control and prevention
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
A. M. Yousafzai ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
T. U. Haq ◽  
A. Rahim ◽  

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Michael Olabode Tomori

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic requiring unprecedented measures adopted to control its rapid spread. The knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) of the public play a major role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. In this study, FUTA students’ KAP towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the outbreak was investigated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in FUTA in October 2021 via a self-designed questionnaire comprising 25 questions assessing KAP. Assessments on students’ attitudes and perception towards COVID-19 included questions on confidence and believe in winning the war against COVID-19 such as wearing face masks and use of hands sanitizer. Among the questionnaire completed (n=402), 58.0% were men while 42.0% were female, 17.7% were from school of Agriculture, and 20.1% were in 300 level. The overall adequate knowledge on the existence of the disease was 88.6%. The majority of the respondents displayed good attitude towards the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in FUTA as 79.6% of the students were in agreement with the rules of the Nigeria Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCDC). In addition, the study showed that age factors cannot affect the perception of students to COVID-19 as the P-value (0.733) is greater than 0.05.

2022 ◽  
Etsuro Nanishi ◽  
Ofer Levy ◽  
Al Ozonoff

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health agencies have recently recommended a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines for specific vulnerable groups including adults 65 years and older. There is limited evidence whether vaccine effectiveness in older adults decreases over time, especially against severe COVID-19. We performed a rapid review of published studies available through 04 November 2021 that provide effectiveness data on mRNA vaccines approved/licensed in the United States and identified eight eligible studies which evaluated vaccine effectiveness in older adults. There is evidence of a decline in vaccine effectiveness against both SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 in older adults among studies which analyzed data up to July-October 2021. Our findings suggest that vaccine effectiveness diminishes in older adults, which supports the current recommendation for a booster dose in this population.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003335492110634
Lauren Jessell ◽  
Izza Zaidi ◽  
Leonardo Dominguez-Gomez ◽  
Alex Harocopos

Objectives: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, much in-person data collection has been suspended or become tele-remote. However, tele-remote methods often exclude marginalized groups, including people who use drugs, many of whom lack the technology to participate. To inform future surveillance and research during the pandemic and other public health disasters, we report methods and lessons learned from an in-person survey of people who use opioids conducted by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This public health surveillance was a component of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Overdose Data to Action initiative and aimed to inform overdose prevention efforts. Survey domains inquired about participants’ drug use patterns, risk behaviors, overdose history, and service use. Results: From June 16 through September 9, 2020, DOHMH staff members conducted 329 surveys with participants from 4 syringe service programs (n = 148, 44.9%) and via street intercept (n = 81, 55.1%). To survey participants safely and effectively, it was important to build rapport upfront so that requests to maintain distance were not perceived as stigmatizing. DOHMH staff members offered all participants, regardless of survey eligibility, Narcan and hygiene products, including face masks and soap. Practice Implications: Surveys administered outdoors during the COVID-19 pandemic should be limited to 30 minutes. Although conducting in-person surveys poses unique challenges, this method should be considered so marginalized populations are included in data collection and public health responses.

Venereology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-46
Benjamin Silverberg ◽  
Amy Moyers ◽  
Tate Hinkle ◽  
Roanna Kessler ◽  
Nancy G. Russell

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated their Sexually-Transmitted Infection (STI) Treatment Guidelines with a revision to the approach to gonococcal infections in December 2020 and other STIs in July 2021. This article reviews the new recommendations and highlights important updates from the 2015 iteration that are crucial for primary care and community health practice.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0252994
Chao Wu ◽  
Cong Xu ◽  
Feng Mao ◽  
Xiaolin Xu ◽  
Chan Zhang

The global impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unprecedented, and many control and prevention measures have been implemented to test for and trace COVID-19. However, invisible-spreaders, who are associated with nucleic acid detection and asymptomatic infections, have received insufficient attention in the current COVID-19 control efforts. In this paper, we analyze the time series infection data for Italy, Germany, Brazil, India and Sweden since the first wave outbreak to address the following issues through a series of experiments. We conclude that: 1) As of June 1, 2020, the proportion of invisible-spreaders is close to 0.4% in Sweden, 0.8% in early Italy and Germany, and 0.4% in the middle and late stages. However, in Brazil and India, the proportion still shows a gradual upward trend; 2) During the spread of this pandemic, even a slight increase in the proportion of invisible-spreaders could have large implications for the health of the community; and 3) On resuming work, the pandemic intervention measures will be relaxed, and invisible-spreaders will cause a new round of outbreaks.

Diabetology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-45
Ehtasham Ahmad ◽  
Jack A. Sargeant ◽  
Tom Yates ◽  
David R. Webb ◽  
Melanie J. Davies

The focus in diabetes care has traditionally been around the optimisation of the glycaemic control and prevention of complications. However, the prevention of frailty and improvement in physical function have now emerged as new targets of diabetes management. This is mainly driven by the significant adverse impact that early onset frailty and decline in physical function have on health outcomes, functional independence, and quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is an increasing emphasis in the expert consensus and management algorithms to improve physical function in people with T2D, predominantly through lifestyle interventions, including exercise and the control of modifiable risk factors. Trials of novel glucose-lowering therapies (GLTs) also now regularly assess the impact of these novel agents on measures of physical function within their secondary outcomes to understand the impact that these agents have on physical function. However, challenges remain as there is no consensus on the best method of assessing physical function in clinical practice, and the recognition of impaired physical function remains low. In this review, we present the burden of a reduced physical function in people with T2D, outline methods of assessment used in healthcare and research settings, and discuss strategies for improvement in physical function in people with T2D.

O. J. Ifejube ◽  
S. O. Babalola ◽  
I. O. Mukaila ◽  
A. O. Badewa

Abstract. Lassa fever is an acute viral illness, which is endemic in some counties in West Africa, including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and parts of Nigeria. It is caused by the Lassa virus, which is primarily hosted by multi-mammate rats that live in and around houses. This study sees the need to enhance public awareness by producing risk maps of Lassa fever for the study area. In a bid to understand and predict the prevalence of the disease in Akure South Local Government Area. Temporal and spatial analyses of Lassa fever cases were carried out, information about related environmental variables such as temperature, rainfall, vegetation, and elevation were obtained. These data sets from primary and secondary sources were integrated independently as predictor variables for the developed risk model. The accessibility of incidences of Lassa fever to health centres was determined and analysed. The risk map produced indicates that areas about the Ijoka community are at higher risk of being affected by a future Lassa fever outbreak than other areas. The model developed an understanding of the high risk and potential outbreak of Lassa fever to alert the general public of the virus to curb the future outbreak. However, future research can be on the control and prevention of Lassa fever in the study area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Zhihui Zhang ◽  
Yangyi Liu ◽  
Wenwen Zhu ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  
Tian Ma ◽  

The control and prevention of rock burst in a steeply inclined coal seam are essential. In order to figure out the effects of filling and mining sequence on rock burst in the steeply inclined coal seam, B3+6 and B1+2 coal seams in Wudong coal mine are chosen as the research objects, and an in-house experiment system of similarity simulation is established in this study. Combined with numerical simulation, the characteristics of collapse, stress distribution, and displacement variations can be measured, which provide useful information to study the effects of the filling body and mining sequence on rock burst. Experimental results show that the key reason for rock burst in a steeply inclined coal seam is the stress concentration of the rock pillar between B3+6 and B1+2 coal seams instead of the stress-lever-effect of a deeper rock pillar. The filling body can support the middle rock pillar, share the geological structure stress in the horizontal and vertical direction, eliminate the stress concentration zone largely, and prevent the occurrence of rock burst. When multiple working faces are working, the opposite side of the coal seam should be mined first to release the energy in the rock in advance, thus preventing the rock burst effectively. The research results provide fundamental information for better understanding the reason for rock burst and preventing rock burst in the steeply inclined coal seam.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110583
Jason Powell ◽  
Christopher R. Piszczatoski

Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection known as severe respiratory acute syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The purpose of this manuscript is to review information leading to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Data Sources A literature search was conducted of PubMed and (August 2018—October 2021) to identify trials related to the FDA approval of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Study selection and data extraction Trials included are those the FDA deemed significant and accurate enough to be included in the FDA approval process. Information not recognized by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) nor FDA is omitted to not add to further confusion and misinformation. Data synthesis In persons 16 years or older without evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, a total of 77 COVID-19 cases (0.39%) in the vaccine group from 7 days onward after the second dose vs 833 (4.1%) in the placebo group (Vaccine efficacy 91.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.8-93.1). According the CDC definition of severe infection, there were no severe infections in the vaccine group 7 days and onward after the second dose, compared to 31 (0.15%) in the placebo group (Vaccine efficacy 100%; 95% CI: 87.6-100.0). Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: Reduction of infection by SARS-COV-2 is a top priority in protecting the health of all people and the official approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination may improve this goal. Conclusions Data available show a high efficacy rate of preventing SARS -CoV-2 with relatively low rates of ADE after full vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine.

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