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Author(s):  
Feray Çağiran Yilmaz ◽  
Murat Açık

Abstract Objectives There is limited evidence about the inflammatory potential of diet and cardiometabolic risk in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Children’s Dietary Inflammatory Index (C-DII) with cardiometabolic risk factors in Turkish adolescents from 10 to 17 years. Methods Participants aged 10–17 years, who completed a 24-h dietary recall, from which C-DII scores were calculated, were include in this cross-sectional study. Lipid profile, glycemic parameters, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), liver enzymes, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and uric acid were analyzed in blood samples. Sociodemographic characteristics and sedentary behavior were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. We compared the distributions of anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure measurement levels associated with cardiometabolic risk factors by the median of C-DII with linear regression. Results The mean sample C-DII was −0.16 ± 2.31 and ranged from −3.22 to +4.09. Higher median C-DII scores, indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet among children, were associated with higher blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). However, the C-DII was modestly directly associated with fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. The area under the receiver operating curve of C-DII in predicting hs-CRP was found to be quite high (0.864, 95% CI: 0.795–0.933). Conclusions Consuming a pro-inflammatory diet in adolescence was associated with alterations in cardiometabolic risk factors, especially with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and BMI.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Leanne Jackson ◽  
Leonardo De Pascalis ◽  
Joanne A. Harrold ◽  
Victoria Fallon ◽  
Sergio A. Silverio

Abstract Background COVID-19 has placed additional stressors on mothers during an already vulnerable lifecourse transition. Initial social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 1; T1) and initial changes to those social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 2; T2) have disrupted postpartum access to practical and emotional support. This qualitative study explores the postpartum psychological experiences of UK women during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated ‘lockdowns’. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women, approximately 30 days after initial social distancing guidelines were imposed in the UK (22 April 2020). A separate 12 women were interviewed approximately 30 days after the initial easing of social distancing restrictions (10 June 2020). Data were transcribed verbatim, uploaded into NVivo for management and analysis, which followed a recurrent cross-sectional approach to thematic analysis. Results Two main themes were identified for T1: ‘Motherhood is Much Like Lockdown’ and ‘A Self-Contained Family Unit’. Each main T1 theme contained two sub-themes. Two main themes were also identified for T2: ‘Incongruously Held Views of COVID-19’ and ‘Mothering Amidst the Pandemic’. Each main T2 theme contained three sub-themes. Comparisons between data gathered at each timepoint identified increased emotional distress over time. Current findings call for the improvement of postpartum care by improving accessibility to social support, and prioritising the re-opening of schools, and face-to-face healthcare appointments and visitation. Conclusion Social distancing restrictions associated with COVID-19 have had a cumulative, negative effect on postpartum mental health. Recommendations such as: Allowing mothers to ‘bubble’ with a primary support provider even at their healthcare appointments; allowing one support partner to attend all necessary healthcare appointments; and providing tailored informational resources, may help to support postpartum emotional wellbeing during this, and similar health crises in the future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (5) ◽  
pp. 102-111
Author(s):  
Eunice O.O. ◽  
Oluebubechukwu A.U. ◽  
Idang N.O. ◽  
Elizabeth N.O.

Background: Significant empirical surveys have been made to investigate sociodemographic factors contributing to Risky Sexual Behaviours among young people. However, there are concerns regarding what influences Risky Sexual Behaviours. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the sociodemographic variables and Risky Sexual Behaviours among undergraduate students in tertiary institutions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students at two tertiary institutions in Rivers State, Nigeria to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic variables and Risky Sexual Behaviours. Undergraduate students in years one and two from departments of Nursing Science and Medicine and Surgery in PAMO University of Medical Sciences and University of Port Harcourt, College of Medicine were recruited for the study. Two hundred and eighty (280) undergraduate students were randomly selected from a total of 491 as participants in the study. Descriptive and inferential analysis of data using SPSS version 20 was done. Results: Data showed that 60% of the respondents were from the University of Port Harcourt, while 40% were from PAMO University of Medical Sciences. The majority of the students (78.9%) were between 16 -20years, while only 0.7% of the students were ≥31years. Findings revealed that there is no significant relationship between respondents’ sociodemographic variables and awareness of, attitude to risky sexual behaviour. It was found that only gender and age significantly influence practices with an R2 of 0.22. Conclusion: Risky sexual behaviour among young people is significantly associated with age and gender.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Wedisha Imal Gankanda ◽  
Ileperuma Arachchige Gayani Malsha Gunathilake ◽  
Nalaka Lasantha Kahawala ◽  
Augustus Keshala Probhodana Ranaweera

Abstract Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) usually follows a catastrophic event. However, the experience of child birth can be severe enough to cause PTSD in some women. The aim of this study is to highlight the prevalence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among a cohort of postpartum mothers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in field clinics of a semi-urban area in Sri Lanka. A pre-tested interviewer administered checklist was used to collect socio-demographic and pregnancy related data. Pre-existing self-administered, validated Sinhalese versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and PTSD Symptom Scale-Self Report (PSS-SR) were used to assess the presence of Post-Partum Depression (PPD) and PTSD, respectively. Each participant was assessed for PTSD and PPD after one, two and six months following delivery. Scores of PPD > 9 and PSS-SR > 13 were taken as screening positive for the two conditions, respectively. Results Two hundred and twenty-five mothers at the end of postpartum one month were recruited for the study. The response rate at their follow-up visits at the second and sixth months were 95 % (n = 214) and 93 % (n = 211). The prevalence of postpartum PTSD was 2.7 % (n = 6), 0.9 % (n = 2) and 0.5 % (n = 1) after one, two and sixth months respectively. Prevalence of postpartum PTSD was 3.6 % over 6 months. Verbal abuse during labour (p = 0.04) and the presence of postpartum depression (P ≤ 0.001) were significantly associated with postpartum PTSD. There were no significant associations between PTSD and gestational age at delivery, index pregnancy being a planned pregnancy, a history of subfertility, family history of psychiatric disorders, intimate partner violence, receiving antenatal counseling, type and mode of delivery, duration of labour, presence of a labour companion, post-partum hemorrhage, manual removal of placenta, negative birth experience, low APGAR score of the baby at delivery, receiving neonatal and maternal intensive care, birth defects, problems with breast feeding or opportunity to discuss with a health care worker. Conclusions Prevalence of postpartum PTSD in this community-based study is 3.6 %; which is comparable with the overall global prevalence. PTSD was significantly associated with verbal abuse during labour and postpartum depression.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah C. Griffin ◽  
Aimee L. Alphonso ◽  
Monica Tung ◽  
Sacha Finn ◽  
Briana N. Perry ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives The population of Americans with limb loss is on the rise, with a different profile than in previous generations (e.g., greater incidence of amputation due to diabetes). This study aimed to identify the key characteristics of phantom limb sensation (PLS) and pain (PLP) in a current sample of Americans with limb loss. Methods This cross-sectional study is the first large-scale (n=649) study on PLP in the current population of Americans with limb loss. A convenience sample of military and civilian persons missing one or more major limbs was surveyed regarding their health history and experience with phantom limb phenomena. Results Of the participants surveyed, 87% experienced PLS and 82% experienced PLP. PLS and PLP typically first occurred immediately after amputation (47% of cases), but for a small percentage (3–4%) onset did not occur until over a year after amputation. Recent PLP severity decreased over time (β=0.028, 95% CI: −0.05–0.11), but most participants reported PLP even 10 years after amputation. Higher levels of recent PLP were associated with telescoping (β=0.123, 95% CI: 0.04–0.21) and higher levels of pre-amputation pain (β=0.104, 95% CI: 0.03–0.18). Those with congenitally missing limbs experienced lower levels of recent PLP (t (37.93)=3.93, p<0.01) but there were no consistent differences in PLP between other amputation etiologies. Conclusions Phantom limb phenomena are common and enduring. Telescoping and pre-amputation pain are associated with higher PLP. Persons with congenitally missing limbs experience lower levels of PLP than those with amputation(s), yet PLP is common even in this subpopulation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 552-559
Author(s):  
Kartikasari Masting ◽  
Muhammad Syafar ◽  
Andi Yusuf

TB paru merupakan penyakit menular yang disebabkan Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Penularan terjadi ketika penderita TB paru BTA positif batuk atau bersn dan tanpa disengaja penderita menyebarkan kuman ke udara dalam bentuk percikan dahak.Seorang penderita TB paru BTA Positif dapat mengifeksi 10-15 orang disekitarnya.Ketidakpatuhan penderita untuk berobat ini dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor. Beberapa faktor diantaranya yaitu faktor tingkat pengetahuan,dukungan keluarga,dan pengawas menelan obat (PMO).Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya determinan social kesehatan terhadap kepatuhan pengobatan dots penderita Tb paru diwilayah kerja  puskesmas manuju kabupaten Gowa. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriftive analitik dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan studi “Cross Sectional”dengan mengambil sampel dari suatu populasi dan menggunakan kuesioner sebagai alat pengumpul data. Populasi dalam Penelitian ini adalah jumlah sampel 33 orang. Data yang diperoleh diolah dala bentuk analisis univariat bivariate dan multivariate dengan α=0,05 dengan menggunakan SPSS.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa hubungan pengetahuan p=0,02 lebih kecil dari α=0,05 artinya ada hubungan antara tingkat pengetahuan dengan ketidakpatuhan pengobatan, dukungan keluarga (p=0,01) lebih kecil dari α=0,05 artinya ada hubungan antara dukungan keluarga dengan ketidakpatuhan pengobatan, dan pengawasan menelan obat (p=0,00) lebih kecil dari α=0,05 artinya ada hubungan antara pengawas menelan obat dengan ketidakpatuhan berobat. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah Ada Hubungan Pengetahuan, dukungan keluarga dan pengawasan menelan obat Terhadap kepatuhan pengobatan DOTs penderita TB paru di wilayah kerja puskesmas manuju kabupaten Gowa


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mahla Salajegheh ◽  
Somayeh Noori Hekmat ◽  
Reza Malekpour-afshar

Abstract Background: Nowadays, the correspondence of medical, dentistry, and pharmacy student's thesis with health issues and challenges of the society is a crucial concern of universities of medical sciences. Because the product-oriented thesis can significantly affect students' scientific and practical abilities and lead to the provision of more efficient services to society. The present study aimed to extract alternative activities to diversify medical, dentistry, and pharmacy student's thesis in Kerman University of medical Sciences.Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study using the sequential exploratory design and conducted in the Education Development Center of Kerman University of Medical Sciences between February and June 2021. The qualitative phase aimed to extract alternative activities to diversify medical, dentistry, and pharmacy student's thesis in three steps (literature review, scoring the extracted alternative activities, and implementing expert panel). The quantitative phase aimed to assess the extracted alternative activities to diversify medical, dentistry, and pharmacy student's thesis.Results: According to the results of the two phases, 18 alternative activities were identified and categorized into five domains of individual development, research, education, healthcare, and social services.Conclusions: The gap between what we know and what is seen in practice in medical, dentistry, and pharmacy student's thesis is quite apparent. According to research, it is always recommended that knowledge manifest itself in the society; however, the present study aimed to extract activities to replace student's dissertations so that they may turn into practice and contribute to social services.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Ashraful Islam ◽  
Mahfuzur Rahman ◽  
Md. Fakhar Uddin ◽  
Md. Tariqujjaman ◽  
Gobinda Karmakar ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundDespite recent progress in rural economic development and food production, the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) and use of unimproved toilet facilities are widespread in Bangladesh. Limited studies have sought to understand the relationship of household FI and sanitation, separately and in combination, with child morbidity. This paper aimed to assess the effect of FI and unimproved toilet facility of households on adverse health outcomes of children less than five years of age in Bangladesh.MethodsWe used data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted as part of an evaluation of the Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) Program in Bangladesh. The study population included children aged 6-59 months and their caregivers, identified using a two-stage cluster-sampling procedure. Child morbidity status was the outcome variable, and household FI status and type of toilet used were considered the main exposure variables in this study. We performed logistic regression, calculated adjusted odds ratios (AOR) to assess the association of child morbidity with household FI and unimproved toilet facility after adjusting for potential confounders. ResultsA total of 1,728 households were eligible for this analysis. About 23% of the households were food-insecure, and a large number of households had improved toilet facilities (93.4%). In the multivariable logistic regression model, we found that children in food-insecure households with unimproved toilet facility had 5.88 (AOR: 5.88; 95% CI 2.52, 13.70) times more chance, of being morbid compared to the children of food-secure households with improved toilet facility. A similar association of FI and toilet facilities with each of the morbidity components was observed, including diarrhea (AOR:3.6; 95% CI 1.79, 7.89), fever (AOR:3.47; 95% CI 1.72, 6.99), difficult or fast breathing with cough (AOR:3.88; 95% CI 1.99, 7.59), and difficult or fast breathing with blocked or running nose (AOR:1.29; 95% CI 0.56, 2.95).ConclusionsOur study shows that household FI and unimproved toilet facility jointly have more deteriorative effects on child morbidity than either of these conditions alone. Therefore, it is important to consider these two critical factors while designing a public health intervention for reducing morbidity among under-five children.


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