Control And Prevention
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-39
Author(s):  
Megan C. Gallagher ◽  
Sarah Haessler ◽  
Elizabeth Pecoy-Whitcomb ◽  
Jonathan Bayuk

Background: After Emergency Use Authorization of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, guidance was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that persons with an immediate allergic reaction to a messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist/immunologist before receipt of the second dose. Methods: In vaccinating health-care personnel, we referred those with significant reactions to allergy/immunology specialists so that they could safely receive the second dose. Results: We found that many reactions after the first dose were nonallergic but could be debilitating and a barrier to the second dose. We created a protocol of premedications to allow health-care personnel to safely receive their second mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose. Conclusion: This protocol is adaptable and can be used in settings where allergy/immunology referral is not immediately available.


2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 01010
Author(s):  
G.R. Bayramgulova ◽  
A.B. Zulkarnaev ◽  
S.M. Muzafarov ◽  
G.A. Yagafarova ◽  
F.G. Aminev

Prospect of timely cleaning of livestock complexes from accumulated manure prevents environmental pollution. For this purpose, the most promising was the “cold” method of dehelminthization of a heap of manure, complete neutralization of chicken manure when heated and dried at temperatures above 100 °C, a “dry” method for neutralizing horse, pig, cow, sheep manure from helminth eggs using the Kranz biothermal method. For dehelminthization of humans and animals, science has recommended, and practice has successfully tested a fairly large, constantly growing and updated range of highly effective anthelmintics, mainly for gastrointestinal and partially for pulmonary helminthiasis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kristin Lunz Trujillo ◽  
David Lazer ◽  
Matthew D Simonson ◽  
Caroline H Pippert ◽  
Roy H. Perlis ◽  
...  

In early November 2021, children ages 5-11 were authorized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to receive the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, making an additional 28 million children eligible for the shot. Given this significant advancement in COVID-19 vaccine availability - particularly in light of recent concerns over the Omicron variant - in this report we examine parent-reported COVID-19 vaccination intentions and uptake for children.Below, we examine reported childhood vaccination rates by childhood age and across different parent demographic subgroups. Additionally, we report parents’ expressed likelihood of vaccinating their children against COVID-19 across five survey waves from February, April, June, September, and November 2021.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 586
Author(s):  
Meiskha Bahar ◽  
Hany Yusmaini ◽  
Erna Harfiani

ABSTRAKCovid-19 merupakan masalah kesehatan global, belum ada obat yang terbukti efektif mengobati penyakit ini. Penularan Covid-19 terutama terjadi antar manusia, semakin dekat dan semakin lama interaksi maka semakin besar pula resiko penularan yang akan terjadi. Meningkatnya angka kejadian Covid-19 pertengahan tahun ini juga disebabkan oleh varian delta yang tingkat penularannya sangat tingggi dibandingkan dengan varian lainnya. Pemerintah Pusat melalui Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia pun telah mengeluarkan Surat Edaran Menteri Kesehatan Repubik Indonesia tentang Protokol Pencegahan Penularan virus Covid-19, yang salah satu caranya dengan menggunakan masker bagi masyarakat jika ingin keluar rumah. Hasil studi Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) menunjukan bahwa menggunakan Dua Lapis Masker efektif menyaring virus Covid-19 sampai dengan 90%. Metode pelaksanaan kegiatan ini adalah melalui pemberian edukasi cara menggunakan masker (double masker) serta pelatihan cara membuat desain infografis mengenai Covid-19 dan penggunaan masker. Kegiatan dilakukan secara daring melalui zoom meeting pada 55 siswa SMA Negeri 1 Tambun Selatan Bekasi. Siswa diberikan pre dan post test pada saat pelaksanaan pelatihan untuk menunjukkan adanya peningkatan pengetahuan setelah pemberian pelatihan. Selain itu juga diadakan perlombaan pembuatan desain infografis yang diikuti oleh beberapa peserta. Dari kegiatan ini diharapkan peserta dapat membantu menyebarkan informasi kepada masyarakat mengenai pentingnya penggunaan masker (double masker) untuk mencegah penularan Covid-19 Kata kunci: covid-19; infografis; masker. ABSTRACTCovid-19 is a global health problem, no drug has been proven effective in treating this disease. Covid-19 transmission mainly occurs between humans, the closer and longer the interaction, the greater the risk of transmission that will occur. The increase in the incidence of Covid-19 in the middle of this year is also caused by delta variants whose transmission rate is very high compared to other variants. The Central Government through the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia has also issued a Circular Letter of the Minister of Health of The Republic of Indonesia on the Protocol to Prevent Transmission of the Covid-19 virus, which is one way to use masks for the community if they want to leave the house. The results of a Study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed that using two layers of masks effectively filtered the Covid-19 virus up to 90%. The method of implementing this activity is through the provision of education on how to use a mask (double mask) and training on how to create infographic designs about Covid-19 and the use of masks. The activity was conducted online through a zoom meeting on 55 students of State High School 1 Tambun Selatan Bekasi. Students are given pre and post-tests at the time of training to show an increase in knowledge after the training. In addition, there was also an infographic design competition that was attended by several participants. From this activity, it is hoped that participants can help spread information to the public about the importance of using masks (double masks) to prevent the transmission of Covid-19. Keywords: covid-19; infographic; mask. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qing Yang ◽  
Li-An Fong ◽  
Wentao Lyu ◽  
Lakshmi T. Sunkara ◽  
Kan Xiao ◽  
...  

Antimicrobial resistance is a major concern to public health demanding effective alternative strategies to disease control and prevention. Modulation of endogenous host defense peptide (HDP) synthesis has emerged as a promising antibiotic alternative approach. This study investigated a potential synergy between sugars and butyrate in inducing HDP gene expression in chickens. Our results revealed that sugars differentially regulated HDP expression in both gene- and sugar-specific manners in chicken HD11 macrophage cells. Among eight mono- and disaccharides tested, all were potent inducers of avian β-defensin 9 (AvBD9) gene (p<0.05), but only galactose, trehalose, and lactose obviously upregulated cathelicidin-B1 (CATHB1) gene expression. The expression of AvBD14 gene, on the other hand, was minimally influenced by sugars. Moreover, all sugars exhibited a strong synergy with butyrate in enhancing AvBD9 expression, while only galactose, trehalose, and lactose were synergistic with butyrate in CATHB1 induction. No synergy in AvBD14 induction was observed between sugars and butyrate. Although lactose augmented the expression of nearly all HDP genes, its synergy with butyrate was only seen with several, but not all, HDP genes. Mucin-2 gene was also synergistically induced by a combination of lactose and butyrate. Furthermore, lactose synergized with butyrate to induce AvBD9 expression in chicken jejunal explants (p<0.05). Mechanistically, hyper-acetylation of histones was observed in response to both butyrate and lactose, relative to individual compounds. Mitogen-activated protein kinase, NF-κB, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways were also found to be involved in butyrate- and lactose-mediated synergy in AvBD9 induction. Collectively, a combination of butyrate and a sugar with both HDP-inducing and barrier protective activities holds the promise to be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for disease control and prevention.


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