bronchoalveolar lavage
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Xiaoying Li ◽  
Zinan Jiang

Objectives: To assess the association of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) α-SMA and ß-catenin levels and the severity of pneumonia. Methods: The records of patients with severe pneumonia treated in our hospital from June 2019 to June 2020 were selected. The clinical outcome was observed within 10 days. For the purpose of analysis, patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome, 47 cases in the improvement group and 39 cases in the deterioration group. The intubation time, mechanical ventilation time and APACHE II score 10 days after admission were compared between the two groups; We assessed pulmonary infections using the clinical pulmonary infection score(CPIS). The levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at different time points were compared and analyzed, to analyze the association between the levels and the CPIS. Results: The APACHE II score in the improvement group were lower than those in the deterioration group (P<0.05). The expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in the BALF of patients in the improvement group were significantly lower than those of patients in the deterioration group on day 1, 3, and 7 (P<0.05); and the expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in the BALF of patients in the improvement group decreased with time, while those of patients in the deterioration group increased gradually with time(P<0.05). The expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in patients with CPIS>6 was significantly higher than those in patients with CPI≤6(P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in BALF were positively correlated with the CPIS. Conclusion: The levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in BALF are closely associated with the clinical condition of patients with severe pneumonia; the levels are positively associated with the severity of the disease and they increase with symptomatic worsening. doi: How to cite this:Li X, Jiang Z. Correlation between α-SMA and ß-catenin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and severity of pneumonia. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Taisuke Tomonaga ◽  
Hiroto Izumi ◽  
Chinatsu Nishida ◽  
Kaori Kato ◽  
Kazuhiro Yatera ◽  

Photocatalytic filters installed in air purifiers have been used to purify spaces by decomposing allergenic substances. However, we have not found any reports that evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytic filters in suppressing allergic reactions in living organisms. In this study, we intratracheally instilled ovalbumin (OVA) into OVA-sensitized mice after the OVA was photocatalyzed by a titanium dioxide (TiO2) filter, and verified the experimental model for evaluating the allergy-suppressing effect of photocatalysts. Mice were sensitized to OVA (10 µg/mouse) four times, and were intratracheally instilled with OVA (10 µg/mouse) after photocatalysis three times. Non-sensitized animals were instilled with normal saline following the same exposure schedule. The mice were dissected 24 h after final exposure. The OVA after photocatalysis significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the concentration of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, which were elevated in untreated OVA. Moreover, our experimental model showed the suppression of allergic reactions in mice, along with the decomposition of OVA after photocatalysis using the photocatalytic filter. Taken together, our experimental model for evaluating allergic reactions in the respiratory tract suggested that the allergy-suppressing effect of the photocatalytic filter can be evaluated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 327
Yeong-Nan Cheng ◽  
Wei-Chih Huang ◽  
Chen-Yu Wang ◽  
Pin-Kuei Fu

Lower respiratory tract sampling from endotracheal aspirate (EA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are both common methods to identify pathogens in severe pneumonia. However, the difference between these two methods in microbiota profiles remains unclear. We compared the microbiota profiles of pairwise EA and BAL samples in ICU patients with respiratory failure due to severe pneumonia. We prospectively enrolled 50 ICU patients with new onset of pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. EA and BAL were performed on the first ICU day, and samples were analyzed for microbial community composition via 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. Pathogens were identified in culture medium from BAL samples in 21 (42%) out of 50 patients. No difference was observed in the antibiotic prescription pattern, ICU mortality, or hospital mortality between BAL-positive and BAL-negative patients. The microbiota profiles in the EA and BAL samples are similar with respect to diversity, microbial composition, and microbial community correlations. The antibiotic treatment regimen was rarely changed based on the BAL findings. The samples from BAL did not provide more information than EA in the microbiota profiles. We suggest that EA is more useful than BAL for microbiome identification in mechanically ventilated patients.

2022 ◽  
Javan Okendo ◽  
Clarisse Musanabaganwa ◽  
Peter Mwangi ◽  
Martin Nyaga ◽  
Harris Onywera

Background: Proteome profile changes post-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (post-SARS-CoV-2) infection in different body sites of humans remains an active scientific investigation whose solutions stand a chance of providing more information on what constitutes SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. While proteomics has been used to understand SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, there are limited data about the status of proteome profile in different human body sites infected by sarscov2 virus. To bridge this gap, our study aims to profile the proteins secreted in urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), gargle solution, and nasopharyngeal samples and assess the proteome differences in these body samples collected from SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Materials and methods: We downloaded publicly available proteomic data from ( The data we downloaded had the following identifiers: i) PXD019423, n=3 from Charles Tanford Protein Center in Germany. ii) PXD018970, n=15 from Beijing Proteome Research Centre, China. iii)PXD022085, n=5 from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, and iv) PXD022889, n=18 from Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 USA. MaxQuant was used for the peptide spectral matching using human and SARS-CoV-2 downloaded from UniProt database (access date 13th October 2021). Results: The individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 viruses displayed a different proteome diversity from the different body sites we investigated. Overally, we identified 1809 proteins across the four different sample types we compared. Urine and BALF samples had significantly more abundant SARS-CoV-2 proteins than the other body sites we compared. Urine samples had 257(33.7%) unique proteins followed by nasopharyngeal with 250(32.8%) unique proteins. Garlge solution and BALF had 38(5%) and 73(9.6%) unique proteins respectively. Conclusions: Urine, gargle solution, nasopharyngeal, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples have different protein diversity in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, our data also demonstrated that a given body site is characterized by a unique set of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals. Key words: SARS-CoV-2, body sites,urine,gargle solution, BALF,nasopharyngeal

Zoe Oesterreicher ◽  
Sabine Eberl ◽  
Beatrix Wulkersdorfer ◽  
Peter Matzneller ◽  
Claudia Eder ◽  

Abstract Background and Objective In microdose studies, drug pharmacokinetics is measured in humans after administration of subtherapeutic doses. While previous microdose studies focused primarily on plasma pharmacokinetics, we set out to evaluate the feasibility of microdosing for a pharmacokinetic assessment in subcutaneous tissue and epithelial lining fluid. Methods Healthy subjects received a single intravenous bolus injection of a microdose of [14C]ciprofloxacin (1.1 µg, 7 kBq) with (cohort A, n = 9) or without (cohort B, n = 9) a prior intravenous infusion of a therapeutic dose of unlabeled ciprofloxacin (400 mg). Microdialysis and bronchoalveolar lavage were applied for determination of subcutaneous and intrapulmonary drug concentrations. Microdose [14C]ciprofloxacin was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry and therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The pharmacokinetics of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin (cohort A) in plasma, subcutaneous tissue, and epithelial lining fluid was in accordance with previous data. In plasma and subcutaneous tissue, the dose-adjusted area under the concentration–time curve of microdose ciprofloxacin was similar in cohorts A and B and within an 0.8-fold to 1.1-fold range of the area under the concentration–time curve of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin. Penetration of microdose ciprofloxacin into subcutaneous tissue was similar in cohorts A and B and comparable to that of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin with subcutaneous tissue-to-plasma area under the concentration–time curve ratios of 0.44, 0.44, and 0.38, respectively. Penetration of microdose ciprofloxacin into epithelial lining fluid was highly variable and failed to predict the epithelial lining fluid penetration of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin. Conclusions Our study confirms the feasibility of microdosing for pharmacokinetic measurements in plasma and subcutaneous tissue. Microdosing combined with microdialysis is a potentially useful tool in clinical antimicrobial drug development, but its applicability for the assessment of pulmonary pharmacokinetics with bronchoalveolar lavage requires further studies. Clinical Trial Registration NCT03177720 (registered 6 June, 2017).

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Sara Ghabdian ◽  
Sima Parande Shirvan ◽  
Mohsen Maleki ◽  
Hassan Borji

Abstract Background There is ample evidence demonstrating a reverse relationship between helminth infection and immune-mediated diseases. Accordingly, several studies have shown that Echinococcus granulosus infection and hydatid cyst compounds are able to suppress immune responses in allergic airway inflammation. Previous studies have documented the ability of hydatid cysts to suppress aberrant Th2 immune response in a mouse model of allergic asthma. However, there is a paucity of research on the effects of protoscoleces on allergic asthma. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of somatic antigens of protoscoleces in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Methods Ovalbumin (OVA)/aluminum hydroxide (alum) was injected intraperitoneally to sensitize BALB/c mice over a period of 0 to 7 days, followed by challenge with 1% OVA. The treatment group received somatic antigens of protoscoleces emulsified with PBS on these days in each sensitization before being challenged with 1% OVA on days 14, 15, and 16. The effects of somatic antigens of protoscoleces on allergic airway inflammation were evaluated by examining histopathological changes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage, cytokine production in the homogenized lung tissue (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ), and total antioxidant capacity in serum. Results Overall, administration of somatic antigens of protoscoleces exacerbated allergic airway inflammation via increased Th2 cytokine levels in the lung homogenate, recruitment of eosinophils into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and pathological changes. In addition, total antioxidant capacity and IFN-γ levels declined following the administration of somatic antigens. Conclusions The results revealed that the co-administration of somatic products of protoscoleces with OVA/alum contributed to the exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. Currently, the main cause of allergic-type inflammation exacerbation is unknown, and further research is needed to understand the mechanism of these interactions. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Mojtaba Ahmadinejad ◽  
Sanaz Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Haleh Pak ◽  
Seyedehhamideh Hashemiyazdi ◽  
Ali Soltanian ◽  

2022 ◽  
Pengcheng Lin ◽  
Yi Chen ◽  
Shanshan Su ◽  
Wengang Nan ◽  
Lingping Zhou ◽  

Abstract Background: To evaluate the diagnostic value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in immunocompromised patients for the diagnosis of suspected pneumonia in comparation to that of conventional microbiological tests (CMTs).Methods: Sixty-nine immunocompromised patients with suspected pneumonia received both CMTs and mNGS of BALF were analyzed retrospectively. The diagnostic value was compared between CMTs and mNGS, using the clinical composite diagnosis as the reference standard. Results: Sixty patients were diagnosed of pneumonia including fifty-two patients with identified pathogens and eight patients with probable pathogens. The overall detection rate of mNGS for pathogens were higher than that of CMTs. However, a comparable diagnostic accuracy of mNGS and CMTs were found for bacterial and viral infections. mNGS exhibited a higher diagnostic accuracy for fungal detection than CMTs (78% vs. 54%, P<0.05), which mainly because of the high sensitivity of mNGS in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) (100% vs. 28%, P<0.05). Among fifty-two patients with definite pathogens, nineteen patients (37%) were identified as pulmonary mixed infection, mNGS test showed a higher detection rate and broader spectrum for pathogen detection than that of CMTs in mixed infection. Moreover, Pneumocystis jirovecii was the most common pathogen in mix infection and mNGS have identified much more co-pathogens of PJP than CMTs.Conclusions: mNGS of BALF improved the microbial detection rate of pathogens and exhibited remarkable advantages in detecting PJP and identifying mixed infections in immunocompromised patients.

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