Growth Hormone
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Maryam Dehghani ◽  
Zahra Davoodi ◽  
Farahnaz Bidari ◽  
Amin Momeni Moghaddam ◽  
Davood Khalili ◽  

Abstract Background Regarding the inconclusive results of previous investigations, this study aimed to determine the association between pathology, as a possible predictor, with remission outcomes, to know the role of pathology in the personalized decision making in acromegaly patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed on the consecutive surgeries for growth hormone (GH) producing pituitary adenomas from February 2015 to January 2021. Seventy-one patients were assessed for granulation patterns and prolactin co-expression as dual staining adenomas. The role of pathology and some other predictors on surgical remission was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results Among 71 included patients, 34 (47.9%) patients had densely granulated (DG), 14 (19.7%) had sparsely granulated (SG), 23 (32.4%) had dual staining pituitary adenomas. The remission rate was about 62.5% in the patients with SG and DG adenomas named single staining and 52.2% in dual staining groups. Postoperative remission was 1.53-folds higher in the single staining adenomas than dual staining-one (non-significant). The remission rate was doubled in DG group compared to two other groups (non-significant). By adjusting different predictors, cavernous sinus invasion and one-day postoperative GH levels decreased remission rate by 91% (95% CI: 0.01–0.67; p = 0.015) and 64% (95% CI: 0.19–0.69; p < 0.001), respectively. Responses to the medications were not significantly different among three groups. Conclusion Various pathological subtypes of pituitary adenomas do not appear to have a predictive role in estimating remission outcomes. Cavernous sinus invasion followed by one-day postoperative GH is the strongest parameter to predict biochemical remission.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Juan David Olivares-Hernández ◽  
Jerusa Elienai Balderas-Márquez ◽  
Martha Carranza ◽  
Maricela Luna ◽  
Carlos G. Martínez-Moreno ◽  

As a classical growth promoter and metabolic regulator, growth hormone (GH) is involved in development of the central nervous system (CNS). This hormone might also act as a neurotrophin, since GH is able to induce neuroprotection, neurite growth, and synaptogenesis during the repair process that occurs in response to neural injury. After an ischemic insult, the neural tissue activates endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms regulated by local neurotrophins that promote tissue recovery. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GH in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to hypoxia-ischemia injury and further reoxygenation. Hippocampal cell cultures obtained from chick embryos were incubated under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, <5% O2, 1 g/L glucose) conditions for 24 h and simultaneously treated with GH. Then, cells were either collected for analysis or submitted to reoxygenation and normal glucose incubation conditions (OGD/R) for another 24 h, in the presence of GH. Results showed that OGD injury significantly reduced cell survival, the number of cells, dendritic length, and number of neurites, whereas OGD/R stage restored most of those adverse effects. Also, OGD/R increased the mRNA expression of several synaptogenic markers (i.e., NRXN1, NRXN3, NLG1, and GAP43), as well as the growth hormone receptor (GHR). The expression of BDNF, IGF-1, and BMP4 mRNAs was augmented in response to OGD injury, and exposure to OGD/R returned it to normoxic control levels, while the expression of NT-3 increased in both conditions. The addition of GH (10 nM) to hippocampal cultures during OGD reduced apoptosis and induced a significant increase in cell survival, number of cells, and doublecortin immunoreactivity (DCX-IR), above that observed in the OGD/R stage. GH treatment also protected dendrites and neurites during OGD, inducing plastic changes reflected in an increase and complexity of their outgrowths during OGD/R. Furthermore, GH increased the expression of NRXN1, NRXN3, NLG1, and GAP43 after OGD injury. GH also increased the BDNF expression after OGD, but reduced it after OGD/R. Conversely, BMP4 was upregulated by GH after OGD/R. Overall, these results indicate that GH protective actions in the neural tissue may be explained by a synergic combination between its own effect and that of other local neurotrophins regulated by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, which together accelerate the recovery of tissue damaged by hypoxia-ischemia.

2021 ◽  
Nicole K Thompson ◽  
Leif LeClaire ◽  
Samantha Rodriguez Perez ◽  
Warren Wakarchuk

We have been developing bacterial expression systems for human mucin-type O-glycosylation on therapeutic proteins, which is initiated by the addition of α-linked GalNAc to serine or threonine residues by enzymes in the GT-27 family of glycosyltransferases. Substrate preference across different isoforms of this enzyme is influenced by isoform-specific amino acid sequences at the site of glycosylation, which we have exploited to engineer production of Core 1 glycan structures in bacteria on human therapeutic proteins. Using RP-HPLC with a novel phenyl bonded phase to resolve intact protein glycoforms, the effect of sequon mutation on O-glycosylation initiation was examined through in vitro modification of the naturally O-glycosylated human interferon α-2b, and a sequon engineered human growth hormone. As part of the development of our glycan engineering in the bacterial expression system we are surveying various orthologues of critical enzymes to ensure complete glycosylation. Here we present an in vitro enzyme kinetic profile of three related GT-27 orthologues on natural and engineered sequons in recombinant human interferon α2b and human growth hormone where we show a significant change in kinetic properties with the amino acid changes. It was found that optimizing the protein substrate amino acid sequence using Isoform Specific O-Glycosylation Prediction (ISOGlyP, resulted in a measurable increase in kcat/Km, thus improving glycosylation efficiency.  We showed that the Drosophila orthologue showed superior activity with our human growth hormone designed sequons compared to the human enzyme

2021 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 105974
Zhanglin Lin ◽  
Peguy Paulie Amesso Ndengue ◽  
Yanyun Jing ◽  
Lei Zhao ◽  
Xiaofeng Yang

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 9908
Willian O. dos Santos ◽  
Daniela O. Gusmao ◽  
Frederick Wasinski ◽  
Edward O. List ◽  
John J. Kopchick ◽  

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) cells are the dominant neuronal population responsive to the growth hormone (GH) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). However, the physiological importance of GH receptor (GHR) signaling in CRH neurons is currently unknown. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of GHR ablation in CRH-expressing cells of male and female mice. GHR ablation in CRH cells did not cause significant changes in body weight, body composition, food intake, substrate oxidation, locomotor activity, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, counterregulatory response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and ghrelin-induced food intake. However, reduced energy expenditure was observed in female mice carrying GHR ablation in CRH cells. The absence of GHR in CRH cells did not affect anxiety, circadian glucocorticoid levels or restraint-stress-induced corticosterone secretion and activation of PVH neurons in both male and female mice. In summary, GHR ablation, specifically in CRH-expressing neurons, does not lead to major alterations in metabolism, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, acute stress response or anxiety in mice. Considering the previous studies showing that central GHR signaling regulates homeostasis in situations of metabolic stress, future studies are still necessary to identify the potential physiological importance of GH action on CRH neurons.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4587
Giulia Salvadori ◽  
Mario Giuseppe Mirisola ◽  
Valter D. Longo

The restriction of proteins, amino acids or sugars can have profound effects on the levels of hormones and factors including growth hormone, IGF-1 and insulin. In turn, these can regulate intracellular signaling pathways as well as cellular damage and aging, but also multisystem regeneration. Both intermittent (IF) and periodic fasting (PF) have been shown to have both acute and long-term effects on these hormones. Here, we review the effects of nutrients and fasting on hormones and genes established to affect aging and cancer. We describe the link between dietary interventions and genetic pathways affecting the levels of these hormones and focus on the mechanisms responsible for the cancer preventive effects. We propose that IF and PF can reduce tumor incidence both by delaying aging and preventing DNA damage and immunosenescence and also by killing damaged, pre-cancerous and cancer cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chenxi Yu ◽  
Bobo Xie ◽  
Zhengye Zhao ◽  
Sen Zhao ◽  
Lian Liu ◽  

PurposeCongenital growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare and etiologically heterogeneous disease. We aim to screen disease-causing mutations of GHD in a relatively sizable cohort and discover underlying mechanisms via a candidate gene-based mutational burden analysis.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed 109 short stature patients associated with hormone deficiency. All patients were classified into two groups: Group I (n=45) with definitive GHD and Group II (n=64) with possible GHD. We analyzed correlation consistency between clinical criteria and molecular findings by whole exome sequencing (WES) in two groups. The patients without a molecular diagnosis (n=90) were compared with 942 in-house controls for the mutational burden of rare mutations in 259 genes biologically related with the GH axis.ResultsIn 19 patients with molecular diagnosis, we found 5 possible GHD patients received known molecular diagnosis associated with GHD (NF1 [c.2329T&gt;A, c.7131C&gt;G], GHRHR [c.731G&gt;A], STAT5B [c.1102delC], HRAS [c.187_207dup]). By mutational burden analysis of predicted deleterious variants in 90 patients without molecular diagnosis, we found that POLR3A (p = 0.005), SUFU (p = 0.006), LHX3 (p = 0.021) and CREB3L4 (p = 0.040) represented top genes enriched in GHD patients.ConclusionOur study revealed the discrepancies between the laboratory testing and molecular diagnosis of GHD. These differences should be considered when for an accurate diagnosis of GHD. We also identified four candidate genes that might be associated with GHD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Weihao Wang ◽  
Xiaoye Duan ◽  
Zhengxiang Huang ◽  
Qi Pan ◽  
Chen Chen ◽  

Organisms have developed common behavioral and physiological adaptations to the influence of the day/night cycle. The CLOCK system forms an internal circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during light/dark input. The SCN may synchronize the growth hormone (GH) secretion rhythm with the dimming cycle through somatostatin neurons, and the change of the clock system may be related to the pulsatile release of GH. The GH—insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis and clock system may interact further on the metabolism through regulatory pathways in peripheral organs. We have summarized the current clinical and animal evidence on the interaction of clock systems with the GH—IGF-1 axis and discussed their effects on metabolism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Anahit H. Hovhannisyan ◽  
Hyeonwi Son ◽  
Jennifer Mecklenburg ◽  
Priscilla Ann Barba-Escobedo ◽  
Meilinn Tram ◽  

AbstractTrigeminal (TG), dorsal root (DRG), and nodose/jugular (NG/JG) ganglia each possess specialized and distinct functions. We used RNA sequencing of two-cycle sorted Pirt-positive neurons to identify genes exclusively expressing in L3–L5 DRG, T10-L1 DRG, NG/JG, and TG mouse ganglion neurons. Transcription factor Phox2b and Efcab6 are specifically expressed in NG/JG while Hoxa7 is exclusively present in both T10-L1 and L3–L5 DRG neurons. Cyp2f2, Krt18, and Ptgds, along with pituitary hormone prolactin (Prl), growth hormone (Gh), and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) encoding genes are almost exclusively in TG neurons. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of these hormones in TG neurons and dural nerves; and showed GH expression in subsets of TRPV1+ and CGRP+ TG neurons. We next examined GH roles in hypersensitivity in the spinal versus trigeminal systems. Exogenous GH produced mechanical hypersensitivity when injected intrathecally, but not intraplantarly. GH-induced thermal hypersensitivity was not detected in the spinal system. GH dose-dependently generated orofacial and headache-like periorbital mechanical hypersensitivity after administration into masseter muscle and dura, respectively. Periorbital mechanical hypersensitivity was reversed by a GH receptor antagonist, pegvisomant. Overall, pituitary hormone genes are selective for TG versus other ganglia somatotypes; and GH has distinctive functional significance in the trigeminal versus spinal systems.

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