hormone receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112566
Yu Mori ◽  
Ayako Tsuchihira ◽  
Tatsuya Yoshida ◽  
Satoya Yoshida ◽  
Akiyoshi Fujiuchi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Ming Wen ◽  
Qiaowei Pan ◽  
Elodie Jouanno ◽  
Jerome Montfort ◽  
Margot Zahm ◽  

The evolution of sex determination (SD) mechanisms in teleost fishes is amazingly dynamic, as reflected by the variety of different master sex-determining genes identified, even sometimes among closely related species. Pangasiids are a group of economically important catfishes in many South-Asian countries, but little is known about their sex determination system. Here, we generated novel genomic resources for 12 Pangasiid species and provided a first characterization of their SD system. Based on an Oxford Nanopore long-read chromosome-scale high quality genome assembly of the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, we identified a duplication of the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type II gene (amhr2), which was further characterized as being sex-linked in males and expressed only in testicular samples. These first results point to a male-specific duplication on the Y chromosome (amhr2by) of the autosomal amhr2a. Sequence annotation revealed that the P. hypophthalmus Amhr2by is truncated in its N-terminal domain, lacking the cysteine-rich extracellular part of the receptor that is crucial for ligand binding, suggesting a potential route for its neofunctionalization. Short-read genome sequencing and reference-guided assembly of 11 additional Pangasiid species, along with sex-linkage studies, revealed that this truncated amhr2by duplication is also conserved as a male-specific gene in many Pangasiids. Reconstructions of the amhr2 phylogeny suggested that amhr2by arose from an ancient duplication / insertion event at the root of the Siluroidei radiation that is dated around 100 million years ago. Altogether these results bring multiple lines of evidence supporting that amhr2by is an ancient and conserved master sex-determining gene in Pangasiid catfishes, a finding that highlights the recurrent usage of the transforming growth factor β pathway in teleost sex determination and brings another empirical case towards the understanding of the dynamics or stability of sex determination systems.

Marissa Meegdes ◽  
Khava I. E. Ibragimova ◽  
Dorien J. A. Lobbezoo ◽  
Ingeborg J. H. Vriens ◽  
Loes F. S. Kooreman ◽  

Abstract Purpose The hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are the main parameters in guiding systemic treatment choices in breast cancer, but can change during the disease course. This study aims to evaluate the biopsy rate and receptor subtype discordance rate in patients diagnosed with advanced breast cancer (ABC). Methods Patients diagnosed with ABC in seven hospitals in 2007–2018 were selected from the SOutheast Netherlands Advanced BREast cancer (SONABRE) registry. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors influencing biopsy and discordance rates. Results Overall, 60% of 2854 patients had a biopsy of a metastatic site at diagnosis. One of the factors associated with a reduced biopsy rate was the HR + /HER2 + primary tumor subtype (versus HR + /HER2- subtype: OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51–0.90). Among the 748 patients with a biopsy of the primary tumor and a metastatic site, the overall receptor discordance rate was 18%. This was the highest for the HR + /HER2 + primary tumor subtype, with 55%. In 624 patients with metachronous metastases, the HR + /HER2 + subtype remained the only predictor significantly related to a higher discordance rate, irrespective of prior (neo-)adjuvant therapies (OR = 7.49; 95% CI: 3.69–15.20). Conclusion The HR + /HER2 + subtype has the highest discordance rate, but the lowest biopsy rate of all four receptor subtypes. Prior systemic therapy was not independently related to subtype discordance. This study highlights the importance of obtaining a biopsy of metastatic disease, especially in the HR + /HER2 + subtype to determine the most optimal treatment strategy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Luca Gianni ◽  
Marco Colleoni ◽  
Giancarlo Bisagni ◽  
Mauro Mansutti ◽  
Claudio Zamagni ◽  

AbstractThe crosstalk between estrogen and HER2 receptors and cell-cycle regulation sustains resistance to endocrine therapy of HER2- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We earlier reported that women with HER2 and ER-positive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant dual HER2-block and palbociclib in the NA-PHER2 trial had Ki67 decrease and 27% pathological complete responses (pCR). We extended NA-PHER2 to Cohort B using dual HER2-block and palbociclib without fulvestrant and report here Ki67 drops at week-2 (mean change −25.7), at surgery (after 16 weeks, mean change −9.5), high objective response (88.5%) and pCR (19.2%). In Cohort C [Ki67 > 20% and HER2low (IHC 1+/2+ without gene amplification)], women also received fulvestrant, had dramatic Ki67 drop at week 2 (−29.5) persisting at surgery (−19.3), and objective responses in 78.3%. In view of the favorable tolerability and of the efficacy-predictive value of Ki67 drop at week-2, the chemotherapy-free approach of NA-PHER2 deserves further investigation in HER2 and ER-positive breast cancer. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02530424.

Erica L. Mayer ◽  
Christian Fesl ◽  
Dominik Hlauschek ◽  
Laura Garcia-Estevez ◽  
Harold J. Burstein ◽  

PURPOSE The PALLAS study investigated whether the addition of palbociclib, an oral CDK4/6 inhibitor, to adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) improves invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) in early hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2–) breast cancer. In this analysis, we evaluated palbociclib exposure and discontinuation in PALLAS. METHODS Patients with stage II-III HR+, HER2– disease were randomly assigned to 2 years of palbociclib with adjuvant ET versus ET alone. The primary objective was to compare iDFS between arms. Continuous monitoring of toxicity, dose modifications, and early discontinuation was performed. Association of baseline covariates with time to palbociclib reduction and discontinuation was analyzed with multivariable competing risk models. Landmark and inverse probability weighted per-protocol analyses were performed to assess the impact of drug persistence and exposure on iDFS. RESULTS Of the 5,743 patient analysis population (2,840 initiating palbociclib), 1,199 (42.2%) stopped palbociclib before 2 years, the majority (772, 27.2%) for adverse effects, most commonly neutropenia and fatigue. Discontinuation of ET did not differ between arms. Discontinuations for non–protocol-defined reasons were greater in the first 3 months of palbociclib, and in the first calendar year of accrual, and declined over time. No significant relationship was seen between longer palbociclib duration or ≥ 70% exposure intensity and improved iDFS. In the weighted per-protocol analysis, no improvement in iDFS was observed in patients receiving palbociclib versus not (hazard ratio 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.11). CONCLUSION Despite observed rates of discontinuation in PALLAS, analyses suggest that the lack of significant iDFS difference between arms was not directly related to inadequate palbociclib exposure. However, the discontinuation rate illustrates the challenge of introducing novel adjuvant treatments, and the need for interventions to improve persistence with oral cancer therapies.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yukinori Ozaki ◽  
Yosuke Aoyama ◽  
Jun Masuda ◽  
Lina Inagaki ◽  
Saori Kawai ◽  

Abstract Background Trastuzumab and fulvestrant combination therapy is one of the treatment options for patients with hormone receptor- and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer; however, there are limited studies evaluating the efficacy of this combination therapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of women with hormone receptor- and HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who received trastuzumab and fulvestrant combination therapy between August 1997 and August 2020 at the Cancer Institute Hospital. The primary endpoint of this study was progression-free survival, and the secondary endpoints were response rate, overall survival and safety. Results We reviewed the data of 1612 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer, of which 118 patients were diagnosed with hormone receptor- and HER2-positive breast cancer. Of these, 28 patients who received trastuzumab and fulvestrant combination therapy were eligible for this study. The median treatment line for advanced breast cancer was 6 (range, 1–14), the median progression-free survival was 6.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.46–8.17), and the median overall survival was 35.3 months (95% CI, 20.0–46.7). Of the 28 patients, partial response was observed in 1 (4%), stable disease in 17 (61%), and progressive disease in 10 (36%) patients. The disease control rate was 64%. Adverse events of grade ≥ 3 were not observed. Conclusions Trastuzumab and fulvestrant combination therapy showed moderate clinical efficacy and no severe toxicity after standard anti-HER2 treatment, which is a reasonable treatment option for patients with hormone receptor- and HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. These data contribute to understanding the efficacy of trastuzumab and fulvestrant combination therapy as control data for further development of anti-HER2 agents plus hormone therapy.

Yu Fan ◽  
Guiqin Xie ◽  
Zhu Wang ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Yanping Wang ◽  

Abstract Purpose There remain a lack of biomarkers for endocrine therapy resistance in patients with breast cancer (BC), which is proving to be a great challenge. In vitro experiments have shown that downregulation of PTEN expression leads to resistance to tamoxifen (TAM) in BC cells. We aimed to investigate the predictive role of tumor PTEN promoter methylation and PTEN expression in long-term survival after TAM adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage BC. Methods From 2001 to 2013, 105 patients with stage I–III BC who were treated with standardized adjuvant TAM for 5 years or until relapse in West China Hospital (WCH) were enrolled in this study. PTEN expression and DNA methylation of three specified sequences from the PTEN promoter in primary tumors were measured using immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing. A cohort of 159 hormone receptor-positive patients receiving TAM treatment from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for verification. Results Median follow-up time for the WCH cohort was 141.7 months. The low, moderate, and high PTEN expression groups had differing 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) (42.3%, 55%, 81%, respectively, P = 0.027) and overall survival (OS) rates (65%, 84.2%, 90.5%, respectively, P = 0.027). Higher methylation levels of the second sequence (− 819 to − 787 bp), rather than the first (− 1143 to − 1107 bp) or third sequence (− 663 to − 593 bp), independently increased the risk of disease recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.60) and death (hazard ratio = 3.79) in the WCH cohort, according to multivariate Cox regression analysis. Importantly, out of the five CpG islands located within this sequence, only high methylation of the − 796 CpG island predicted shorter DFS and OS. In TCGA validation cohort, there was also a trend of higher methylation of the − 796 CpG island correlating with shorter disease-free intervals, with borderline significance (P = 0.057). Conclusion Low PTEN expression and high methylation of its promoter (sequence − 819 to − 787 bp) in tissue predict poor DFS and OS in hormone receptor-positive early BC patients who received adjuvant TAM.

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