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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
Xing Zhang ◽  
Chaoyue Zhao ◽  
Chaoyuan Cheng ◽  
Guogang Zhang ◽  
Tao Yu ◽  

Michael Olabode Tomori

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic requiring unprecedented measures adopted to control its rapid spread. The knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) of the public play a major role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. In this study, FUTA students’ KAP towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the outbreak was investigated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in FUTA in October 2021 via a self-designed questionnaire comprising 25 questions assessing KAP. Assessments on students’ attitudes and perception towards COVID-19 included questions on confidence and believe in winning the war against COVID-19 such as wearing face masks and use of hands sanitizer. Among the questionnaire completed (n=402), 58.0% were men while 42.0% were female, 17.7% were from school of Agriculture, and 20.1% were in 300 level. The overall adequate knowledge on the existence of the disease was 88.6%. The majority of the respondents displayed good attitude towards the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in FUTA as 79.6% of the students were in agreement with the rules of the Nigeria Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCDC). In addition, the study showed that age factors cannot affect the perception of students to COVID-19 as the P-value (0.733) is greater than 0.05.

2022 ◽  
Harutaka Takahashi ◽  
Takayoshi Kitaoka

With the rapid spread of COVID-19, there is an urgent need for a framework to accurately predict COVID-19 transmission. Recent epidemiological studies have found that a prominent feature of COVID-19 is its ability to be transmitted before symptoms occur, which is generally not the case for seasonal influenza and SARS. Several COVID-19 predictive epidemiological models have been proposed; however, they share a common drawback-they are unable to capture the unique asymptomatic nature of COVID-19 transmission. Here, we propose vector autoregression (VAR) as an epidemiological county-level prediction model that captures this unique aspect of COVID-19 transmission by introducing newly infected cases in other counties as lagged explanatory variables. Using the number of new COVID-19 cases in seven New York State counties, we predicted new COVID-19 cases in the counties over the next 4 weeks. We then compared our prediction results with those of 11 other state-of-the-art prediction models proposed by leading research institutes and academic groups. The results showed that VAR prediction is superior to other epidemiological prediction models in terms of the root mean square error of prediction. Thus, we strongly recommend the simple VAR model as a framework to accurately predict COVID-19 transmission.

2022 ◽  
Dayane A. Padilha ◽  
Vilmar Benetti-Filho ◽  
Renato Simoes Moreira ◽  
Tatiany Soratto Teixeira Soratto ◽  
Guilherme Augusto Maia ◽  

COVID-19 has assumed significant and lasting proportions worldwide. Following initial cases in the Western mesoregion, the State of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil, was heavily affected as a whole by the pandemic in early 2021. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading patterns in the SC state through March 2020 to April 2021 using genomic surveillance. During this period, 23 distinct variants, including two VOCs (Beta and Gamma) were identified, among which, the Gamma and related lineages were predominant in the second pandemic wave within SC. However, a regionalization of P.1-like-II in the Western region was observed, concomitant to the increase in cases, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR) index. This is the first evidence of the regionalization of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the and highlight the importance of tracking variants, dispersion and their impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the public health system in Brazilian states.

Наталья Борисовна Акоева ◽  
Лилун Чэнь

«Мировая церемония предков хакка» - одна из самых влиятельных церемоний поклонения предкам в Китае. В 2011 году это мероприятие было включено в Национальный список нематериального культурного наследия. Благодаря слиянию и сосуществованию нескольких моделей взаимодействия в «церемонии поклонения предкам» и точному пониманию намерений мультимодального взаимодействия синхронизировано представление многоканального восприятия (визуального, звукового и сенсорного). На основе Node.js и Three.js технологий авторами была реализована цифровая система для «церемонии поклонения предкам». Цифровая модель представляет действия в двух залах: Хуайцзу, где можно выразить свои чувства памяти и помолиться за свои семьи, и Юйпин, где можно произвести интерактивные операции, такие как подношение свечей, подношение благовоний и т.п. Тесты показывают, что в системе достигается баланс между производительностью и удобством для пользователя, что дает реальное решение для оцифровки нематериального культурного наследия ритуального типа. Цифровой контент церемонии не ограничен во времени и пространстве, не требует использования сторонних плагинов и имеет быструю доступность, что может способствовать быстрому распространению и развитию «Церемонии предков мира хакка». The Hakka World Ancestor Ceremony is one of the most influential ancestor worship ceremonies in China. In 2011, this event was included in the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Due to the fusion and coexistence of several interaction models in the "ancestor worship ceremony" and an accurate understanding of the intentions of multimodal interaction, the representation of multi-channel perception (visual, sound and sensory) is synchronized. Based on Node.js and Three.js technologies, the authors implemented a digital system for the "ancestor worship ceremony". The digital model represents actions in two halls: Huaizu, where you can express your feelings of memory and pray for your families, and Yuping, where you can perform interactive operations, such as offering candles, offering incense, etc. Tests show that the system achieves a balance between performance and user-friendliness, which provides a real solution for digitizing intangible cultural heritage of the "ritual" type. The digital content of the ceremony is not limited in time and space, does not require the use of third-party plug-ins and has rapid availability, which can contribute to the rapid spread and development of the "Ceremony of the Ancestors of the Hakka World".

2022 ◽  

The onset of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 confronted health and also social services globally with unprecedented challenges. These amounted to a combination of increased demands for support to individuals and families whose physical and mental health and economic security were threatened by the rapid spread of the virus and the imposed limitations to direct contacts with service users. This constituted a situation for which there was no immediate historical parallel but from which important lessons for better preparedness for future global disasters and pandemics can be drawn. There existed no specific introductions to or textbooks on social work responses to pandemics and the nearest usable references concerned social work involvement in the HIV/AIDS epidemic and in the aftermath of natural disasters. Frontline social workers were at first forced to improvise ways of establishing and maintaining contacts with service users partly through electronic means and partly by taking personal risks. This is reflected in an initial delay in the production of comprehensive theoretical reflections on the practice implications of the new situation. Practitioners resorted to pragmatism, which became manifest in numerous episodic practice accounts and brief statements in social work journals which nevertheless contain important messages for new practice developments. Notably, the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) opened an online exchange and advice platform for social workers globally and also hosted a series of webinars. Nevertheless, books with collections of contributions from various practice fields and geographical areas soon began to appear. In view of the interdisciplinary nature of social work responses required in the pandemic the use of publications from a wider range of academic disciplines and related professions was indicated for this review.

2022 ◽  
Georgii A. Bazykin ◽  
Daria M. Danilenko ◽  
Andrey B. Komissarov ◽  
Nikita Yolshin ◽  
Olga V. Shneider ◽  

Abstract The B.1.1.529 Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading, displacing the globally prevalent Delta variant. Before December 16, 2021, community transmission had already been observed in tens of countries globally. However, in Russia, all reported cases had been sporadic and associated with travel. Here, we report an Omicron outbreak at a students’ dormitory in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Out of the 462 sampled residents of the dormitory, 206 (44.6%) tested PCR positive, and 159 (77.1%) of these infections carried the S:ins214EPE insertion, indicating that they were of the Omicron strain. 104 (65%) of Omicron-positive patients have been vaccinated and/or reported previous covid-19. Whole genome sequencing confirmed that the outbreak is caused by the Omicron variant. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the outbreak has a single origin, and belongs to the S:346K sublineage of Omicron which may be characterized by an increased rate of spread, compared to other Omicron sublineages. The rapid spread of Omicron in a population with preexisting immunity to previous variants underlines its propensity for immune evasion.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Nicolò Musso ◽  
Paolo Giuseppe Bonacci ◽  
Dafne Bongiorno ◽  
Stefano Stracquadanio ◽  
Dalida Angela Bivona ◽  

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has assumed considerable importance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its mutation rate is high, involving the spike (S) gene and thus there has been a rapid spread of new variants. Herein, we describe a rapid, easy, adaptable, and affordable workflow to uniquely identify all currently known variants through as few analyses. Our method only requires two conventional PCRs of the S gene and two Sanger sequencing reactions, and possibly another PCR/sequencing assay on a N gene portion to identify the B.1.160 lineage. Methods: We selected an S gene 1312 bp portion containing a set of SNPs useful for discriminating all variants. Mathematical, statistical, and bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that our choice allowed us to identify all variants even without looking for all related mutations, as some of them are shared by different variants (e.g., N501Y is found in the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants) whereas others, that are more informative, are unique (e.g., A57 distinctive to the Alpha variant). Results: A “weight” could be assigned to each mutation that may be present in the selected portion of the S gene. The method’s robustness was confirmed by analyzing 80 SARS-CoV-2-positive samples. Conclusions: Our workflow identified the variants without the need for whole-genome sequencing and with greater reliability than with commercial kits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Behrouz Shademan ◽  
Alireza Nourazarian ◽  
Saba Hajazimian ◽  
Alireza Isazadeh ◽  
Cigir Biray Avci ◽  

Outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by coronavirus acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) that started in Wuhan, and has become a global problem because of the high rate of human-to-human transmission and severe respiratory infections. Because of high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2, which threatens many people worldwide, rapid diagnosis and simple treatment are needed. Genome editing is a nucleic acid-based approach to altering the genome by artificially changes in genetic information and induce irreversible changes in the function of target gene. Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas) could be a practical and straightforward approach to this disease. CRISPR/Cas system contains Cas protein, which is controlled by a small RNA molecule to create a double-stranded DNA gap. Evidence suggested that CRISPR/Cas was also usable for diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review study, we discoursed on application of CRISPR technology in detection and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another aspect of this study was to introduce potential future problems in use of CRISPR/Cas technology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Jyoti U. Devkota

COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened the public healthcare system around the world. Further, lockdown imposed to curb the spread of pandemic has shown to have an adverse effect on economic and health status of an individual. It has also compelled us to switch from the physical world to virtual world, thus depriving us of benefits of person-to-person direct contact. People from developing countries are specially affected. An average person here lacks basic skills needed to survive in the digital world. Due to limited COVID-19 testing capacities in such countries, there is also less testing. Less testing means less contact tracing, underreported cases, and rapid spread of disease. In this paper, the underreported cases of daily infections and daily deaths are predicted using mathematical models. This is based on daily data published by the Government of Nepal. Here, Kathmandu valley is taken as a model area for estimation of underreporting. The behavior of probability of infection, probability of recovery, and probability of deaths is also mathematically analyzed. A time-dependent susceptible infected and recovered model is also proposed. Here, the second wave of COVID-19 is analyzed in detail from 1 Feb 2021 to 1 June 2021. The effect of lockdown on the psychology of people is also modeled with principal components analysis. The inherent and latent factors affecting the people in lockdown are identified. This is based on detailed primary data collected from a survey of 277 households.

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