International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Medicine
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Published By Zain Publications


Kumrawat Kajal ◽  
Tiwari Archana

Sacubitril/valsartan, traded under the brand name Entresto between others, is a fixed-dose combination medication for use heart failure. Sacubitril is a neprilysin inhibitor (A prodrug) and is used in combination with valsartan to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure. It is anti - hypertensive drug. Valsartan is an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) that may be used to treat a variety of cardiac conditions including hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. Two UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Sacubitril and Valsartan in a tablet dosage form. The first method employed solving of simultaneous equations based on the measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, 226.0 nm and 254.0 nm, 𝜆max for Sacubitril and Valsartan, respectively. The second method was absorbance ratio method, which involves formation of Q-absorbance equation at 240 nm (isoabsorptive point) and also at 254 nm (𝜆max of Valsartan). The methods were found to be linear between the range of 4-12 𝜇g/mL for Sacubitril and 2-10 𝜇g/mL for Valsartan using Methanol as solvent. The mean percentage recovery was found to be 96.68%and 101.89% for the simultaneous equation method and 100.2% and 104.53% for the absorbance ratio method, for sacubitril and valsartan respectively. It could be concluded from the results obtained in the present investigation that the two methods for simultaneous estimation of sacubitril and valsartan in tablet dosage form are simple, rapid, accurate, precise and economical and can be used, successfully, in the quality control of pharmaceutical formulations and other routine laboratory analysis. The reviewed highlights various analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra- performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), UV Spectroscopy, high per-formance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS), RP-HPLC and other chromatographic method used. The combination of these drugs with different method was examine and the commonly use of the drugs in hypertensive.

Michael Olabode Tomori

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic requiring unprecedented measures adopted to control its rapid spread. The knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) of the public play a major role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. In this study, FUTA students’ KAP towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the outbreak was investigated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in FUTA in October 2021 via a self-designed questionnaire comprising 25 questions assessing KAP. Assessments on students’ attitudes and perception towards COVID-19 included questions on confidence and believe in winning the war against COVID-19 such as wearing face masks and use of hands sanitizer. Among the questionnaire completed (n=402), 58.0% were men while 42.0% were female, 17.7% were from school of Agriculture, and 20.1% were in 300 level. The overall adequate knowledge on the existence of the disease was 88.6%. The majority of the respondents displayed good attitude towards the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in FUTA as 79.6% of the students were in agreement with the rules of the Nigeria Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCDC). In addition, the study showed that age factors cannot affect the perception of students to COVID-19 as the P-value (0.733) is greater than 0.05.

C. Pandian ◽  
A.Abdul Hasan Sathali ◽  
G. Abirami ◽  
E. Krithika

Psoriasis is a chronic condition that is caused by the negative signals given by immune system, which leads to hyperproliferation and other inflammatory reactions on the skin. These conditions may adversely affect the quality of the patient’s life leading to psychological stress. Topical delivery of drug is always preferred for Psoriasis because other treatments may lead to systemic intoxication and other adverse reactions. Triamcinolone is a topical corticosteroid belonging to BCS class IV (low solubility and permeability) used to treat Psoriasis. The limitations with transdermal delivery is that only a small amount of the drug can be transferred through the skin tissue due to the barrier effects of the Stratum corneum. Therefore, Novel transdermal delivery system, Cubosomes belonging to Nanostructured lipid carriers were chosen to overcome the issues of solubility and permeability. Twelve formulations were prepared with various ratios of Glyceryl monooleate (2.5 to 5%) & Poloxamer 407 (0.5 to 2%) and the formulations were evaluated for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficacy, drug content and in-vitro release. The best composition of Cubosomes was selected and incorporated into transdermal patch and the formulated patches were evaluated.

Vijendra Pal Singh Rathore ◽  
Komal Tikariya ◽  
Jayanti Mukherjee

The aim of the study is to formulate and evaluate transdermal patches of Thiocholchicoside In the present study, matrix type were prepared by moulding techniques. This mode of drug delivery is more beneficial for chronic disorders such as Rheumatoid arthritis which require long term drug administration to maintain therapeutic drug concentration in plasma. Transport of drugs or compounds via skin is a complex phenomenon, which allows the passage of drugs or compounds into and across the skin. In the present work an attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate the transdermal patches of Thiocholchicoside using various blends of polymer. The polymeric combinations EC/PVP and EC/HPMC used for the formulation of transdermal patches showed good film forming property. The patches formed were thin, flexible, smooth and transparent. The weight variation tests showed less variation in weight and suggesting uniform distribution of drug and polymer over the mercury surface. The thicknesses of the transdermal patches were found to increase on increasing concentration of hydrophilic polymers like PVP and HPMC.All the patches showed good flexibility and folding endurance properties. The result suggests that the formulations with increased hydrophilic polymer concentration showed long folding endurance. The moisture content in the patches was found to be low and formulations with more hydrophilic polymer concentrations showed more percentage moisture content. The in-vitro drug release studies showed that formulations TDP2, TDP3, TDP4, and TDP5 with increased concentration of hydrophilic polymer showed rapid release. The drug content analysis showed minimum variations suggesting uniform distribution of drug.

Silky Agrawal ◽  
Tahir Nizami

A simple, accurate and precise method for the simultaneous determination of azelnidipine and telmisartan in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage has been developed by RPHPLC method. Separation was performed on a Hyperchrom ODS C18 HPLC Column (250*4.6mm) column and Buffer 0.05M Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH₂PO₄) Buffer (pH-4.0): Methanol (60:40) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate 1ml/min and UV detection wavelength 215 nm. The calibration of the method was performed by concentration range of 20-60μg/ml for telmisartan and 40-120 μg/ml for azelndipine. The validation of proposed method was carried out for accuracy, precision, ruggedness, specificity for both alzenidipine and telmisartan the method can be used for routine quality analysis of titled drug in tablet formulation.

R. Senthil Prabhu ◽  
D. Sabitha Ananthi ◽  
S. Rajasoundarya ◽  
R. Janakan ◽  
R. Priyanka

Technologies that could allow literally billions of everyday objects to communicate with each other over the internet have enormous potential to change all our lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a transformative development, these technologies are a way of boosting productivity, keeping us healthier, making transport more efficient, reducing energy needs and making our homes more comfortable. In recent years, Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Nanothings (IoNT) have drawn significant research attention in numerous fields such as Healthcare, Defence, Environmental monitoring, Food and water quality control etc., There are various transformations such as Smart cities, Smart homes, Smart factories, Smart transportation, due to IoT and IoNT. Health care delivery requires the support of new technologies like IoT, IoNT to fight and look against the new pandemic diseases. For the past two years COVID-19 spreaded over worldwide including India, are fighting with pandemic disease and still looking for a practical and cost-effective solution to face the problems arising in several ways. To minimize the person to person, contact and to maintain social distancing various technologies are utilized, among them IoT and IoNT play a major role in healthcare system and allied fields. This review mainly discuss about the IoT, IoNT, its components and various applications in healthcare and allied fields.

R. Vinoth ◽  
V. Manikandan ◽  
C. Tamilselvan ◽  
S. Sivakumar ◽  
N. Jayaram

Coronaviruses can cause a variety of disorders in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Anything from a simple cold to something more serious like the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) or SARS can induce breathing issues (SARS-CoV). The inquiry focused on COVID 19 symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Medication and immunizations were used to treat nCOV. Vaccines are currently being used all around the world to prevent disease. The approved vaccine candidates in India through September 2021 are listed on this work. These data are critical for future COVID 19 treatment reference and will be quite useful.

Michael Olabode Tomori ◽  
Funmilayo Adenike Fadiji

COVID-19 pandemic has required swift revamping of health systems and public health measures at a scale never observed. The pandemic emergence has a direct effect on the health system, negatively affecting its capacity as depletion of resources are now channelled to curb the emergency of the communicable disease, especially among individuals living with HIV disease which drew our attention to how individuals suffering from HIV and people who needed to know their HIV status has not been able to visit the health facilities due to the effect of coronavirus pandemic on the supply of the test kits used in the health facilities. This study evaluated the effect of the coronavirus pandemic on the supply chain of HIV test kits in Ondo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to determine the effect of the coronavirus pandemic on the supply of HIV test kits in Ondo State. The research was a sequential cross-sectional design using a quantitative method of analysis with a total sample size of 100 respondents with all samples drawn from 30 supported health facilities in the state. In addition, literature review was also used to know the effect of the coronavirus on reach of 95% of UNAIDS 2030 target. The study used both descriptive and inferential methods of data analysis where the descriptive statistics comprise of frequency distribution, percentage distribution, weighted mean score, and standard deviation while the inferential method of data analysis used ordinal least square (simple linear regression) to determine the effect of coronavirus pandemic on the supply chain test kits. Findings from the result concluded that pandemic and the methods of supply chain management indicated a significant effect. In addition, from the review the major impacts of COVID-19 were innovation, increased technology, research and development, depletion of supply chain personnel. Therefore, there is a need to develop national guidelines on supply chain strategy for emergencies in Nigeria as well as adhere strictly to some recommendations made in the study.

Ali Sandi Dwi Cahyo ◽  
Sri Oktavia ◽  
Ifora Ifora

Inflammatory diseases have affected a large proportion of the population worldwide, and inflammation is a major risk factor for several dangerous disease pathologies. The increasing incidence and impact of inflammatory diseases have prompted research into pharmacological strategies to deal with them. Chromolaena odorata is traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant, analgesic, and as a wound-healing agent. Therefore, this review aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the anti-inflammatory activity of Chromolaena odorata. This review provides evidence in the literature for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Chromolaena odorata, from 2010 to 2021. Three bibliographic databases were used as primary sources of information (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar). The keywords in this research were "Anti-inflammatory", "Analgesic" and "Chromolaena odorata". A total of 7 studies were included in this review according to the required criteria, 3 of which were in vitro studies and 4 in vivo studies.Pharmacological studies reported that Chromolaena odorata was proven to have anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO, NF-κβ, p38 MAPK, IL-1β, TNF-α, suppressed leukocyte cell migration, reduced of edema and Chromolaena odorata also was shown analgesic activity through significantly reduced stomach writhing and reduction pain sensation in rats. This review explains the potential importance of Chromolaena odorata as a natural anti-inflammatory and analgesic.

Sisi Mustika ◽  
Sri Oktavia ◽  
Ifora Ifora

Inflammation is the initial response to acute and chronic tissue damage, which is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain. Natural products derived from plants have specific pharmacological activity and minimal side effects. Brucea javanica is a plant that has an anti-inflammatory effect, this plant contains alkaloid and flavonoid compounds. Flavonoids have the ability to block cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase while alkaloids as an anti-inflammatory are thought to work by inhibiting prostaglandin H2 PGH2 which is an inflammatory mediator. From the data obtained, there is no complete literature that reviews its use as an anti-inflammatory. The search databases used are as follows: Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar to study the anti-inflammatory activity of Brucea javanica. All recent research articles were published between 2010 to 2021. Based on eligibility, 4 studies were included in this study, consisting of 2 In vivo studies and 2 In vitro and In vivo studies. A series of pharmacological studies have reported that Brucea javanica can block the Nf-kB signaling pathway and decrease the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been reported to be able to inhibit the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-, IL-1β, IL-18IL-23, COX-2, NF-κB, IFN-γ, IL-6, the levels of MPO (Myeloperoxidase), reducing the edema and induce the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β). Brucea javanica also markedly activates Nrf2 expression suppressing the inflammatory response-mediated NLRP3 and NF-κB activation. In addition, the elevated mRNA expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and RAGE was remarkably inhibited by Brucea javanica, while the mRNA expression of PPAR-γ was significantly enhanced. In vitro and in vivo studies strongly indicate that Brucea javanica has the potential as an anti-inflammatory.

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