Colorectal Cancer
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 101142
Author(s):  
Sumit Agarwal ◽  
Michael Behring ◽  
Hyung-Gyoon Kim ◽  
Prachi Bajpai ◽  
Balabhadrapatruni V.S.K. Chakravarthi ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 100780
Author(s):  
Takuya Okamoto ◽  
Yasuko Natsume ◽  
Hitomi Yamanaka ◽  
Mayuko Fukuda ◽  
Ryoji Yao

Author(s):  
Jandos Amankulov ◽  
Dilyara Kaidarova ◽  
Zhamilya Zholdybay ◽  
Marianna Zagurovskaya ◽  
Oxana Shatkovskaya ◽  
...  

IntroductionIncreased natural killer cells activity (NKCA) is linked to the reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Several prior studies investigated the association of NKCA and the incidence of CRC in high-risk subjects. The aim of our study was to investigate NKCA sensitivity in diagnosing advanced neoplasia and CRC in average risk population.Material and methodsNKCA was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) blood test in average risk subjects with a range of 25-2500 pg/mL set for ELISA. NKCA higher than 200 pg/mL was defined as negative. The performance of NKCA was evaluated using the measures as sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, clinical utility index, etc. In addition, odd ratios for developing CRC using logistic regression models were calculated.ResultsNKCA was evaluated in 354 average risk individuals (mean age 58.5 years-old; 36.2% males). The diagnostic accuracy of NKCA for CRC and AN has reached 75.5% and 72.3% respectively, with 96.4% NPV. NKCA test demonstrated good negative clinical utility index for CRC and AN (0.664 and 0.741, respectively). Individuals with low NKCA had 6.84 times higher odds to have CRC (95% CI 2.31-20.27; p<0.001). NKCA was higher in men vs. women (548.5 pg/mL vs. 500.0 pg/mL) and lower in smokers (412 pg/mL vs. 544 pg/mL), non-exercisers (413 pg/ml vs. 653.5 pg/mL), alcohol users (389 pg/mL vs. 476 pg/mL), and native Kazakhs and other Asian ethnic groups (446 pg/mL against 514 pg/mL).ConclusionsOur study suggests that high NKCA level has potential ability to rule out CRC and AN in average risk population.


eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Susu Pan ◽  
Kaili Yin ◽  
Zhiwei Tang ◽  
Shuren Wang ◽  
Zhuo Chen ◽  
...  

Emerging evidence suggests that the nervous system is involved in tumor development in the periphery, however, the role of central nervous system remains largely unknown. Here, by combining genetic, chemogenetic, pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches, we show that hypothalamic oxytocin (Oxt)-producing neurons modulate colitis-associated cancer (CAC) progression in mice. Depletion or activation of Oxt neurons could augment or suppress CAC progression. Importantly, brain treatment with celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, excites Oxt neurons and inhibits CAC progression, and this anti-tumor effect was significantly attenuated in Oxt neuron-lesioned mice. Furthermore, brain treatment with celastrol suppresses sympathetic neuronal activity in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CG-SMG), and activation of β2 adrenergic receptor abolishes the anti-tumor effect of Oxt neuron activation or centrally administered celastrol. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hypothalamic Oxt neurons regulate CAC progression by modulating the neuronal activity in the CG-SMG. Stimulation of Oxt neurons using chemicals, eg. celastrol, might be a novel strategy for colorectal cancer treatment.


Author(s):  
Yolanda Andreu ◽  
Paula Martinez ◽  
Ana Soto-Rubio ◽  
Silvia Fernández ◽  
Carles Bosch ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Tomotaka Ugai ◽  
Juha P. Väyrynen ◽  
Mai Chan Lau ◽  
Jennifer Borowsky ◽  
Naohiko Akimoto ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jenny Mary Mathew ◽  
Phelelani Thokozani Mpangase ◽  
Dhriti Sengupta ◽  
Stanford Kwenda ◽  
Demetra Mavri-Damelin ◽  
...  

Aim: Despite the high disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and colorectal cancer (CRC) in South Africa (SA), treatment-relevant pharmacogenetic variants are understudied. Materials & methods: Using publicly available genotype and gene expression data, a bioinformatic pipeline was developed to identify liver expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Results: A novel cis-eQTL, rs28967009, was identified for UGT1A1, which is predicted to upregulate UGT1A1 expression thereby potentially affecting the metabolism of dolutegravir and irinotecan, which are extensively prescribed in SA for HIV and colorectal cancer treatment, respectively. Conclusion: As increased UGT1A1 expression could affect the clinical outcome of dolutegravir and irinotecan treatment by increasing drug clearance, patients with the rs28967009A variant may require increased drug doses to reach therapeutic levels or should be prescribed alternative drugs.


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