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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Shanquan Chen ◽  
Pan Zhang ◽  
Yun Zhang ◽  
Hong Fung ◽  
Yong Han ◽  

Background: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been challenging globally following the scarcity of medical resources after a surge in demand. As the pandemic continues, the question remains on how to accomplish more with the existing resources and improve the efficiency of existing health care delivery systems worldwide. In this study, we reviewed the experience from Wuhan - the first city to experience a COVID-19 outbreak – that has presently shown evidence for efficient and effective local control of the epidemic.Material and Methods: We performed a retrospective qualitative study based on the document analysis of COVID-19-related materials and interviews with first-line people in Wuhan.Results: We extracted two themes (the evolution of Wuhan's prevention and control strategies on COVID-19 and corresponding effectiveness) and four sub-themes (routine prevention and control period, exploration period of targeted prevention and control strategies, mature period of prevention and control strategies, and recovery period). How Wuhan combatted COVID-19 through multi-tiered and multi-sectoral collaboration, overcoming its fragmented, hospital-centered, and treatment-dominated healthcare system, was illustrated and summarized.Conclusion: Four lessons for COVID-19 prevention and control were summarized: (a) Engage the communities and primary care not only in supporting but also in screening and controlling, and retain community and primary care as among the first line of COVID-19 defense; (b) Extend and stratify the existing health care delivery system; (c) Integrate person-centered integrated care into the whole coordination; and (d) Delink the revenue relationship between doctors and patients and safeguard the free-will of physicians when treating patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Brock T. Burgess ◽  
Robyn L. Irvine ◽  
Gregg R. Howald ◽  
Michael A. Russello

Invasive species are major contributors to global biodiversity decline. Invasive mammalian species (IMS), in particular, have profound negative effects in island systems that contain disproportionally high levels of species richness and endemism. The eradication and control of IMS have become important conservation tools for managing species invasions on islands, yet these management operations are often subject to failure due to knowledge gaps surrounding species- and system-specific characteristics, including invasion pathways and contemporary migration patterns. Here, we synthesize the literature on ways in which genetic and genomic tools have effectively informed IMS management on islands, specifically associated with the development and modification of biosecurity protocols, and the design and implementation of eradication and control programs. In spite of their demonstrated utility, we then explore the challenges that are preventing genetics and genomics from being implemented more frequently in IMS management operations from both academic and non-academic perspectives, and suggest possible solutions for breaking down these barriers. Finally, we discuss the potential application of genome editing to the future management of invasive species on islands, including the current state of the field and why islands may be effective targets for this emerging technology.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Joseph Hughes ◽  
Ryan Blay ◽  
Jack Ziegler ◽  
Phillip Anderson ◽  
Will Armijo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Celestine Udie ◽  
Fina Faithpraise ◽  
Agnes Anuka

Abstract The objective is to design a control agent that will induce fluids flow orientation in a reservoir. The specific objectives are to delineate the minimum volumetric rate of the injecting fluid that will orient and control reservoir fluids flow rate and the recovery efficiency. Next estimate the maximum flooding injection rate for high oil recovery and finally predict reservoir fluids recovery efficiency. This work estimates the minimum volumetric rate of the injecting displacing fluid that will displace and control reservoir fluids flow rate and efficiency using mobility ratio. Next it estimates the maximum injection rate of the displacing agent that will recover high oil using summation of the reservoir thickness. Finally, it predicts reservoir fluids flow rates and cumulative oil recovery using unit floodable pore volume and the daily or yearly floodable volume. A cash flow model is used here to describe and compare the revenue (Recovery bill) and the costs (Capex and Opex). The result shows that it is possible to attain a floodable volumetric sweep efficiency of 70% with a corresponding recovery factor of 66% and a floodable volumetric sweep efficiency of 80 with a corresponding recovery factor of 72%, compared to scenario - C(Oil reservoir producing under water-drive and gas injection) where recovery factor is possibly 25 to 40%. Both recovery efficiency/factor depend on the summation of the volumetric floodable ratio. The novelty in this work is the development of a control agent which can increase recovery factor from 40% to 66% or 72%

2021 ◽  
Nicholas Smith ◽  
Brenden A. Magill ◽  
Rathsara R. H. H. Mudiyanselage ◽  
Hiro Munekata ◽  
Giti A. Khodaparast

N. Tack ◽  
G.W.W. Wamelink ◽  
A.G. Denkova ◽  
M. Schouwenburg ◽  
H. Hilhorst ◽  

The Martian surface is constantly exposed to a high dose of cosmic radiation consisting of highly energetic particles and multiple types of ionizing radiation. The dose can increase temporarily by a factor of 50 through the occurrence of highly energetic solar flares. This may affect crop growth in greenhouses on the Martian surface possibly making settlement of humans more complicated. Shielding crops from radiation might be done at the expense of lighting efficiency. However, the most energy-efficient cultivation may be achieved through the use of natural daylight with the addition of LED lights. The goal of our research was to investigate whether Martian radiation, both the constant and the solar flares events, affects plant growth of two crop species, rye and garden cress. The levels of radiation received on the surface of Mars, simulated with an equivalent dose of 60Co γ-photons, had a significant negative effect on the growth of the two crop species. Although germination percentages were not affected by radiation, biomass growth was significantly decreased by 32% for cress and 48% for rye during the first 4 weeks after germination. Part of the biomass differences may be due to differences in temperature between radiation and control treatment, however it cannot explain the whole difference between the treatment and control. Coloring of leaves, necrosis and brown parts, was observed as well. Temporary increases in ionizing radiation dose at different development stages of the plants did not significantly influence the final dry weight of the crops.

2021 ◽  
Sepideh Moharami ◽  
Alireza Nourazarian ◽  
Masoud Nikanfar ◽  
Delara Laghousi ◽  
behrouz shademan ◽  

Abstract Backgrounds: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease linked to several inflammatory and dietary parameters. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between serum leptin, orexin-A, and TGF-β levels with BMI in MS patients.Methods and results: In this cross-sectional study, 25 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. The serum level of Leptin, Orexin-A, and TGF- were measured by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square test, and Linear regression test. A total of 65 volunteers, including 25 MS patients and 40 healthy, were enrolled in the study. The mean age of individuals in the case and control groups was 38.04 ± 7.53 and 40.23 ± 5.88. There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups regarding gender, age, alcohol, and cigarette use (P>0.05). The mean serum levels of Orexin-A and TGF-ß were lower among multiple sclerosis patients than in healthy controls, but leptin was higher (42.8 vs. 18.9 ng/ml, P<0.001). The relationship between BMI and serum levels of Orexin-A, TGF-ß, and Leptin among Multiple Sclerosis patients was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).Conclusion: Our results showed that the serum levels of Orexin-A and TGF-β were significantly lower. The serum level of leptin was higher among multiple sclerosis patients than among healthy controls. Also, there was no statistically significant relationship between BMI and serum levels of Orexin-A, TGF-ß, and Leptin among multiple sclerosis patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Matthias van Rossum ◽  
Merve Tosun

Abstract This article revisits our understanding of corvée labor regimes and their role and impact in the early expansion of colonialism and capitalism. Rather than remnants of feudal pasts, or in-kind taxation or revenue instruments of weak colonial powers, corvée regimes should be viewed as refined methods of colonial exploitation that provided colonial actors with more direct access to and control over the production of commercially interesting global commodities. This article explores and compares the corvée labor regimes employed and shaped by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the Moluccas, Sri Lanka, and Java. The article first addresses how to understand corvée and tributary relations as labor, production, and (political-)social regimes. Second, it explores and compares the organization and development of corvée labor relations in the context of the VOC in South and Southeast Asia. These corvée labor regimes reappear as crucial instruments in the expansion of (early) modern colonialism and capitalism, which could explain their widespread recurrence across the globe in the last few centuries.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tarek Salama ◽  
Ahmad Salah ◽  
Osama Moselhi

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for project tracking and control of integrated offsite and onsite activities in modular construction considering practical characteristics associated with this type of construction. Design/methodology/approach The design embraces building information modelling and integrates last planner system (LPS), linear scheduling method (LSM) and critical chain project management (CCPM) to develop tracking and control procedures for modular construction projects. The developed method accounts for constraints of resources continuity and uncertainties associated with activity duration. Features of proposed method are illustrated in a case example for tracking and control of modular projects. Findings Comparison between developed schedule and Monte Carlo simulation showed that baseline duration generated from simulation exceeds that produced by developed method by 12% and 10% for schedules with 50% and 90% confidence level, respectively. These percentages decrease based on interventions of members of project team in the LPS sessions. The case example results indicate that project is delayed 5% and experienced cost overrun of 2.5%. Originality/value Developed method integrated LPS, LSM and CCPM while using metrics for reliability assessment of linear schedules, namely, critical percent plan complete (PPCcr) and buffer index (BI). PPCcr and BI measure percentage of plan completion for critical activities and buffer consumption, respectively. The developed method provides a systematic procedure for forecasting look-ahead schedules using forecasting correction factor Δt and a newly developed tracking and control procedure that uses PPCcr and BI. Quantitative cost analysis is also provided to forecast and monitor project costs to prove the robustness of proposed framework.

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