Releasing Hormone
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Sara Liest ◽  
Iben Riishede Christiansen ◽  
Lisbeth Prætorius ◽  
Jeanette Bogstad ◽  
Nina la Cour Freiesleben ◽  

Background: Failed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist trigger with no oocyte retrieved during aspiration of several follicles is a rare but recurrent situation that can be rescued by the termination of the aspiration procedure, retriggering by human chorion gonadotropin (hCG), and repeated oocyte pickup 36 h later. Failed GnRH agonist trigger is frustrating and unsatisfactory, and fertility doctors must be aware of possible hCG retriggering and retained opportunity for successful cycle outcome.Objective: In this case report, we present a woman who experienced failed GnRH agonist trigger and rescue hCG retrigger followed by two consecutive live births after frozen-thawed single blastocyst transfers.Methods: A case report.Results: Two healthy children were born in 2018 and 2020, respectively as a result of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF, failed GnRH agonist trigger followed by hCG re-trigger, and successful retrieval of 25 oocytes.Conclusion: Retriggering with hCG after failed GnRH agonist trigger can result in consecutive live births, and such knowledge can prevent cycle cancellation and patient discouragement. Knowledge on retriggering with hCG and consecutive live births after failed GnRH agonist trigger can prevent cycle cancellation and patient discouragement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Xiaorui Yin ◽  
Tingting Di ◽  
Xinyuan Cao ◽  
Zhengnan Liu ◽  
Jingyan Xie ◽  

Abstract Background Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is a six-carbon perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid found as an environmental contaminant. This study aims to investigate the effects of PFHxS exposure on female reproduction and the underlying mechanism in mice. Methods Eight-week-old ICR mice were divided randomly into four groups administered corn oil (vehicle) and PFHxS at doses of 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg/day for 42 days by intragastric administration. Body weight, ovarian weight, estrous cycle, follicle counts, and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated. The expression of kisspeptin and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus was also detected. Results Compared to vehicle exposure, 5 mg/kg/day PFHxS treatment prolonged the estrous cycle, especially the duration of diestrus, after 42 days of treatment. The numbers of secondary follicles, antral follicles and corpus lutea were significantly reduced in the PFHxS-treated mice. Moreover, compared with the control mice, the PFHxS-treated mice showed decreases in the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estrogen (E2), and reduced GnRH mRNA levels, along with the lack of an LH surge. Furthermore, the PFHxS-treated mice had lower levels of kisspeptin immunoreactivity and kiss-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) than the control mice. After intraventricular administration of kisspeptin-10, the numbers of secondary follicles, antral follicles and corpus lutea recovered, along with the levels of GnRH mRNA, FSH, and LH in the mice treated with 5 mg/kg/day PFHxS. Conclusion These results indicate that chronic exposure of mice to 5 mg/kg/day PFHxS affects reproductive functions by inhibiting kisspeptin expression in the ARC and AVPV regions, leading to deficits in follicular development and ovulation.

Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Arno Téblick ◽  
Lauren De Bruyn ◽  
Tim Van Oudenhove ◽  
Sarah Vander Perre ◽  
Lies Pauwels ◽  

Abstract Purpose Sepsis is hallmarked by high plasma cortisol/corticosterone (CORT), low adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and high pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). While corticotropin-releasing hormone-(CRH) and arginine-vasopressin-(AVP) driven pituitary POMC expression remains active, POMC processing into ACTH becomes impaired. Low ACTH is accompanied by loss of adrenocortical structure, although steroidogenic enzymes remain expressed. We hypothesized that treatment of sepsis with hydrocortisone (HC) aggravates this phenotype whereas CRH infusion safeguards ACTH-driven adrenocortical structure. Methods In a fluid-resuscitated, antibiotics-treated mouse model of prolonged sepsis, we compared the effects of HC and CRH infusion with placebo, on plasma ACTH, POMC and CORT and on markers of hypothalamic CRH and AVP signaling and pituitary POMC processing, and on the adrenocortical structure and markers of steroidogenesis. In adrenal explants, we studied the steroidogenic capacity of POMC. Results During sepsis, HC further suppressed plasma ACTH, but not POMC, predominantly by suppressing sepsis-activated CRH/AVP-signaling pathways. In contrast, in CRH-treated sepsis, plasma ACTH was normalized following restoration of pituitary POMC processing. The sepsis-induced rise in markers of adrenocortical steroidogenesis was unaltered by CRH and suppressed partially by HC which also increased adrenal markers of inflammation. Ex vivo stimulation of adrenal explants with POMC increased CORT as effectively as an equimolar dose of ACTH. Conclusions Treatment of sepsis with HC impaired integrity and function of the HPA axis at the level of the pituitary and the adrenal cortex while CRH restored pituitary POMC processing without affecting the adrenal cortex. Sepsis-induced high circulating POMC may be responsible for ongoing adrenocortical steroidogenesis despite low ACTH.

2021 ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Dongmei Huang ◽  
Wang Zhi ◽  
Dong Haoxu ◽  
Wang Qing ◽  

: Polycystic ovary syndrome often starts in puberty, and its pathogenesis is not clear. This study aimed to explore the pathogenesis of pubertal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and assess the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture on pubertal PCOS. Methods: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was used to induce rat models of pubertal PCOS. pubertal rats with PCOS were randomly divided into a model group (M), an electroacupuncture group (EA), and a sham acupuncture group (SA). Age-matched normal rats were regarded as normal controls (N). Rats were treated with EA or SA five times a week for 25 minutes during their 6 th –7 th week. At the end of the experiment, we observed any changes in ovarian morphology; detected levels of metabolic indices in serum, the hypothalamus and pancreas. Results: EA significantly improved estrous cycle disorders and the ovarian polycystic morphology in pubertal rats with PCOS, but SA only improved disorders of the estrous cycle. The serum levels of insulin, neuropeptide Y(NPY) and fasting blood glucose(FBG) increased significantly, while the serum levels of ghrelin(GHRL) decreased in the model group. After treatment with EA, the levels of NPY and FBG went into decrease, whereas the levels of GHRL and insulin increased. There was few differences in the hypothalamic expression of galanin (GAL), galanin-like peptide (GALP) and ghrelin receptor(GHSR) between the four groups. The upregulation of NPY mRNA and neuropeptide Y2 receptor(NPY2R) mRNA and the downregulation of GHRL protein and mRNA in the hypothalamus, and the increased expression of NPY and NPY2R as well as the decreased expression of GHRL in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) can be rescued by EA. But, surprisingly, SA seem to make no difference to the levels of FBG and insulin, and the protein expression of ghrelin in the hypothalamus and ARC. Co-expression of kisspeptin and GHSR, and co-expression of gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRH) and NPY2R were observed in ARC. No differences were found between groups in protein of GAL, GALP and GHRL expression in the pancreas. Neither EA nor SA can attenuate the upregulated kisspeptin protein expression in the pancreas of PCOS model rats. EA and SA improved the symptoms of pubertal PCOS rats, and the mechanism might be associated with regulating hypothalamic NPY and ghrelin levels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 4878
Christina Anna Stratopoulou ◽  
Jacques Donnez ◽  
Marie-Madeleine Dolmans

Uterine adenomyosis is a commonly encountered estrogen-dependent disease in reproductive-age women, causing heavy menstrual bleeding, intense pelvic pain, and infertility. Although adenomyosis was previously considered a disease of multiparous women, it is becoming increasingly evident that it also affects younger nulliparous women and may compromise their fertility potential. It is clear that hysterectomy, the standard approach to definitively manage the disease, is not an option for patients wishing to preserve their fertility, so there is an urgent need to develop novel conservative strategies. We searched the current literature for available methods for conservative management of adenomyosis, including both pharmacological and surgical approaches. There is no existing drug that can cure adenomyosis at present, but some off-label treatment options may be used to tackle disease symptoms and improve fertility outcomes. Adenomyosis in patients wishing to conceive can be ‘treated’ by conservative surgery, though these procedures require highly experienced surgeons and pose a considerable risk of uterine rupture during subsequent pregnancies. While currently available options for conservative management of adenomyosis do have some capacity for alleviating symptoms and enhancing patient fertility perspectives, more effective new options are needed, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists showing encouraging results in preliminary studies.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (11) ◽  
pp. 1142
Federica Barbagallo ◽  
Rossella Cannarella ◽  
Matteo Bertelli ◽  
Andrea Crafa ◽  
Sandro La Vignera ◽  

Introduction: Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), an X-linked recessive disorder of sex development (DSD), is caused by variants of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, mapping in the long arm of the X chromosome, which cause a complete loss of function of the receptor. Case presentation: We report a patient diagnosed with complete AIS (CAIS) at birth due to swelling in the bilateral inguinal region. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed the absence of the uterus and ovaries and the presence of bilateral testes in the inguinal region. The karyotype was 46,XY. She underwent bilateral orchiectomy at 9 months and was given estrogen substitutive therapy at the age of 11 years. Genetic analysis of the AR gene variants was requested when, at the age of 20, the patient came to our observation. Methods: The genetic testing was performed by next-generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Results: The genetic analysis showed the presence of the c.2242T>A, p.(Phe748Ile) variant in the AR gene. To the best of our knowledge, this variant has not been published so far. Furthermore, the patient has a heterozygous c.317A>G, p.(Gln106Arg) variation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) gene, a heterozygous c.2273G>A, p.Arg758His variation of the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene, and compound heterozygous c.875A>G, p.Tyr292Cys, and c.8023A>G, p.Ile2675Val variations of the Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 11 (DNAH11) gene. Conclusions: The case herein reported underlines the importance of an accurate genetic analysis that has to include karyotype and AR gene variant analysis. This is useful to confirm a clinical diagnosis and establish the proper management of patients with CAIS. Numerous variants of the AR gene have not yet been identified. Moreover, several pitfalls are still present in the management of these patients. More studies are needed to answer unresolved questions, and common protocols are required for the clinical follow-up of patients with CAIS.

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1069
Xavier Bonfill-Cosp ◽  
Ariadna Auladell-Rispau ◽  
Ignasi Gich ◽  
Javier Zamora ◽  
Luis Carlos Saiz ◽  

Background: Although intermittent androgen deprivation therapy was introduced many years ago to improve patients’ quality of life with the same carcinologic efficiency as continuous hormonal therapy, recent data suggest that those patients could be overtreated. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of prostate cancer patients receiving intermittent androgen deprivation therapy in Spain. Methods: A retrospective, longitudinal study was conducted using electronic drug dispensation data from four Spanish autonomous communities, which encompass 17.23 million inhabitants (36.22% of the total population in Spain). We estimated intermittent androgen therapy use (%IAD) and the prevalence of patients under intermittent androgen therapy (PIAD) overall and stratified by region. Other outcome variables included the pharmaceutical forms dispensed and the total direct annual expenditure on androgen deprivation therapy‐associated medications. Results: A total of 863,005 dispensations corresponding to a total of 65,752 men were identified, treated with either luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues (353,162) administered alone or in combination with anti‐androgens (509,843). Overall, the mean (±SD) age of the patients was 76.9 (±10.4) years. Results revealed that the mean annual PIAD along the study was 6.6% in the total population studied, and the overall %IAD during the five‐year study period was 5.6%. The mean cost of hormonal therapy per year was 25 million euros for LHRH analogues and 6.3 million euros for anti-androgens. Conclusions:  An important proportion of prostate cancer patients in Spain could benefit from intermittent androgen therapy during the study period while avoiding overtreatment harms associated with continuous hormonal therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11342
Jacques Donnez ◽  
Marie-Madeleine Dolmans

To evaluate the effectiveness of a new class of medical drugs, namely oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists, in the management of premenopausal women with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. We reviewed the most relevant papers (n = 27) on the efficacy of new medical alternatives (oral GnRH antagonists) as therapy for endometriosis. We first briefly summarized the concept of progesterone resistance and established that oral contraceptives and progestogens work well in two-thirds of women suffering from endometriosis. Since clinical evidence shows that estrogens play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease, lowering their levels with oral GnRH antagonists may well prove effective, especially in women who fail to respond to progestogens. There is a need for reliable long-term oral treatment capable of managing endometriosis symptoms, taking into consideration both the main symptoms and phenotype of the disease. Published studies reviewed and discussed here confirm the efficacy of GnRH antagonists. There is a place for GnRH antagonists in the management of symptomatic endometriosis. Novel algorithms that take into account the different phenotypes are proposed.

2021 ◽  
Siham Memdouh ◽  
Ivana Gavrilović ◽  
Kelsey Ng ◽  
David Cowan ◽  
Vincenzo Abbate

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