gabriel ◽  
Orléane Nève de Mévergnies ◽  
Laura Henket ◽  
Nathalie Roussel ◽  

Gerard M Walls ◽  
Orla A Houlihan ◽  
Ciaran Mooney ◽  
Rebecca Prince ◽  
Katie Spencer ◽  

Objectives: Radiotherapy is a key cancer treatment modality but is poorly understood by doctors. We sought to evaluate radiation oncology (RO) teaching in medical schools within the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI), as well as any impacts on RO teaching delivery from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: A bespoke online survey instrument was developed, piloted and distributed to oncology teaching leads at all UK and RoI medical schools. Questions were designed to capture information on the structure, format, content and faculty for RO teaching, as well as both the actual and the predicted short- and long-term impacts of COVID-19. Results: Responses were received from 29/41 (71%) UK and 5/6 (83%) RoI medical schools. Pre-clinical and clinical oncology teaching was delivered over a median of 2 weeks (IQR 1–6), although only 9 (27%) of 34 responding medical schools had a standalone RO module. RO teaching was most commonly delivered in clinics or wards (n = 26 and 25 respectively). Few medical schools provided teaching on the biological basis for radiotherapy (n = 11) or the RO career pathway (n = 8), and few provide teaching delivered by non-medical RO multidisciplinary team members. There was evidence of short- and long-term disruption to RO teaching from COVID-19. Conclusions: RO teaching in the UK and RoI is limited with minimal coverage of relevant theoretical principles and little exposure to radiotherapy departments and their non-medical team members. The COVID-19 pandemic risks exacerbating trainee doctors’ already constrained exposure to radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: This study provides the first analysis of radiotherapy-related teaching in the UK and RoI, and the first to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on radiationoncology teaching.

Bethany Atkins ◽  
Hannah Blencowe ◽  
Fran Boyle ◽  
Emma Sacks ◽  
Dell Horey ◽  

Objective To quantify parents’ experiences of respectful care around stillbirth globally. Design Multi-country, online, cross-sectional survey. Setting and Population Self-identified bereaved parents (n=3769) of stillborn babies from 44 high- and middle-income countries. Methods Parents’ perspectives of 7 aspects of care quality, factors associated with respectful care, and 7 bereavement care practices were compared across geographical regions using descriptive statistics. Respectful care was compared between country income groups using multivariable logistic regression. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported experience of care around the time of stillbirth Results A quarter (25.4%) of 3769 respondents reported disrespectful care after stillbirth and 23.5% reported disrespectful care of their baby. Gestation <30 weeks, and primiparity were associated with disrespect. Reported respectful care was lower in middle-income countries (MICs) than in high-income countries (HICs) (aOR=0.35, 95%CI (0.29-0.42), p <0.01). In many countries, aspects of care quality need improvement, such as ensuring families have enough time with providers. Participating respondents from Latin America and Southern Europe reported lower satisfaction across all aspects of care quality compared to Northern Europe. Unmet need for memory-making activities in MICs is high. Conclusions Despite improvements, many parents still experience disrespectful care around stillbirth. The gap between parents’ access to memory-making activities in MICs and HICs needs urgent attention. Tweetable abstract A quarter of parents of stillborn babies experience disrespectful care. There is global unmet need for memory-making activities

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